# Difference between revisions of "Frobenius map"

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We write  and note that in characterstic p we have  so that F is a ring homomorphism. A homomorphism of fields is necessarily injective, since it is a ring homomorphism with trivial kernel, and a field, viewed as a ring, has no non-trivial ideals. An endomorphism of a field need not be surjective, however. An example is the Frobenius map applied to the rational function field , which has as image the proper subfield .