Ayub Khan

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Ayub Khan (1907-1974) was the first Pakistani commander-in-chief of the Pakistani military, the first two being British officers, became President of Pakistan under martial law. While he restored constitutional government in 1962, he again declared martial law, giving up the presidency to Yahya Khanin 1968.

He had become commander-in-chief in 1949, from General Sir Douglas Gracey, and had the patronage of defense secretary Iskander Mirza. While a graduate of Sandhurst, he had not had an especially distinguished career, but did put the Army on a solid footing. Soon after taking office, he put down a coup.

Mirza became president, and declared martial law on 7 October 1958. The U.S. State Department had believed that dictatorship was inevitable, and Ayub Khan had sought approval from [[Director of Central Intelligence] Allen Dulles. [1]


  1. Hassan Abbas (2005), Pakistan's Drift into Extremism: Allah, the Army, and America's War on Terror, M.E. Sharpe, ISBN 0765614979, pp. 33-35