Anbar Province, the geographically largest province in Iraq, is sparsely populated. Its capital is Ramadi, and Fallujah is in the province. The populated areas are mostly Sunni, with a Shia mixture in Ramadi. Internally, it borders Ninawa, Salah ad Din, Karbala, Baghdad and Najaf Provinces.
Its security command transferred from US to Iraqi control only after much violence. One of the controversial method was creating tribal groups, known as Awakening Councils, which transformed militia into parts of national security.