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The '''Adams-Onís Treaty''' also called the '''Transcontinental Treaty''' or the '''Florida Treaty''' was a treaty between the United States and Spain in 1818 that gave Florida to the U.S. and set out a boundary between the U.S. and Mexico.
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The '''Adams-Onís Treaty''', also called the '''Transcontinental Treaty''' or the '''Florida Treaty''', was a treaty between the United States and Spain in 1818 that ceded [[Florida]] to the U.S. and established the boundary between the U.S. and Mexico.
  
The treaty was signed at Washington, February 22, 1819, by [[John Quincy Adams]], secretary of state, and Luis de Onís, Spanish minister. It closed the first era of United States expansion by providing for the cession of [[East Florida]], the abandonment of the controversy over [[West Florida]] (which had been seized by the United States), and creation of a boundary with the Spanish province of [[Mexico, history|Mexico]] that clearly made Texas a part of Mexico, thus ending the vagueness of the boundary of the [[Louisiana Purchase]].  Spain also gave up any claims to the Oregon territory.
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==U.S. Spanish Relations to 1818==
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Spain had long rejected repeated American efforts to purchase Florida. But by 1818, Spain was facing a troubling colonial situation where the cession of Florida made sense.  Spain had been exhausted by the European wars of Napoleon and needed to rebuild its credibility and presence in its colonies.  Revolutionaries in Central and South America were beginning to demand independence.  Spain was also unwilling to make any further investment in Florida and it worried about the border between its colony of Mexico and the United States.
  
The U.S. did not pay Spain for Florida but did agree to assumed claims of American citizens against Spain, to a maximum of $5 millionPinckney's Treaty of 1795 between the U.S. and Spain was to remain in force. Spanish goods received certain tariff privileges in Florida ports.  
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Spain had almost no military or government presence in Florida and was unable to stop [[Seminole]] warriors who routinely crossed the border and raided U.S. villages and farmsIn 1818, [[Andrew Jackson]] on his own authority invaded Spanish Florida with his own militia in order to stop these raids and instigate an international incident between the U.S. and Spain.  Spain requested British intervention, but Britain declined to assist Spain in the negotiations.
  
The new boundary ran along the Sabine River from the Gulf of Mexico north to the 32nd parallel; thence north to the Red River, along it to the 100th meridian; north to the Arkansas River and along it to its source; thence to the 42nd parallel; and west on that line to the Pacific Ocean.  
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==Negotiations==
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[[James Monroe|President Monroe's]] Secretary of State [[John Quincy Adams]] more than anyone else was responsible for the treaty. He was the architect of a sophisticated strategy which combined diplomatic and military means to bring Spain to terms.<ref>William E. Weeks, ''[http://books.google.com/books?id=t0rlgdR_Sx8C&lpg=PP1&pg=PA170 John Quincy Adams and American Global Empire]'' (Lexington: University Press of Kentucky, 2002), 170-175.</ref>  Adams also directed an intensive public relations campaign which maintained public and Congressional support for the administration's policy.
  
Spain had long rejected repeated American efforts to purchase Florida. Finally exhausted by European wars and colonial revolutions, and unwilling to invest in Florida, cut its losses and gained a secure boundary for MexicoSpain had almost no presence of Florida and was unable to stop [[Seminole]] Indians who raided into the U.S. In 1818 [[Andrew Jackson]]'s moved into the Floridas temporarily to stop the Indian raids. Britain declined to assist Spain in the negotiations. The ministers of King Ferdinand VII (reigned (1808-33) at first refused to ratify the treaty. The Spanish argued that James Long's 1819 filibustering expedition into Texas was a violation; Washington disavowed Long's actions. Spain's real goal was to stop American recognition of the independence of breakway colonies in Latin America. When Ferdinand lost some powers and became a constitutional monarch in 1820, his council was obliged to approve the treaty. Ratification became official in 1821.
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==Terms==
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The treaty was signed in Washington, D.C. on February 22, 1819, by Adams and the Spanish minister to the U.S. [[Luis de Onís]]The treaty closed the first era of United States expansion by providing for the cession of [[East Florida]], the abandonment of the controversy over [[West Florida]] (which the U.S. had seized in 1810), and creation of a boundary with the Spanish province of [[History of Mexico|Mexico]] that clearly made [[History of Texas|Texas]] a part of Mexico, thus ending the vagueness of the boundary of the [[Louisiana Purchase]]. Spain also gave up any claims to the [[Oregon Territory]]. The U.S. then controlled all territory on the North American continent south of the Great Lakes and East of the Mississippi River.
  
Adams more than anyone else was responsible for the treaty. He was the architect of a sophisticated strategy which combined diplomatic and military means to bring Spain to terms. Adams also directed an intensive public relations campaign which maintained public and Congressional support for the administration's policy.<ref> See Weeks (1986) </ref>
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The U.S. did not pay Spain for Florida but did agree to assumed responsibility for claims of American citizens against Spain as a result of the West Florida controversy to a maximum of $5 million. [[Pinckney's Treaty]] of 1795 between the U.S. and Spain was to remain in force and Spanish goods were to receive certain tariff privileges in Florida ports.  
  
Washington set up a commission, 1821 to 1824, that handled American claims against Spain. Many notable lawyers, including [[Daniel Webster]] and [[William Wirt]], represented claimants before the commission. During its term, the commission examined 1,859 claims arising from over 720 spoliation incidents, and distributed the $5 million in a basically fair manner.<ref> Cash (1998)</ref>
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The new boundary between the U.S. and Spanish Mexico ran along the Sabine River from the Gulf of Mexico north to the 32nd parallel; then north to the Red River, along it to the 100th meridian; north to the Arkansas River and along it to its source; then north to the 42nd parallel; and west on that line to the Pacific Ocean.
  
The treaty reduced tensions with Spain (and after 1821 Mexico), and allowed budget cutters in Congress to reduce the army budget and reject the plans to modernize and expand the army proposed by Secretary of War [[John C. Calhoun]].
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==Implementation==
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The ministers of [[Ferdinand VII|King Ferdinand VII]] at first refused to ratify the treaty. The Spanish argued that the U.S. had already broken the treaty by [[James Long]]'s [[1819 expedition]] into Texas.  In order to placate Madrid, Washington disavowed Long's actions.  Spain's real goal was to stop American recognition of the independence of breakaway colonies in Latin America.  When Ferdinand lost some powers and became a constitutional monarch in 1820, his council was obliged to approve the treaty.  Ratification became official in 1821.
  
The treaty was honored by both sides until it was replaced by the Treaty of Guadaloupe Hidalgo in 1848, after the U.S. defeated Mexico. Inaccurate maps from the treaty meant that the boundary between Texas and Oklahoma remained unclear for most of the 19th century.
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In order to implement the treaty, Congress established a commission (1821-1824) to handle Americans' claims against Spain.  Many notable lawyers, including [[Daniel Webster]] and [[William Wirt]], represented claimants before the commission. During its time, the commission examined 1,859 claims arising from over 720 [[spoliation]] incidents and distributed the $5 million in a fair manner.<ref>Peter Arnold Cash, "The Adams-Onís Treaty Claims Commission: Spoliation and Diplomacy, 1795-1824" (Ph.D. diss., University of Memphis, 1998).</ref>
  
==Bibliography==
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The treaty reduced tensions with Spain (and after 1821, Mexico) and allowed budget cutters in Congress to reduce the army budget and reject the plans to modernize and expand the army as proposed by Secretary of War [[John C. Calhoun]].
* Bailey, Hugh C. "Alabama's Political Leaders and the Acquisition of Florida." ''Florida Historical Quarterly'' 1956 35(1): 17-29. Issn: 0015-4113 [http://fulltext10.fcla.edu/DLData/SN/SN00154113/0035_001/35no1.pdf online version]
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* Bemis, Samuel Flagg. '' John Quincy Adams and the Foundations of American Foreign Policy.'' (1949), the standard history
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* Cash, Peter Arnold.  "The Adams-Onís Treaty Claims Commission: Spoliation and Diplomacy, 1795-1824." PhD dissertation U. of Memphis 1998. 368 pp.  DAI 1999 59(9): 3611-A. DA9905078  Fulltext: [[ProQuest Dissertations & Theses]]
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* DelRio, Angel. ''La Misión de Don Luis de Onís en los Estados Unidos (1809-1819)'' [The mission of Don Luis de Onís in the United States, 1809-19].  Barcelona: Talleres Novagrafik, 1981. 294 pp. 
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* Weeks, William E.  ''John Quincy Adams and American Global Empire'' (2002)
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====notes====
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<references/>
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[[Category:History Workgroup]]
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The treaty was honored by the U.S., Spain, and (after 1821) Mexico until it was replaced by the [[Treaty of Guadalupe-Hidalgo]] in 1848 after the [[Mexican-American War]].  Inaccurate maps from the treaty, however, meant that the boundary between Texas and Oklahoma remained unclear for most of the 19th century.
[[Category:CZ Live]]
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==Notes==
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<references/>

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The Adams-Onís Treaty, also called the Transcontinental Treaty or the Florida Treaty, was a treaty between the United States and Spain in 1818 that ceded Florida to the U.S. and established the boundary between the U.S. and Mexico.

U.S. Spanish Relations to 1818

Spain had long rejected repeated American efforts to purchase Florida. But by 1818, Spain was facing a troubling colonial situation where the cession of Florida made sense. Spain had been exhausted by the European wars of Napoleon and needed to rebuild its credibility and presence in its colonies. Revolutionaries in Central and South America were beginning to demand independence. Spain was also unwilling to make any further investment in Florida and it worried about the border between its colony of Mexico and the United States.

Spain had almost no military or government presence in Florida and was unable to stop Seminole warriors who routinely crossed the border and raided U.S. villages and farms. In 1818, Andrew Jackson on his own authority invaded Spanish Florida with his own militia in order to stop these raids and instigate an international incident between the U.S. and Spain. Spain requested British intervention, but Britain declined to assist Spain in the negotiations.

Negotiations

President Monroe's Secretary of State John Quincy Adams more than anyone else was responsible for the treaty. He was the architect of a sophisticated strategy which combined diplomatic and military means to bring Spain to terms.[1] Adams also directed an intensive public relations campaign which maintained public and Congressional support for the administration's policy.

Terms

The treaty was signed in Washington, D.C. on February 22, 1819, by Adams and the Spanish minister to the U.S. Luis de Onís. The treaty closed the first era of United States expansion by providing for the cession of East Florida, the abandonment of the controversy over West Florida (which the U.S. had seized in 1810), and creation of a boundary with the Spanish province of Mexico that clearly made Texas a part of Mexico, thus ending the vagueness of the boundary of the Louisiana Purchase. Spain also gave up any claims to the Oregon Territory. The U.S. then controlled all territory on the North American continent south of the Great Lakes and East of the Mississippi River.

The U.S. did not pay Spain for Florida but did agree to assumed responsibility for claims of American citizens against Spain as a result of the West Florida controversy to a maximum of $5 million. Pinckney's Treaty of 1795 between the U.S. and Spain was to remain in force and Spanish goods were to receive certain tariff privileges in Florida ports.

The new boundary between the U.S. and Spanish Mexico ran along the Sabine River from the Gulf of Mexico north to the 32nd parallel; then north to the Red River, along it to the 100th meridian; north to the Arkansas River and along it to its source; then north to the 42nd parallel; and west on that line to the Pacific Ocean.

Implementation

The ministers of King Ferdinand VII at first refused to ratify the treaty. The Spanish argued that the U.S. had already broken the treaty by James Long's 1819 expedition into Texas. In order to placate Madrid, Washington disavowed Long's actions. Spain's real goal was to stop American recognition of the independence of breakaway colonies in Latin America. When Ferdinand lost some powers and became a constitutional monarch in 1820, his council was obliged to approve the treaty. Ratification became official in 1821.

In order to implement the treaty, Congress established a commission (1821-1824) to handle Americans' claims against Spain. Many notable lawyers, including Daniel Webster and William Wirt, represented claimants before the commission. During its time, the commission examined 1,859 claims arising from over 720 spoliation incidents and distributed the $5 million in a fair manner.[2]

The treaty reduced tensions with Spain (and after 1821, Mexico) and allowed budget cutters in Congress to reduce the army budget and reject the plans to modernize and expand the army as proposed by Secretary of War John C. Calhoun.

The treaty was honored by the U.S., Spain, and (after 1821) Mexico until it was replaced by the Treaty of Guadalupe-Hidalgo in 1848 after the Mexican-American War. Inaccurate maps from the treaty, however, meant that the boundary between Texas and Oklahoma remained unclear for most of the 19th century.

Notes

  1. William E. Weeks, John Quincy Adams and American Global Empire (Lexington: University Press of Kentucky, 2002), 170-175.
  2. Peter Arnold Cash, "The Adams-Onís Treaty Claims Commission: Spoliation and Diplomacy, 1795-1824" (Ph.D. diss., University of Memphis, 1998).