Difference between revisions of "Lepton"

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A '''lepton''' is a [[spin]] 1/2 elementary particle that is not subject to the strong force (also called the [[Quantum chromodynamics|chromodynamic force]] or ''color force''). In other words, leptons are ''colorless''.  
 
A '''lepton''' is a [[spin]] 1/2 elementary particle that is not subject to the strong force (also called the [[Quantum chromodynamics|chromodynamic force]] or ''color force''). In other words, leptons are ''colorless''.  
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==Flavors and families==
 
==Flavors and families==
There are six leptons (apart from their antiparticles), sometimes referred to as ''flavors'' of lepton:<ref name=Srednicki/> the [[electron]], [[muon]], [[tau]] and their associated [[neutrino]]s. The leptons are divided into ''families'', the ''e, &mu;, &tau;'' families.<ref name=Cottingham0/>  
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There are six leptons (apart from their antiparticles), sometimes referred to as ''flavors'' of lepton:<ref name=Srednicki/> the [[electron]] (e<sup>−</sup>), [[muon]] (&mu;<sup>−</sup>), [[tau]] (&tau;<sup>−</sup>), and their associated [[neutrino]]s: the electron neutrino (&nu;<sub>e</sub>), muon neutrino (&nu;<sub>&mu;</sub>), and tau neutrino (&nu;<sub>&tau;</sub>). The leptons are divided into ''families'', the ''e, &mu;, &tau;'' families.<ref name=Cottingham0/>  
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==Electric charge==
 
==Electric charge==
Leptons can possess [[electric charge]] as in the case of the electron (e<sup>−</sup>), muon (&mu;<sup>−</sup>) and tau (&tau;<sup>−</sup>) (all negatively charged), and the corresponding antileptons (all positively charged), or can be electric charge neutral like the electron neutrino (&nu;<sub>e</sub>), muon neutrino (&nu;<sub>&mu;</sub>), or tau neutrino (&nu;<sub>&tau;</sub>).<ref name=Cottingham/><ref name=Quinn/>  
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Leptons can possess [[electric charge]] as in the case of the electron, muon, and tau (all negatively charged), and the corresponding antileptons (all positively charged), or can be electrically charge-neutral like the three flavors of neutrino and the corresponding antineutrinos.<ref name=Cottingham/><ref name=Quinn/>  
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==Lepton number==
 
==Lepton number==
Each family of leptons is assigned its own ''lepton number'' which is one for that family and zero for the others, and for all particles that are not leptons. For example, the electron and its neutrino are given an ''electron lepton number'' ''L<sub>e</sub>'' = 1, while all other particles have ''L<sub>e</sub>'' = 0. The antiparticles have the opposite sign of lepton number.
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Each family of leptons is assigned its own ''lepton number'' which is one for that family and zero for the others, and for all particles that are not leptons. For example, the electron and its neutrino are given an ''electron lepton number'' ''L<sub>e</sub>'' = 1, while all other particles have ''L<sub>e</sub>'' = 0. The antiparticles have the opposite sign of lepton number, i.e. either -1 or 0.
  
 
An over-all lepton number ''L'' is assigned to assemblies of leptons that is the sum of all the constituent lepton numbers,  
 
An over-all lepton number ''L'' is assigned to assemblies of leptons that is the sum of all the constituent lepton numbers,  

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A lepton is a spin 1/2 elementary particle that is not subject to the strong force (also called the chromodynamic force or color force). In other words, leptons are colorless.

Flavors and families

There are six leptons (apart from their antiparticles), sometimes referred to as flavors of lepton:[1] the electron (e), muon), tau), and their associated neutrinos: the electron neutrino (νe), muon neutrino (νμ), and tau neutrino (ντ). The leptons are divided into families, the e, μ, τ families.[2]

Electric charge

Leptons can possess electric charge as in the case of the electron, muon, and tau (all negatively charged), and the corresponding antileptons (all positively charged), or can be electrically charge-neutral like the three flavors of neutrino and the corresponding antineutrinos.[3][4]

Lepton number

Each family of leptons is assigned its own lepton number which is one for that family and zero for the others, and for all particles that are not leptons. For example, the electron and its neutrino are given an electron lepton number Le = 1, while all other particles have Le = 0. The antiparticles have the opposite sign of lepton number, i.e. either -1 or 0.

An over-all lepton number L is assigned to assemblies of leptons that is the sum of all the constituent lepton numbers,

Lepton number L is conserved in particle reactions, as in:

which conserves both L and individual family lepton numbers. Violations of this conservation law, called LFV for lepton flavor violation, have yet to be observed.

Spin

Having spin 1/2, all leptons are fermions,[5] and as such are subject to Fermi-Dirac statistics and the Pauli exclusion principle.

References

  1. Mark Allen Srednicki (2007). “Table 88.1: The six flavors of lepton.”, Quantum Field Theory. Cambridge University Press, p. 549. ISBN 0521864496. 
  2. WN Cottingham, DA Greenwood (2007). “Chapter 9: The weak interaction: low energy phenomenology”, An introduction to the Standard Model of particle physics, 2nd ed. Cambridge University Press, p. 91. ISBN 978-0-521-85249-4. 
  3. WN Cottingham, DA Greenwood (2007). “Table 1.2: Leptons”, An introduction to the Standard Model of particle physics, 2nd ed. Cambridge University Press, p. 3. ISBN 978-0-521-85249-4. 
  4. Helen R. Quinn, Yossi Nir (2010). The Mystery of the Missing Antimatter. Princeton University Press, p. 98. ISBN 1400835712. 
  5. Don Lincoln (2004). Understanding the universe: from quarks to the cosmos. World Scientific, p. 143. ISBN 9812387056.