Difference between revisions of "Orbital hybridisation"

From Citizendium
Jump to: navigation, search
m
m (Big Cleanup)
Line 1: Line 1:
 
<!-- This article uses -ise spelling(i.e. ...i*s*ation instead of i*z*ation) because it was originally written that way.  Please do not change the spellings to the -ize variant.  
 
<!-- This article uses -ise spelling(i.e. ...i*s*ation instead of i*z*ation) because it was originally written that way.  Please do not change the spellings to the -ize variant.  
  
-->[[Image:Sp3-Orbital.png|thumb|150px|four sp³ orbitals]]
 
[[Image:Sp2-Orbital.png|thumb|150px|three sp² orbitals]]
 
 
In [[chemistry]], '''hybridisation''' or '''hybridization''' (see also [[spelling differences]]) is the concept of mixing [[atomic orbital]]s to form new ''hybrid orbitals'' suitable for the qualitative description of atomic bonding properties.  Hybridised orbitals are very useful in the explanation of the shape of [[molecular orbital]]s for [[molecule]]s. It is an integral part of [[valence bond theory]] and the [[VSEPR|valence shell electron-pair repulsion (VSEPR) theory]] <ref>Clayden, Greeves, Warren, Wothers. ''Organic Chemistry.'' Oxford University Press (2001), ISBN 0-19-850346-6.</ref> <ref>''Organic chemistry'' John McMurry 2nd Ed. ISBN 0534079687</ref>.
 
In [[chemistry]], '''hybridisation''' or '''hybridization''' (see also [[spelling differences]]) is the concept of mixing [[atomic orbital]]s to form new ''hybrid orbitals'' suitable for the qualitative description of atomic bonding properties.  Hybridised orbitals are very useful in the explanation of the shape of [[molecular orbital]]s for [[molecule]]s. It is an integral part of [[valence bond theory]] and the [[VSEPR|valence shell electron-pair repulsion (VSEPR) theory]] <ref>Clayden, Greeves, Warren, Wothers. ''Organic Chemistry.'' Oxford University Press (2001), ISBN 0-19-850346-6.</ref> <ref>''Organic chemistry'' John McMurry 2nd Ed. ISBN 0534079687</ref>.
  
Line 79: Line 77:
 
== sp<sup>2</sup> hybrids ==
 
== sp<sup>2</sup> hybrids ==
 
Other carbon based compounds and other molecules may be explained in a similar way as methane, take for example [[ethene]] (C<sub>2</sub>H<sub>4</sub>). Ethene has a double bond between the carbons. The Lewis structure looks like this:
 
Other carbon based compounds and other molecules may be explained in a similar way as methane, take for example [[ethene]] (C<sub>2</sub>H<sub>4</sub>). Ethene has a double bond between the carbons. The Lewis structure looks like this:
 
[[Image:Ethene.png|Ethene Lewis Structure. Each C bonded to two hydrogens and one double bond between them.]]
 
  
 
Carbon will sp<sup>2</sup> hybridise, because hybrid orbitals will form only sigma bonds and one [[pi bond]] is required for the [[covalent bond|double bond]] between the carbons. The hydrogen-carbon bonds are all of equal strength and length, which agrees with experimental data.
 
Carbon will sp<sup>2</sup> hybridise, because hybrid orbitals will form only sigma bonds and one [[pi bond]] is required for the [[covalent bond|double bond]] between the carbons. The hydrogen-carbon bonds are all of equal strength and length, which agrees with experimental data.
Line 137: Line 133:
 
* [http://www.mhhe.com/physsci/chemistry/essentialchemistry/flash/hybrv18.swf Hybridisation flash movie]
 
* [http://www.mhhe.com/physsci/chemistry/essentialchemistry/flash/hybrv18.swf Hybridisation flash movie]
  
[[Category:Chemical bonding]]
 
[[Category:Quantum chemistry]]
 
[[Category:Stereochemistry]]
 
 
[[Category:Chemistry Workgroup]]
 
[[Category:Chemistry Workgroup]]
[[Category: CZ Live]]
 

Revision as of 15:19, 31 March 2007