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Green RE, Krause J, Briggs AW, Maricic T, Stenzel U, Kircher M et al. (2010). "A draft sequence of the Neandertal genome". Science 328 (5979): 710-22. DOI:10.1126/science.1188021. PMID 20448178. Research Blogging[e]

Reports on the sequencing of about 60% of the Neanderthal genome, based on DNA samples recovered from three female Neanderthals who lived about 40,000 years ago in what is today Croatia. Indicates that most modern humans (with Africans being a possible exception) share about 4% of their genome with Neanderthals but not with the chimpanzee, whose draft genome sequence has been published in 2005 (cf. Chimpanzee Sequencing and Analysis Consortium, 2005).
The report also highlights a number of genes that show accelerated evolution in modern humans relative to Neanderthals. These genes are involved in controlling the development of the skin and the brain as well as spermatogenesis.