Don’t be like the signalman who goes up on the bridge of a battlewagon ... and there is a flashing light going dit-da, dit-da. And somebody says to this signalman, "All right, what’s he saying?" ..."Well, just a moment, I have to give it some more study." Oh no, he doesn’t. If he’s a signalman, dit-da means "A" to him. And a whole string of dots, sort of read en masse together, mean a word to him. He has conquered the barrier of meaning in light flashes.
He addressed what he saw as a gap. On one side of the gap lies recallable data, memorized data, information that can be remembered. On the other side of the gap lies action based on practiced experience, useable data, i.e. the signalman uses what he knows. If the signalman has bridged the gap then he can tell you what is being said. But if the signalman has not bridged the gap, then he can not. Hubbard addresed this gap by saying scientology is a "study of knowledge" because the gap is between "known data that can be recalled" and "known data that can be acted with". Stated in another way the gap lies between "known data" and "understood data".
Study knowledge to understand knowledge
"If we understand what we know--you know, that's an interesting thing; you have to understand what you know--if we understand what we know, we can go a long way ....."This is the gap Hubbard addressed, the gap that scientology is about. Hubbard's study of knowledge applies itself to this gap, or potential gap. This gap between "I know" and "I understand and can use what I know". He defined the gap in his 1952 lecture but he attempted to span that gap earlier, with Dianetics.
Traditionally, knowledge is something you aquire and then recall. Whereas Hubbard states you have to understand what you know, i.e. a signalman sees a pattern of flashing lights and can tell you what it said. Compared to traditional "book learning"; it centers in the gap between "book learning" and "able to skillfully use book learning." Stated another way, scientology doesn't present that a person has knowledge; but presents that a person understand what they know, in understanding it, becomes able to use what they know.
For example: In theory, an engineer who is fresh out of university could engineer a modern bridge. In actual practice, no engineering business would hire a fresh graduate to engineer a modern bridge by himself. But hypothetically, the engineer could confidently engineer a modern bridge if the fresh engineer had used scientology methods he would be able to apply what he gained by education. His knowledge would include, understanding application of his education. Hubbard's method doesn't stop with, "I know", but goes a step further to, "I understand this significance and can apply this information".
Applications of study
In 1949 he first used this method of bridging the gap as it applies to memory, with Dianetics. In 1952 he spelled out the difference of his approach to a study of knowledge and called it scientology. Finally, in 1954, today's Church of Scientology was created with Hubbard as its founder. However, he continued to develop applications of scientology until his death in 1986.
Hubbard first applied this idea of bridging the gap within a specific subject, the subject of the mind. His first writing was Terra Incognita: The Mind  Dianetics applies bridging the gap of what is known, but not understood, to an individual's memory. You have memory and can recall past events. This is personal information, personal knowledge and an individual will understand most of what they can recall. Dianetics bridges the gap with difficult, traumatic memories. It has an individual recall, examine and understand memories they already know, but don't yet fully understand. Those sorts of memories tend to "stick out", an individual thinks about them often. By this method you come to understand what you already knew.
Old time education, he said in 1956, could be defined in this wise: placing data in the recalls of others. He went on to say that old-time education does not address how useable the data in a person’s recall is. It does not address how well a person can do things with their information. It does not address what a person could have with the data placed in their recall. It causes a person to rely on their experience to make use of their data. Remembered experience, he said, is quite different than perception and estimation of the situation. i.e. the signalman can remember his data, but he can’t use it as he sees light flashes and cannot translate those flashes into words. The step between "data in recall" and "useable knowledge" is what Scientology studies to improve. Said briefly, there is a difference between knowledge and the application of same. Scientology applies itself to this area, hence why it is a "study of knowledge". One of its areas of application is "Study Technology"
Hubbard developed a body of literature that comprises scientology, it is in the area of 40 million words. On his passing in 1986, he entrusted it to the Church with its attendant copyrights and trademarks. The Church presents an orderly series of courses to practitioners that begins with its most basic principles and moves through a number of specific applications. Alternatively, the Church will sell almost all of Hubbard's literature to anyone. Public libraries have some copies of some of Hubbard's many books. Not every word of scientology deals with the difference between "knowledge in recall" and "skill developed with the use of knowledge." A portion of it applies to organization. The Organizational Executive Series volumes (10 large volumes and an index and large dictionary) apply scientology to organization. He also wrote about that gap can be bridged (about how scientology applies) to education, to morality, to the use of morality information in rehabilitating criminals, to freeing a person from drug residues, to business, work, and other areas. The Church uses scientology toward its goal of rehabilitating of the human spirit. The two main methods it uses are apply scientology to what a person already knows in memory, and education.
The Scientology religion comprises a body of knowledge, says the Church of Scientology. 
Scientology is an applied religious philosophy developed by L. Ron Hubbard says the "what is scientology" website.  The word Scientology literally means "the study of truth." It comes from the Latin word "scio" meaning "knowing in the fullest sense of the word" and the Greek word "logos" meaning "study of."
Hubbard's vision of scientology
In his 1952 lecture he first laid out his vision of scientology. He said it could not help but address personal responsibility and religion. Hubbard is known as the creator of that body of information which is called scientology, and the founder of the organization today responsible for it, the Church of Scientology. He entrusted the Church with his copyrights and trademarks before his death in 1986. NOTE
- Scientology: Milestone One, a lecture on 3 Mar 1952, Wichita, Kansas, Hubbard
- Scientology: comes from the Latin scio, which means "know" and the Greek word logos, meaning "the word or outward form by which the inward thought is expressed and made known." Thus, Scientology means knowing about knowing. scientology glossary
- The Hope of Man, lecture, Hubbard, 3 June 1955, Washington DC, Bridge pubs.
- Terra Incognita: The Mind, published in 1948, online as an article. Dianetics.org
- Education a lecture on 25 Oct 1956, Washington DC, Hubbard
- Study Technology
- the Church of Scientology
- the scientology glossary
- Church of Scientology's website
- NOTE: Although the term had seen rare earlier use, Hubbard adopted the word as the title for his study of knowledge.