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Arctic: The region of the Earth so far north that at least one day of the year the sun is below the horizon
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- Earth science : The study of the components and processes of the planet Earth.
- Continent : An extended part of the Earth's crust that extends above sea level.
- Antarctica : The Earth's southernmost continent, located almost entirely south of the Antarctic Circle; covers the South Pole.
- Africa : Continent stretching over the equator, hosting deserts, tropical jungles and savannah as well as over fifty nations; population about 900,000,000.
- Asia : The largest continent in both land area (with 30% of Earth's land area) and population (with 4 billion people, or 60% of Earth's population).
- Oceania : A major geographical region of the planet Earth, mostly in the southern hemisphere, consisting of Australasia (the Australian continent and New Zealand), Micronesia, Melanesia and Polynesia.
- Europe : Sixth largest continent; area 10,000,000 km2; pop. 720,000,000
- North America : The third largest continent, location of three large nations Canada, the United States, and Mexico.
- South America : The fourth largest of the Earth's continents, one of the pieces that broke up from the former supercontinent Gondwana.