Difference between revisions of "Occitan language"

From Citizendium, the Citizens' Compendium
Jump to: navigation, search
(Classification)
(typography similar to that of other articles)
Line 2: Line 2:
 
{{dablink|This article is for the Occitan language. For other uses, see [[Provençal (disambiguation)]].}}
 
{{dablink|This article is for the Occitan language. For other uses, see [[Provençal (disambiguation)]].}}
  
'''Occitan'''—also called '''Lenga d'Òc''', '''Langue d'Oc''' or '''Provençal'''—(in its own language: ''occitan'',<ref>''Occitan'' is pronounced [utsiˈta] or regionally [uksiˈtaⁿ, ukʃiˈtɔ, uksiˈtɔ, uksiˈta].</ref> ''lenga d'òc''<ref>''Lenga d'òc'' is pronounced [ˈleŋgɔ ˈðɔ(k)] or regionally [ˈleⁿgɔ ˈdɔ, ˈleⁿga ˈdɔk, ˈlɪⁿgɔ ˈdɔ].</ref> and sometimes ''provençau/provençal''<ref>''Provençau'' or ''provençal'', according to the regions, is pronounced [pʀuveⁿˈsaw] or [pruveⁿˈsaw, pruβenˈsaw, pruβenˈsal, pruveⁿˈsal, pruvɪⁿˈsal].</ref>) is a [[Romance languages|Romance language]] spoken in a territory called [[Occitania]], which comprises southern [[France]], [[Monaco]], part of [[Italy]] (the [[Occitan Valleys]]) and part of [[Spain]] (the [[Aran Valley]]).
+
'''Occitan'''—also called ''Lenga d'Òc'', ''Langue d'Oc'' or ''Provençal''—(in its own language: ''occitan'',<ref>''Occitan'' is pronounced [utsiˈta] or regionally [uksiˈtaⁿ, ukʃiˈtɔ, uksiˈtɔ, uksiˈta].</ref> ''lenga d'òc''<ref>''Lenga d'òc'' is pronounced [ˈleŋgɔ ˈðɔ(k)] or regionally [ˈleⁿgɔ ˈdɔ, ˈleⁿga ˈdɔk, ˈlɪⁿgɔ ˈdɔ].</ref> and sometimes ''provençau/provençal''<ref>''Provençau'' or ''provençal'', according to the regions, is pronounced [pʀuveⁿˈsaw] or [pruveⁿˈsaw, pruβenˈsaw, pruβenˈsal, pruveⁿˈsal, pruvɪⁿˈsal].</ref>) is a [[Romance languages|Romance language]] spoken in a territory called [[Occitania]], which comprises southern [[France]], [[Monaco]], part of [[Italy]] (the [[Occitan Valleys]]) and part of [[Spain]] (the [[Aran Valley]]).
  
 
This [[minority language]] has the status of an [[official language]] in Spain (see [[Aranese Occitan]])<ref>Act no. 16 of 1990 (''Regim especiau dera Val d'Aran'' / ''Special Regime of [[Aran Valley]]'') and Act no. 1 of 1998 (''Lei de politica linguistica'' / ''Language Policy Act''), both in the autonomous region of [[Catalonia]]; see [http://www20.gencat.cat/portal/site/Llengcat/menuitem.b318de7236aed0e7a129d410b0c0e1a0/?vgnextoid=ba96f554f917a110VgnVCM1000008d0c1e0aRCRD&vgnextchannel=ba96f554f917a110VgnVCM1000008d0c1e0aRCRD&vgnextfmt=default&newLang=oc_ES here].</ref> and of a protected language in Italy.<ref>Act no. 482 of 1999 in Italy (''Norme in materia di tutela delle minoranze linguistiche storiche'' / ''Norms Concerning the Protection of Historical Language Minorities)'', see [http://www.camera.it/parlam/leggi/99482l.htm here].</ref> It has no official status in France, nor in Monaco. Its usage is quite limited compared to dominant state languages such as [[French language|French]], [[Italian language|Italian]] and [[Spanish language|Spanish]].  
 
This [[minority language]] has the status of an [[official language]] in Spain (see [[Aranese Occitan]])<ref>Act no. 16 of 1990 (''Regim especiau dera Val d'Aran'' / ''Special Regime of [[Aran Valley]]'') and Act no. 1 of 1998 (''Lei de politica linguistica'' / ''Language Policy Act''), both in the autonomous region of [[Catalonia]]; see [http://www20.gencat.cat/portal/site/Llengcat/menuitem.b318de7236aed0e7a129d410b0c0e1a0/?vgnextoid=ba96f554f917a110VgnVCM1000008d0c1e0aRCRD&vgnextchannel=ba96f554f917a110VgnVCM1000008d0c1e0aRCRD&vgnextfmt=default&newLang=oc_ES here].</ref> and of a protected language in Italy.<ref>Act no. 482 of 1999 in Italy (''Norme in materia di tutela delle minoranze linguistiche storiche'' / ''Norms Concerning the Protection of Historical Language Minorities)'', see [http://www.camera.it/parlam/leggi/99482l.htm here].</ref> It has no official status in France, nor in Monaco. Its usage is quite limited compared to dominant state languages such as [[French language|French]], [[Italian language|Italian]] and [[Spanish language|Spanish]].  

Revision as of 22:45, 25 October 2008

This article is developing and not approved.
Main Article
Talk
Related Articles  [?]
Bibliography  [?]
External Links  [?]
Citable Version  [?]
 
This editable Main Article is under development and not meant to be cited; by editing it you can help to improve it towards a future approved, citable version. These unapproved articles are subject to a disclaimer.
Template:Dablink

Occitan—also called Lenga d'Òc, Langue d'Oc or Provençal—(in its own language: occitan,[1] lenga d'òc[2] and sometimes provençau/provençal[3]) is a Romance language spoken in a territory called Occitania, which comprises southern France, Monaco, part of Italy (the Occitan Valleys) and part of Spain (the Aran Valley).

This minority language has the status of an official language in Spain (see Aranese Occitan)[4] and of a protected language in Italy.[5] It has no official status in France, nor in Monaco. Its usage is quite limited compared to dominant state languages such as French, Italian and Spanish.

Nowadays, Occitan enjoys a dynamic movement of cultural defense and modern creativity, especially in literature and music. Occitan literature has been famous and uninterrupted since the 10th century,[6] including the troubadours of the Middle Ages, a baroque period, Frederic Mistral's Nobel prize in 1904 and a constant renewal nowadays.[7]

The main Occitan dialects are Provençal (including Niçard), Vivaro-Alpine, Auvernhat, Lemosin, Gascon and Lengadocian.[8] All of them are integrated into and respected in the ongoing standardization process.

Catalan is extremely close to Occitan.

Classification

Among the Romance languages, the closest relative of Occitan is Catalan. According to linguist Bierre Bec,[9] Occitan and Catalan form a very compact Romance subgroup, and even a common diasystem, called Occitano-Romance. It is an overlap of (or a bridge between) two larger Romance subgroups: Gallo-Romance (including French, Francoprovençal, Romansh, Ladin, Friulian and Northern Italian) and Ibero-Romance (including Aragonese, Spanish, Asturian-Leonese and Galician-Portuguese). It has to be said that Aragonese is more and more viewed as a bridge between Occitano-Romance and Ibero-Romance proper.[10]

The term Lenga d'Òc is misleadingly associated with the term Langue d'Oïl (that is French). Therefore many people believe erroneously that Lenga d'Òc and Langue d'Oïl would be the two faces of a same, common language which would be 'French'. In fact, all linguists agree that Occitan does not belong to French and is very much closer to Catalan. The Òc-Oïl false myth is a late distorsion of Dante's old comparison between three languages for literary purposes: Italian ('language of sì'), Occitan ('language of òc') and French ('language of oïl') (see name).

Name

Occitan is nowadays the most frequently used name for the language. It appeared between 1290 and 1300[11], perhaps as early as 1271[12] in texts written in Latin under forms such as occitanus, lingua occitana, simultaneously with the territory name Occitania (Occitania in Latin and English, Occitània in Occitan). It is thought that Occitania was created from òc (that is lenga d'òc) and the ending of the territory name [Aqu]itania. The terms Occitan and Occitania used to belong to a learned register for a long time but they have gained a wide usage since the second half of the 20th century.

The term Lenga d'Òc, that is 'language of òc', may be said in English Lenga d'Òc as in Occitan or Langue d'Oc as in French. Lenga d'Òc appeared in texts in 1291[13] and is the likely etymology of Oc[citan]. Notably, Lenga d'Òc was spread from De vulgari eloquentia (1303-1305), the famous essay of Italian writer Dante Alighieri, where three Romance languages were identified by the way of saying 'yes': 'language of òc' (Occitan), 'language of sì' (Italian) and 'language of oïl' (French).

The term Provençal (provençau, provençal in Modern Occitan; proençal, proensal in Old Occitan) appeared around 1240.[14] It referred to the medieval remembrance of the large Roman territory called Provincia Romana which encompassed Provence and Languedoc, that is a large part of Occitania. Italian authors, which were influenced by the high prestige of Medieval Occitan, helped the spread of the name Provençal since Provence is the closest region of Occitania from an Italian perspective. In traditional Romance linguistics, Provençal was the most used term for the whole language before it was replaced by Occitan in the second half of the 20th century. A large part of Occitan-speaking people do not live in Provence and therefore can hardly identify themselves as 'Provençal-speakers', so the spread of the term 'Occitan' has been viewed as a more neutral naming solution which does not favors any particular region. Nowadays, the term Provençal is mostly used to designate the Occitan dialect of Provence rather than the whole Occitan language.

The following terms are no longer in use to designate Occitan as a whole.

  • Some medieval authors, especially of the 13th century, also called the language roman, lenga romana. It was a way of highlighting the rise of Occitan ('Roman') as a prestigious, written language in front of 'Latin'. Roman underlined the clear consciousness of the Romance origin of Occitan at this time, albeit comparative linguistics did not exist yet.
  • The term Lemosin (lemosin in Modern occitan; lemosin, lemosi in Old Occitan) appeared between 1190 and 1213.[15] It was used mostly during the 13th century because some famous troubadours were originary from Limousin. During the 18th and the 19th century, some learned persons took again the name llemosí in order to call the Catalan language in reference to the role of medieval Occitan in the birth of Catalan literature. Nowadays Lemosin only designates the Occitan dialect of Limousin and northern Périgord.
  • The term Gascon used to designate sometimes the whole Occitan language during the 16th, 17th and 18th centuries.[16] At this time, Gascony was a major center of Occitan literature and Gascon people used to represent more or less Southern France (that is Occitania) in the eyes of northern French people. Nowadays Gascon only designates the Occitan dialect of Gascony and Bearn.

Footnotes

  1. Occitan is pronounced [utsiˈta] or regionally [uksiˈtaⁿ, ukʃiˈtɔ, uksiˈtɔ, uksiˈta].
  2. Lenga d'òc is pronounced [ˈleŋgɔ ˈðɔ(k)] or regionally [ˈleⁿgɔ ˈdɔ, ˈleⁿga ˈdɔk, ˈlɪⁿgɔ ˈdɔ].
  3. Provençau or provençal, according to the regions, is pronounced [pʀuveⁿˈsaw] or [pruveⁿˈsaw, pruβenˈsaw, pruβenˈsal, pruveⁿˈsal, pruvɪⁿˈsal].
  4. Act no. 16 of 1990 (Regim especiau dera Val d'Aran / Special Regime of Aran Valley) and Act no. 1 of 1998 (Lei de politica linguistica / Language Policy Act), both in the autonomous region of Catalonia; see here.
  5. Act no. 482 of 1999 in Italy (Norme in materia di tutela delle minoranze linguistiche storiche / Norms Concerning the Protection of Historical Language Minorities), see here.
  6. LAFONT Robert, & ANATOLE Christian (1970) Nouvelle histoire de la littérature occitane, coll. Publications de l’Institut d’Études Occitanes, Paris: Presses Universitaires de France, 2 vol.
  7. KIRSCH F. Peter, & KREMNITZ Georg, & SCHLIEBEN-LANGE Brigitte (2002) Petite histoire sociale de la langue occitane: usages, images, literature, grammaires et dictionnaires, coll. Cap al Sud, 66140 Canet: Trabucaire.
  8. BEC Pierre (1973) Manuel pratique d’occitan moderne, coll. Connaissance des langues, Paris: Picard.
  9. BEC Pierre (1995) La langue occitane, coll. Que sais-je? n° 1059, Paris: Presses Universitaires de France, p. 6.
  10. See Sociedat de Lingüistica Aragonesa: "The main goals of the SLA are to contribute to a better knowledge of the Aragonese area, in a close, historical interaction with the Catalan and Gascon domains." ["Son finalidaz principals de la SLA contribuir a un millor conoiximiento de l'espacio aragonés, en estreita interaccion historica con los ámbitos catalan i gascon."]
  11. LAFONT Robèrt (1986) “La nominacion indirècta dels païses”, Revue des langues romanes 2, vol. XC: 161-171
  12. LODGE R. A. (1993) French, from dialect to standard, London / New York: Routledge, p. 96 — Quoted in: MULJAČIĆ Žarko (1997) “Perché i glottonimi linguaggio italiano, lingua italiana (e sim.) appaiono per indicare ‘oggetti’ reali e non soltanto auspicati molto più tardi di altri termini analoghi che si riferiscono a varie lingue gallo e ibero-romanze?”, Cuadernos de filología italiana 4: 253-264
  13. LODGE R. A. (1993) French, from dialect to standard, London / New York: Routledge, p. 96 — Quoted in: MULJAČIĆ Žarko (1997) “Perché i glottonimi linguaggio italiano, lingua italiana (e sim.) appaiono per indicare ‘oggetti’ reali e non soltanto auspicati molto più tardi di altri termini analoghi che si riferiscono a varie lingue gallo e ibero-romanze?”, Cuadernos de filología italiana 4: 253-264
  14. SCHLIEBEN-LANGE Brigitte (1991): "Okzitanisch: Grammatikographie und Lexikographie", Lexikon der Romanistichen Linguistik V, 2: 105-126 (p. 111) — Quoted in: MULJAČIĆ Žarko (1997) “Perché i glottonimi linguaggio italiano, lingua italiana (e sim.) appaiono per indicare ‘oggetti’ reali e non soltanto auspicati molto più tardi di altri termini analoghi che si riferiscono a varie lingue gallo e ibero-romanze?”, Cuadernos de filología italiana 4: 253-264
  15. SCHLIEBEN-LANGE Brigitte (1991): "Okzitanisch: Grammatikographie und Lexikographie", Lexikon der Romanistichen Linguistik V, 2: 105-126 (p. 111) — Quoted in: MULJAČIĆ Žarko (1997) “Perché i glottonimi linguaggio italiano, lingua italiana (e sim.) appaiono per indicare ‘oggetti’ reali e non soltanto auspicati molto più tardi di altri termini analoghi che si riferiscono a varie lingue gallo e ibero-romanze?”, Cuadernos de filología italiana 4: 253-264
  16. GARDY Philippe (2001) "Les noms de l'occitan / Nommer l'occitan", in: BOYER Henri, & GARDY Philippe (2001) (dir.) Dix siècles d’usages et d’images de l’occitan: des troubadours à l’Internet, coll. Sociolinguistique, Paris: L’Harmattan, p. 43-60