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This addendum is a continuation of the article Gyrification.

Quantitative measures of gyrification

Commonly used measures of the exent of cortical folding include[1][2]:

  • :
  • Folding index
    • , with
  • Intrinsic curvature index
    • , with being the positive Gaussian curvature
  • Curvedness
  • Sharpness of folding
  • Bending energy
  • Willmore energy
  • Gyrification index
    • , with indicating the number of the slice, and and being the outer and inner cortical contour in that slice. Anatomically, the inner contour can be thought of as representing the pia mater, the outer one the arachnoid mater. The latter correspondence is rough, since the arachnoid also encloses venous sinuses.
    • , with indicating the number of the region, and and being the outer and inner cortical surface area in that region. The anatomical correspondences apply equally to the slice-based and regional definitions.
  • Gyrification-White index
    • , with being the surface area of the boundary between gray matter and white matter
  • White matter folding
    • , with being the volume of the white matter
  • Cortical complexity
  • Fractal dimension
  • Shape index
  • Roundness


  1. Rodriguez-Carranza, C.E.; P. Mukherjee & D. Vigneron et al. (2008), "A framework for in vivo quantification of regional brain folding in premature neonates", Neuroimage 41: 462, DOI:10.1016/j.neuroimage.2008.01.008
  2. Pienaar, R.; B. Fischl & V. Caviness et al. (2008), "A methodology for analyzing curvature in the developing brain from preterm to adult", International Journal of Imaging Systems and Technology 18 (1): 42–68, DOI:10.1002/ima.20138