- See also changes related to Madagascar, or pages that link to Madagascar or to this page or whose text .
- Geography : Study of the surface of the Earth and the activities of humanity upon it.
- Republic : A form of government in which political power and authority is derived from the citizenry, and not from a monarch, whether hereditary or "tyrannical" (ie, a dictator).
- Island : Land mass, especially one smaller than a continent, entirely surrounded by water.
- Indian Ocean : Body of water bordered on the west by Africa; on the north by Asia; on the east by Indochina, some islands of Indonesia, and Australia; and on the south by the Antarctic Ocean.
- Africa : Continent stretching over the equator, hosting deserts, tropical jungles and savannah as well as over fifty nations; population about 900,000,000.
- Mozambique Channel : Add brief definition or description
- Antananarivo : Add brief definition or description
- Portugal : South-west European republic (population c. 10.7 million; capital Lisbon) on the western side of the Iberian Peninsula, with a long Atlantic coastline to its west and bordering Spain to the north and east.
- France : Western European republic (population c. 64.1 million; capital Paris) extending across Europe from the English Channel in the north-west to the Mediterranean in the south-east; bounded by Belgium, Luxembourg, Germany, Switzerland, Italy, Monaco, Andorra and Spain; founding member of the European Union. Colonial power in Southeast Asia until 1954.
- Andrianampoinimerina : Add brief definition or description
- Vichy France : After the fall of France in 1940, part of the south kept a German-approved government that maintained limited autonomy within the Tripartite Pact structure. It was opposed by resistance groups. In particular, Vichy retained authority, until March 1945, over French Indochina.
- Philibert Tsiranana : Add brief definition or description
- Gabriel Ramanantsoa : Add brief definition or description
- Gilles Andriamahazo : Add brief definition or description
- Didier Ratsiraka : Add brief definition or description
- Andry Rajoelina : Add brief definition or description
- Mombasa : Add brief definition or description
- Zanzibar : Add brief definition or description
- Mozambique : Republic in Africa, bounded north by Zambia, Malawi, and Tanzania, west by Zimbabwe, south-west by South Africa and Swaziland, with access to the Indian Ocean in the east.
- Comoros : Federal island republic, spanning an archipelago of three islands and minor islets in the Indian Ocean, off Mozambique.
- India : Republic in South Asia; the world's largest democracy. Borders Bangladesh, Bhutan, Burma, China, Nepal, Pakistan
- South Africa : The southernmost African nation; population about 50,000,000.
- Charles de Gaulle : French military and political leader who died in 1970.
- Paul Ramadier : Add brief definition or description