- Sudan : A nation in East Africa/Horn of Africa, with the largest land area of any country in Africa, and near-continuous civil wars since British independence in 1956; effectively a federation of Arab and African parts, with the southern region voting for independence in 2011.
- Islamic sectarian conflict : Fighting between different sects of Islam or related religions, such as Sunni vs. Shi'a or Shi'a vs. Baha'i
- Darfur Conflict : A low-technology war, with massive casualties and refugees, in the Darfur area of western Sudan, representing a cultural and economic conflict between traditional pastoralists and nomads, the nomads being supported by the power elite of north Sudan; all parties involved are Muslim, but of African and Arab ethnicity
- Fur (ethnic group) : Add brief definition or description
- Masalit (ethnic group) : Add brief definition or description
- Baqqara Arab (ethnic group) : Add brief definition or description
- African Union : Continental organization, which succeeded the Organisation of African Unity on September 9, 1999.
- Scott Gration : U.S. Special Envoy to Sudan; retired U.S. Air Force major general; childhood in Democratic Republic of Congo and Kenya
- International Crisis Group : A multinational non-governmental organization intended to give world leaders an early warning of impending crises
- World Food Programme : Add brief definition or description