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- Abdul Rashid Dostum : Afghan Uzbek warlord who had been the dominant figure in the north, although he may have gone into exile in Turkey
- Afghanistan War (2001-), major combat phase : During the Afghanistan War (2001-), the period of combat by Afghan ground forces, with U.S. and British air & special operations support, which drove the Taliban and al-Qaeda from their bases, in October through December 2001
- Afghanistan War (2001-) : Beginning on October 7, 2001, in response to the 9-11 attacks, military operations against the Taliban and al-Qaeda by United States and NATO forces
- Ghilzai : One of the two major tribes of the Pashtun people, rivals of the Durrani who founded the monarchy and retain leadership roles
- Gulbuddin Hekmatyar : Afghan radical jihadist leader, not affiliated with the Taliban, at large in Afghanistan or Pakistan
- Hamid Karzai : President of Afghanistan, who took interim office in 2002, was reelected to a full five-year term in 2004, and gained another term after a disputed election in August 2009; Pashtun of the Durrani tribe
- Islamic Party of Afghanistan : A Pashtun-dominated Afghan political party, split into factions variously part of the government (Hezb-i-Islam) under Yunis Khalis versus Hezb-i-Islam Gulbuddin under Gulbuddin Hekmatyar (HIG), which cooperates with the Taliban but is also negotiating with the Karzai government
- Jalalabad : The capital of Nangarhar Province, Afghanistan.
- Jalaluddin Haqqani : Commander of Taliban armed forces but also a Pashtun Ghilzai with independent affiliations with Pakistan, both Inter-Service Intelligence and tribal, as well as his home area of Afghanistan
- Kandahar Province : Add brief definition or description
- Mazar-e-Sharif : Afghanistan's second-largest city, in its north
- Mujahideen : General term for Muslim "holy warriors", especially in Afghanistan.
- Pashtun people : An Eastern Iranian ethnic group primarily located in Southern Afghanistan in the Northwest Frontier Province, Federally Administered Tribal Area and Balochistan Province of western Pakistan; language is Pashto
- Taliban : Salafist Islamic militia, governing Afghanistan 1996–2001; still fighting in Pakistan and Afghanistan.