From Citizendium, the Citizens' Compendium
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- Antigen : A molecule that induces an immune response, such as bee pollen or proteins from viruses or bacteria.
- Bacterial cell structure : Morphological and genetic features of unicellular prokaryotic organisms characterized by the lack of a membrane-bound nucleus and membrane-bound organelles.
- Basophil : A circulating leukocyte which, when sensitized to a specific antigen by means of an immunoglobulin E molecule bound to its surface, will release physiologically potent chemicals on recognizing that antigen
- Bile : Bile acids, bile salts, cholesterol and electrolytes produced in the liver and secreted into the duodenum via the common bile duct.
- C-reactive protein : Globulin that appears in the blood in certain acute inflammatory conditions, such as rheumatic fever, bacterial infections, and neoplastic diseases.
- Cell membrane : The outer surface of a cell which encloses its contents.
- Complement (disambiguation) : Add brief definition or description
- Complement (immunologic) : A sequence of normally inactive proteins, which, when activated by foreign proteins of bacteria and other microorganisms, produce protein variants that variously open holes in the cell wall of invaders, and also opsonize the foreign cells to make them "tasty" to attack cells that will destroy them with phagocytosis
- Connexon : Assembly of 6 proteins called connexins that forms a bridge called a gap junction between the cytoplasm of two adjacent cells.
- Eosinophil : A leukocyte (white blood cell), the number of which rise in inflammatory disorders and parasitic infections
- Homeopathy : System of alternative medicine involving administration of highly diluted substances with the intention to stimulate the body's natural healing processes, not considered proven by mainstream science.
- Immunoglobulin : Proteins produced by lymphocytes, which are primarily antibodies to attack material the body considers hostile, although some may act as cytokines, signaling to other cells
- Immunology : The study of all aspects of the immune system in all animals.
- Leukocyte : Colourless cells of the immune system which defend the body against both infectious disease and foreign materials, and grouped into neutrophils, eosinophils, basophils, lymphocytes, and monocytes.
- Macrophage : A type of leukocyte (i.e., white blood cells) that is associated with chronic inflammatory response. It digests foreign cells using the mechanism of phagocytosis, and both circulates in the blood, but later attaches to tissue as a part of local immune response.
- Mast cell : Non-circulating, but leukocyte-like (especially basophil) associated with the inflammatory response, especially the release of histamine.
- Neutrophil : Leukocytes (white blood cells) whose primary role is in the cell-mediated immune system, where they destroy hostile substance by phagocytosis. They do release interleukin-12.
- Opsonins : A family of proteins, generated by various immune mechanisms, which "tag" cells as targets for defensive digestion by cells that perform phagocytosis
- Pilus : Hairlike appendage found on the surface of many Gram-negative bacteria, shorter, thinner and straighter than flagella.
- Probiotics : Live microbial dietary supplements which beneficially affect the host animal's intestinal microbial balance.
- Reticuloendothelial system : Part of the immune system, consisting of the phagocytic cells located in reticular connective tissue, and primarily monocytes and macrophages.
- Staphylococcus aureus : Facultatively anaerobic, Gram-positive pathogenic coccus capable of producing suppurative lesions, furunculosis, pyemia, osteomyelitis, food poisoning, and may be resistant to commonly used antibiotics.
- Streptococcus pneumoniae : Gram-positive, alpha-hemolytic, bile soluble diplococcus recognized as a major cause of pneumonia, bacterial meningitis, and other diseases in humans.
- Streptococcus pyogenes : Spherical Gram-positive pathogenic bacterium that grows in long chains and is the cause of Group A streptococcal infections, and fatal septicemias.
- Vaccine : "suspensions of killed or attenuated microorganisms (bacteria, viruses, fungi, protozoa, or rickettsiae), antigenic proteins derived from them, or synthetic constructs, administered for the prevention, amelioration, or treatment of infectious and other diseases."(National Library of Medicine)
- Yersinia pestis : Gram-negative rod-shaped bacterium belonging to the family Enterobacteriaceae, that can infect humans and other animals in three main forms: pneumonic, septicemic, and the notorious bubonic plagues.