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- Stratigraphy : The interdisciplinary science field that describes all rock bodies that form the Earth's crust and the manner in which they are organised into distinctive units that are then mapped.
- Fossil : A naturally preserved record of ancient life.
- Stage (geology) : A unit in the study of soil layers.
- Age (geology) : The fundamental chronostratigraphic unit.
- Geologic time scale : Measurement of the geologic history of the earth which can be broadly classified into two periods: the Precambrian supereon and the Phanerozoic eon.
- Chronostratigraphy : The branch of stratigraphy that studies the relative time relations and ages of rock bodies.
- Geochronology : Science of determining the absolute age of rocks, fossils, and sediments, within a certain degree of uncertainty inherent within the method used.
- Geochronometry : A branch of stratigraphy and of geochronology aimed at the quantitative measurement of geologic time.
- Hydrology : The interdisciplinary study of the movement, characteristics and distribution of water, surface-water (fresh water and salt water), groundwater, and water-quality.
- Palynology : The science of the study of contemporary and fossil palynomorphs as well as associated particulate organic matter (POM) in sedimentary strata.
- Lithostratigraphy : Stratigraphy based on the interpretation of physical and petrographic properties of rocks.
- Magnetostratigraphy : Studies of the magnetic characteristics of rocks.