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Encephalitis is "inflammation of the brain due to infection, autoimmune processes, toxins, and other conditions. Viral infections (see viral encephalitis) are a relatively frequent cause of this condition."[1]

Etiologies / causes

In England, 40% of cases are due to infections.[2] The most common infections being:

Among immunocompromised patients:[2]

Other causes include:


  1. Anonymous (2021), Encephalitis (English). Medical Subject Headings. U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 Granerod J et al. Causes of encephalitis and differences in their clinical presentations in England: A multicentre, population-based prospective study. Lancet Infect Dis 2010 Oct 18; [e-pub ahead of print]. DOI:10.1016/S1473-3099(10)70222-X