Difference between revisions of "Ammonium persulfate"

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''''Ammonium persulfate''' is a very strong oxidizer used for industrial cleaning and decontamination, as well as a strong [[radical initiator]] often used to promote polymerization reactions. Its oxidation potential, at 2.1 V, is only slightly weaker than [[ozone]] (O<sub>3</sub><sup>2</sup><sup>-</sup>, 2.2) but stronger than both [[hydrogen peroxide]] (H<sub>2</sub>O<sub>2</sub>, 1.8 V) and [[permangenate]] (MnO<sub>4</sub>, 1.7V). It is also widely used in [[polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis]] (PAGE) within biochemistry labs. The persulfate radical is particularly stable relative to many other radicals, and it is often stabilized even more by the addition of [[tetramethylethylenediamine]] (TEMED).
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'''Ammonium persulfate''' is a very strong oxidizer used for industrial cleaning and decontamination, as well as a strong [[radical initiator]] often used to promote polymerization reactions. Its oxidation potential, at 2.1 V, is only slightly weaker than [[ozone]] (O<sub>3</sub><sup>2</sup><sup>-</sup>, 2.2) but stronger than both [[hydrogen peroxide]] (H<sub>2</sub>O<sub>2</sub>, 1.8 V) and [[permanganate]] (MnO<sub>4</sub>, 1.7V). It is also widely used in [[polyacrylamide]] gel [[electrophoresis]] (PAGE) within biochemistry labs. The persulfate radical is particularly stable relative to many other radicals, and it is often stabilized even more by the addition of [[tetramethylethylenediamine]] (TEMED).
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== Oxidation chemistry ==
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When used as an oxidizing agent, the reduction of the persulfate ion occurs as indicated in equation (1).
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:  (1) S<sub>2</sub>O<sub>8</sub><sup>2-</sup>  + 2H<sup>+</sup> + 2[[e]]<sup>-</sup>  <math>\rarr</math>  2HSO<sub>4</sub><sup>-</sup>    (2.1 V)
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== Free radical chemistry ==
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The persulfate ion self-decomposes into sulfate radicals, with oxidation potential 2.6 V, as indicated in equation (2).
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:  (2) S<sub>2</sub>O<sub>8</sub><sup>2-</sup> <math>\rarr</math> 2SO<sub>4</sub><sup>.-</sup>

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Ammonium Persulfate
IUPAC name: see chemistry section
Synonyms: Ammonium Peroxydisulfate; Peroxydisulfuric Acid, Diammonium Salt; Diammonium peroxydisulfate
Formula: (NH4)2S2O8

 Uses: polymerization initiator, decontamination

 Properties: radical initiator, oxidizer

 Hazards: strong oxidizer, burns

Mass (g/mol): CAS #:
228.2 7727-54-0


Ammonium persulfate is a very strong oxidizer used for industrial cleaning and decontamination, as well as a strong radical initiator often used to promote polymerization reactions. Its oxidation potential, at 2.1 V, is only slightly weaker than ozone (O32-, 2.2) but stronger than both hydrogen peroxide (H2O2, 1.8 V) and permanganate (MnO4, 1.7V). It is also widely used in polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) within biochemistry labs. The persulfate radical is particularly stable relative to many other radicals, and it is often stabilized even more by the addition of tetramethylethylenediamine (TEMED).

Oxidation chemistry

When used as an oxidizing agent, the reduction of the persulfate ion occurs as indicated in equation (1).

(1) S2O82- + 2H+ + 2e- 2HSO4- (2.1 V)

Free radical chemistry

The persulfate ion self-decomposes into sulfate radicals, with oxidation potential 2.6 V, as indicated in equation (2).

(2) S2O82- 2SO4.-