- Iraq War : Invasion of Iraq by a coalition of countries, led by the United States, in 2003, and subsequent occupation
- Central Intelligence Agency : The principal civilian intelligence organization of the United States, specializing in all-source intelligence analysis, clandestine human-source intelligence, and covert action.
- Covert action : Any of a range of activities, intended to affect the behavior of a target nation or non-national actor, where the fact of the action is known, but the responsibility for the action cannot be proven.
- Scorpions (Iraq War) : One of several Central Intelligence Agency teams intended to destabilize Saddam Hussein before the Iraq War; ineffective before the war, and involved in the death of a prisoner in interrogation after the active combat phase
- ROCKSTARS (Iraq War) : A Sufi Muslim group in Iraq, providing human-source intelligence and performing covert action in Central Intelligence Agency before the Iraq War, as part of the DBANABASIS program
- Peshmerga : Literally "one who faces death" in the Kurdish language, both an umbrella term for Anti-Saddam insurgents in Kurdish Iraq, and for the fighters in the Greater Kurdistan movement
- Iraq Freedom Force : A guerrilla force, recruited by Ahmed Chalabi of the Iraqi National Congress, recruited to fight in the Iraq War; United States Central Command officers did not trust or want the force.
- George Tenet : Director of Central Intelligence from July 1997 to July 2004, heading the United States intelligence community and the Central Intelligence Agency
- George W. Bush : (1946–) 43rd U.S. President (Republican), elected in 2000 and re-elected in 2004.
- Saddam Hussein : (1937–2006) Deposed and executed ruler of Iraq.