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Self-consciousness is the ability to become the object of one's own attention.[1] While some researchers consider it a continuum[2], the predominant view is that the ability to direct one's attention to the self involves a qualitative cognitive shift. In primate evolutionary history, such a shift appears to have occurred only recently and in relatively few species, including humans.


  1. Anderson JR, Gallup GG (2011). "Which primates recognize themselves in mirrors?". PLoS Biol 9 (3): e1001024. DOI:10.1371/journal.pbio.1001024. PMID 21390247. PMC PMC3046971. Research Blogging[e]
  2. de Waal FB, Dindo M, Freeman CA, Hall MJ (2005). "The monkey in the mirror: hardly a stranger". Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 102 (32): 11140-7. DOI:10.1073/pnas.0503935102. PMID 16055557. PMC PMC1183568. Research Blogging[e]