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- Age (geology) : The fundamental chronostratigraphic unit.
- Biostratigraphy : A domain of stratigraphy that involves the identification of fossils and their position relative to their occurrences in space and time.
- Cambrian (geology) : First geologic period of Palaeozoic time stretching approximately from 550 to 480 million years BP.
- Charles Darwin : (1809 – 1882) English natural scientist, most famous for proposing the theory of natural selection.
- Chronostratigraphy : The branch of stratigraphy that studies the relative time relations and ages of rock bodies.
- Earth science : The study of the components and processes of the planet Earth.
- Excavation : The process by which an archeologist, paleoanthropologist or paleontologist uncovers material remains of the past.
- Geochronology : Science of determining the absolute age of rocks, fossils, and sediments, within a certain degree of uncertainty inherent within the method used.
- Geochronometry : A branch of stratigraphy and of geochronology aimed at the quantitative measurement of geologic time.
- Geologic ages of earth history : Measurement of the geologic history of the earth which can be broadly classified into two periods: the Precambrian supereon and the Phanerozoic eon.
- Geomorphology : The study of the landforms and geological history of an area, the processes that have shaped the landscape, and the time period over which these processes occur.
- Gladysvale Cave : A fossil-bearing breccia-filled cave located about 13km Northeast of the well known South African hominid-bearing sites of Sterkfontein and Swartkrans and about 45km North-Northwest of the City of Johannesburg, South Africa.
- Isotope : An atom of a chemical element with a specific number of neutrons and hence a specific nuclear mass, such as carbon-14 (14C).
- Lithostratigraphy : Stratigraphy based on the interpretation of physical and petrographic properties of rocks.
- Magnetostratigraphy : Studies of the magnetic characteristics of rocks.
- Palynology : The science of the study of contemporary and fossil palynomorphs as well as associated particulate organic matter (POM) in sedimentary strata.
- Rock (geology) : Naturally occurring solid aggregate of one or more minerals and/or mineraloids.
- Sedimentary geology : Science concerned with the physical and chemical properties of sedimentary rocks and the processes involved in their formation, including transportation, deposition, and lithification of sediments.
- Stage (geology) : A unit in the study of soil layers.
- Swartkrans Cave : A fossil hominin-bearinig cave situated approximately 1km to the west-northwest of the well known fossil site of Sterkfontein in the Cradle of Humankind World Heritage Site.