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- Air assault : Military operations in which infantry are carried by aircraft onto, or very near, the target, or by parachuting. The aircraft may be helicopters, tilt-rotor aircraft, short-landing transports, or, historically, gliders.
- Air superiority : The condition in war in which one side dominates the other side to the extent that it is implausible that the inferior side can put up any effective air missions.
- Air warfare planning : The set of doctrines and procedures for carrying out all types of air warfare, as an integrated whole
- Albert Kesselring : A senior commander of the German Luftwaffe during the Second World War.
- Anti-aircraft artillery : A general term for guns that can elevate to high angles and shoot accurately at aircraft, using visual, electro-optical, or radar guidance.
- Ballistic missile : A guided missile which, once its engines stop firing, follows a generally parabolic path to its target, defined by momentum, aerodynamic resistance, and gravity
- Battle of Britain : Those German offensive air strikes, and British defense, with which the Germans had intended to establish air supremacy for their proposed invasion of Britain
- Battle of the Beams : German attacks on Britain after the end of the Battle of Britain.
- Battle of the Coral Sea : Fought in May 1942, the first battle between naval forces built around aircraft carriers, in which the opposing United States and Japanese ships never saw one another; it was a tactical Japanese defeat and strategic U.S. victory
- Blitzkrieg : A military doctrine involving the breakthrough, at key points of the enemy lines, of highly mobile forces, usually of high technology for the time, which would then disrupt the enemy rear
- Bomber aircraft : Airplanes optimized to deliver weapons to surface targets, rather than to fight other airplanes.
- Boulton-Paul Defiant : A British fighter aircraft using a novel turret design, not effective in its original air combat role but was later adapted to be successful in other missions
- Command and control : The combination of lawful authority over people and resources, coupled with the methods of directing their execution of missions and tasks directed at goals set by that authority
- Electronic intelligence : Collection and analysis of electronic signals not intended to be intelligible to humans, such as radar or navigational aids
- Every War Must End : An examination of the endstates resulting from the use of military force, and how consideration of the endstate is a key part of planning, if disaster is to be avoided
- Fratricide (military) : The killing of one's brother, but in a military context, the killing of one's own forces ("friendly fire").
- Hermann Goering : prominent Nazi politician, effectively #2 in status for most of the war and Commander-in-Chief of the German Air Force (Luftwaffe) during WW II. Sentenced to death by the International Military Tribunal (Nuremberg) but committed suicide shortly before execution
- Hugo Sperrle : A German air force (Luftwaffe) officer who rose to Generalfeldmarschall and commander of all air forces in Western Europe, he had commanded the Condor Legion in the Spanish Civil War, and then forces in the Battle of France and Battle of Britain, but was relieved for not stopping Allied forces after the Battle of Normandy. He was cleared of war crimes charges in the High Command Case (NMT)
- Integrated air defense system : An air defense that combines radar, anti-aircraft artillery, surface-to-air missiles, and fighter aircraft, presenting multiple layers of defense under systematic command and control
- Interceptor : A fighter aircraft optimized for short- or long-range defensive counter-air, typically against relatively unmaneuverable bombers; it does not necessarily have the "dogfight" capability of air superiority fighters
- Ju-87 : German WWII dive bomber that gave excellent close air support in the early blitzkriegs, but was too slow to survive in the Battle of Britain and against later fighters
- Landing craft : A boat or other self-propelled watercraft, carried aboard a ship, intended for amphibious warfare or similar operations where landings at a prepared seaport are not practical. Such a craft may discharge troops or equipment on the beach, or may be capable of independent movement on land.
- London Calling (novel) : A 2006 young adult novel by Edward Bloor, which involves time travel back to London during the Blitz via a radio.
- Lord Cherwell : Principal scientific adviser to Winston Churchill during the Second World War.
- Me-109 (fighter) : Relatively lightweight Second World War German fighter aircraft; principal escort fighter during the Battle of Britain
- Me-110 (fighter) : Generally unsuccessful German fighter aircraft of the Second World War; intended as a twin-engine "bomber destroyer" but vulnerable to single-engine fighters; limited effectiveness as a night interceptor
- Operation RANKIN : A set of contingency plans for the Western Allies in Europe in World War II, to deal with a sudden German withdrawal or collapse before the scheduled invasion of Normandy
- Operation Sea Lion : Germany's plan to invade the United Kingdom during the Second World War, beginning in 1940.
- Phony War : The period of the Second World War between the fall of Poland in October 1939 and the invasion of Norway in April 1940.
- Royal Air Force : The British military service primarily responsible for air warfare
- Strategic bombing : Strategic strike attacks against the homeland military forces, population and industry of a nation, conducted by manned bomber aircraft
- V-1 : The world's first, if crude, cruise missile used in appreciable numbers in combat
- V-2 : World's first operational ballistic missile, developed by Nazi Germany: (Vergeltungswaffe 2).
- Winston Churchill : British Prime Minister and war leader during the Second World War from 1940 to 1945; second term from 1951 to 1955. Won the Nobel Prize for Literature as a historian.
- World War II, air war, Allied offensive counter-air campaign : Air operations specifically intended to counter the air defenses of the WWII Luftwaffe, principally by aggressive fighter tactics and attacks on airfields and aircraft production
- World War II, air war, Mediterranean and European tactical operations : Following the cancellation of the invasion of Britain, while harassment continued of the British Isles and the Eastern Front, the Germans searched for new opportunities in 1940-1941, finding them in Southern Europe, met, in part, by the invasion of North Africa in 1942, which led to the Italian campaign.
- World War II, air war : Air operations in the Second World War