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- 9-11 Attack : The largest terrorist attack on the continental United States of America, occurring on September 11, 2001, using hijacked airliners as suicide weapons against major buildings.
- AC-130 : Heavily armed transport aircraft, based on the C-130 Hercules, used to provide air support to special operations forces.
- Abd al-Qadir bin ‘Abd al-‘Aziz : A Salafist scholar who was the first leader of Egyptian Islamic Jihad, and an opponent, within jihadist circles, of Ayman al-Zawahiri
- Abdul Haq (Afghan leader) : A Northern Alliance leader who was killed in 2001 trying to lead an uprising against the Taliban in Afghanistan.
- Abdul Rashid Dostum : Afghan Uzbek warlord who had been the dominant figure in the north, although he may have gone into exile in Turkey
- Abdullah Azzam : A Salafist legal scholar and jihadist, who formed the Services Office supporting the Afghanistan War (1978-92) with Osama bin Laden, one of the organizations that formed al-Qaeda
- Abu Basir al-Tartusi : A Syrian-born Salafist theologian, living in London, highly visible on the Internet and a prominent pro-jihad theoretician
- Abu Jandal : Bodyguard to Osama bin Laden, captured in 2002 and who has provided information on al-Qaeda
- Abu Muhammad al-Maqdisi : A Salafist theologian with much influence on Jihad, currently in Jordan; some affiliation with al-Qaeda but not necessarily in full agreement with their approach
- Abu Musab al-Zarqawi : Killed in an airstrike in 2006, the head of al-Qaeda in Iraq, who had previously run a separate organization
- Abu Qatada al-Filistini : A Salafist cleric, named by the United Nations Security Council as a financial supporter of al-Qaeda and the Algerian jihadist groups, under house arrest in London
- Abu Sulaiman al-Makki : Also known as Khaled al-Harbi, a cleric affiliated with al-Qaeda, of uncertain importance, who surrendered to Saudi security in 2004; he lost the use of his legs as a result of combat injuries in Bosnia while fighting with al-Qaeda
- Afghan Arab : Fighters against the Soviets, and then participants in jihad operating from Afghanistan and Pakistan, who are not of Afghan ethnicity but fought in the region, trained there or were supported by organizations based in the areas
- Afghanistan Civil War (1989-1994) : Conflict in Afghanistan between the departure of Soviet forces in 1989 and the taking of control by the Taliban in 1992, with conflict among mujahideen factions.
- Afghanistan War (1978-92) : A civil war in Afghanistan that matched the Soviet Union and its Afghan allies against a coalition of anti-Communist groups called the mujahideen, supported from the outside by the United States, Pakistan, and Saudi Arabia.
- Afghanistan War (2001-), major combat phase : During the Afghanistan War (2001-), the period of combat by Afghan ground forces, with U.S. and British air & special operations support, which drove the Taliban and al-Qaeda from their bases, in October through December 2001
- Afghanistan War (2001-) : Beginning on October 7, 2001, in response to the 9-11 attacks, military operations against the Taliban and al-Qaeda by United States and NATO forces
- Afghanistan : A Islamic republic in Central Asia, with an unstable but elected government; borders China, Iran, Pakistan, Uzbekistan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan
- Ahmad Shah Massoud : Tajik Military leader of the Northern Alliance against the Taliban in Afghanistan, and a noted fighter against the Soviet-supported government as well as the Soviets; assassinated by al-Qaeda on 9/9/2001; known as the Lion of the Panjshir
- Ahmed Rashid : Pakistani journalist and author, who has written highly regarded books on Central Asia, especially on the Taliban
- Al-Qaeda : International islamist terrorist network. Responsible for the 9-11 attack and other terrorist attacks.
- Al-wala’ wa’l-bara’ : A Muslim, primarily Salafist belief that the faithful should show exclusive allegiance to Allah and Islam, and repudiation of unbelief and unbelievers, not associating with non-Muslims
- Arab : People who identify with or recognise heritage from areas of the Middle East and North Africa on linguistic, cultural, ethnic or religious grounds.
- Armed Islamic Group : An apparently dormant Algerian jihadist movement, formed in 1992 when the secular government outlawed the Islamist party that won the legislative elections; members now may be affiliated with Al Qaeda in the Islamic Maghreb
- Ayman al-Zawahiri : Add brief definition or description
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- Intelligence interrogation, U.S., George W. Bush Administration : Add brief definition or description
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- Takfir : Add brief definition or description
- Taliban in Pakistan : Add brief definition or description
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- The Israel Lobby and U.S. Foreign Policy : Add brief definition or description
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