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- Animal : A multicellular organism that feeds on other organisms, and is distinguished from plants, fungi, and unicellular organisms.
- Bacteria : A major group of single-celled microorganisms.
- Biology : The science of life — of complex, self-organizing, information-processing systems living in the past, present or future.
- Cell (biology) : The basic unit of life, consisting of biochemical networks enclosed by a membrane.
- Endosymbiotic theory : Theory on the origins of mitochondria and plastids (e.g. chloroplasts), which are organelles of eukaryotic cells.
- Evolution : A change over time in the proportions of individual organisms differing genetically.
- Fungus : A eukaryotic organism, classified into the kingdom Fungi, that is heterotrophic and digest their food externally, and may be a yeast, mold, or mushroom.
- Horizontal gene transfer in prokaryotes : Horizontal gene transfer (HGT; also called lateral gene transfer, LGT) is defined as movement of genes between different species, or across broad taxonomic categories. Prokaryotes are cells, such as bacteria, that do not have a nucleus enclosed by a nuclear membrae. Their DNA is in a region of the cell called the nucleiod, or nucleus-like material.
- Horizontal gene transfer : Transfer of genetic material to a being other than one of the donor's offspring.
- Kingdom (biology) : The second highest level taxon of organisms in scientific classification and biological taxonomy.
- Microorganism : A 'germ', an organism that is too small to be seen individually with the naked eye.
- Model organism : Species often used in research as models for the study of biological processes.
- Organism : An individual living individual: a complex, adaptive physical system that acts a integrated unit that sustains metabolism and reproduces progeny that resemble it.
- Plant (organism) : A eukaryotic organism, grouped into the kingdom Plantae, that typically synthesizes nutrients through photosynthesis and possesses the inability to voluntarily move.
- Toxoplasma gondii : Species of parasitic protozoa in the genus Toxoplasma, acts as a causative agent for toxoplasmosis, which can have serious or even fatal effects on a fetus whose mother first contracts the disease during pregnancy or on an immunocompromised human.