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New York (state)
From Citizendium, the Citizens' Compendium
New York is a state in the northeastern United States and has an estimated population of 18,976,457 people (as of the year 2000.) Albany is the state's capital, although New York City is the largest city in the state. Also, New York was one of the original Thirteen Colonies. The current governor of New York is David Paterson, a Democrat.
New York used to be the most populous state but has been superseded by California and Texas.
The state of New York has multiple modes of transportation. Both the local and state government build and maintain public roads. The federal government funds local and state roads as well as the interstate highway system. Most highways in New York do not charge toll. There are a number of toll bridges. The highway system operated by the state and local governments comprise more than 113,000 miles and over 16,000 bridges. 
Larger cities as well as many smaller cities are served by publically owned airports. The New York (city) area is served by multiple airports that have airline service including John F. Kennedy International Airport, LaGuardia Airport, Newark Liberty International Airport (owned and operated by the Port Authority of New York and New Jersey but located in the state of New Jersey), Long Island MacArthur Airport, Westchester County Airport, and Stewart International Airport. Scheduled helicopter service exists from some of the New York City area airports.
Some airlines operate or have operated hubs in New York. Empire Airlines operated a hub in Syracuse but the routes were largely abandoned when the airline was acquired by Piedmont Airlines which, itself, was acquired by US Airways.  Delta Airlines operates a hub at John F. Kennedy International Airport. 
Some parts of the state have extensive passenger railroad service. Amtrak, the federally owned company, has extensive service in the northeastern United States between Boston and Washington, D.C. Amtrak also operates New York-Albany-Buffalo service. There are also state owned passenger railroad systems such as Metro North, LIRR, PATH, and New Jersey Transit. New York state has 4,600 miles of railway, though some of it is not used for passenger use. 
Some of the larger cities have bus systems. New York (city) operated the first subway in the United States. Buffalo and Syracuse have light rail service within the city.
In 1825, the Erie Canal was opened allowing maritime travel between Lake Erie and the Hudson River, which leads to the Atlantic Ocean. Passenger ship and ferry travel exists in a limited form in New York. There is ferry service in New York (city) between Manhattan and Staten Island as well as between Long Island and the state of Connecticut. Some cruise ships dock in New York (city).
Early National Era 1783-1820
Erie Canal and Westward expansion
Civil War and Gilded Age, 1850-1900
Progressive Era, 1900-1928
Depression and War, 1929-1945
Postwar Boom, 1945-1972
Rustbelt Era, 1973-2007
Government and politics
The chief executive of New York state is the governor. The legislative branch of New York is bicameral, comprises of the State Senate and the State Assembly. The highest court of law in New York is the Court of Appeals.
Overall, the state leans Democratic, but the upstate portion is very conservative and safely Republican. The current governor of New York is David Paterson, a Democrat and the first African-American to serve the post. The two senators representing the state in Congress are Charles Schumer and Hillary Clinton, both Democrats.
Two prestigious Ivy League universities are situated in New York state. They are Cornell University and Columbia University. The state is also the home of many other respected private colleges and universities, such as New York University, Vassar College, and Hamilton College. A state-operated State University of New York system runs the public institutions of higher education in New York.
- Blond, Becca, and China Williams. Lonely Planet New York State (2004) excerpt and online search from Amazon.com
- Eisenstadt, Peter, Laura-Eve Moss, and Carole F. Huxley, eds. The Encyclopedia Of New York State (2005) 1900 pages of articles by experts.
- Ellis, David M., James A. Frost, Harold C. Syrett, and Harry J. Carman. A History of New York State. Rev. ed. Cornell University Press, 1967.
- Ellis, David M., James A. Frost, and William B. Fink. New York: The Empire State . 4th ed. Prentice-Hall, 1975.
- Flick, Alexander C. (ed.). History of the State of New York. 10 vol, 1933–37
- Galie, Peter J. Ordered Liberty: A Constitutional History of New York (1996) online edition
- Hedrick, U.P. A History of Agriculture in the State of New York (1983)
- Jackson, Kenneth T. ed, The Encyclopedia of New York City (1995)
- Klein, Milton M., ed. The Empire State: A History of New York. Cornell University Press, 2001. the latest scholarly overview excerpts and online search from Amazon.com
- Roberts, Ellis Henry. New York: The Planting and the Growth of the Empire State (1904), survey to 1900 online from books.google.com
- Thompson, J. H. ed., The Geography of New York State (rev. ed. 1977)
- Alexander, De Alva Stanwood, A Political History of the State of New York (1906) 4 vol; detailed narrative historyonline Vol I 1774-1832
- Becker, Carl Becker. The History of Political Parties in the Province of New York, 1760-1776. (1909). online edition online at books.google.com
- Bonomi, Patricia U. A Factious People: Politics and Society in Colonial New York. 1971. online edition
- Brooks, Charles E. Frontier Settlement and Market Revolution: The Holland Land Purchase (1996) online edition
- Countryman, Edward. A People In Revolution: The American Revolution and Political Society in New York, 1760-1790. 1981.
- DePauw, Linda. The Eleventh Pillar: New York State and the Federal Constitution. Cornell Univ. Press, 1966.
- Fox, Dixon Ryan. The Decline of the Aristocracy in the Politics of New York. Columbia Univ. Press, 1919.
- Gerlach, Don R. Philip Schuyler and the American Revolution in New York, 1733-1777 (1964) online edition
- Hanyan, Craig, and Mary L. Hanyan. De Witt Clinton and the Rise of the People's Men (1996) online edition
- Jacobs, Jaap. New Netherland: A Dutch Colony in Seventeenth-Century America (2005) online edition
- Kammen, Michael. Colonial New York: A History. 1975.
- Kenney, Alice P. Stubborn for Liberty: The Dutch in New York.Syracuse University Press, 1975.
- Kim, Sung Bok, Landlord and Tenant in Colonial New York: Manorial Society 1664-1775 (1978)
- McManus, Edgar J - A History of Negro Slavery in New York (1966)
- Ritchie, Robert C. The Duke's Province: A Study of New York Politics and Society, 1664-1691 (1977) online edition
- Spaulding, E. Wilder. New York in the Critical Period, 1781-1789. Columbia Univ. Press, 1932.
- Young, Alfred F. The Democratic Republicans of New York: The Origins, 1763-1797. U. of North Carolina Press, 1967.
- Alexander, De Alva Stanwood, A Political History of the State of New York (1906) 4 vol; detailed narrative historyonline Vol I 1774-1832, online Vol II 1833-1861 online Vol III 1861-1882
- Bruegel, Martin. Farm, Shop, Landing: The Rise of a Market Society in the Hudson Valley, 1780-1860 (2002)
- Cross, Whitney R. The Burned Over District: The Social and Intellectual History of Enthusiastic Religion in Western New York, 1800-1850 (1950)
- Gosnell, Harold F. Boss Platt and His New York Machine: A Study of the Political Leadership of Thomas C. Platt, Theodore Roosevelt, and Others (1924) online edition
- Huston, Reeve. Land and Freedom: Rural Society, Popular Protest, and Party Politics in Antebellum New York (2000) online edition
- Kaminski, John P. George Clinton: Yeoman Politician of the New Republic (1993)
- McCurdy, Charles W. The Anti-Rent Era in New York Law and Politics, 1839-1865 (2001) online edition
- Niven, John. Martin Van Buren: The Romantic Age of American Politics (1983)
- Shaw, Ronald E. Erie Water West: A History of the Erie Canal, 1792-1854. (University of Kentucky Press, 1966)
- Van Dusen, Glyndon, William Henry Seward (1967)
- Yellowitz, Irwin. Labor and the Progressive Movement in New York State, 1897-1916. . online edition
- Bellush, Bernard; Franklin D. Roosevelt as Governor of New York (1955) online
- Brown, Phil. In the Catskills: A Century of Jewish Experience in "The Mountains" (2002) online edition
- Connery, Robert H. and Gerald Benjamin. Governing New York State: The Rockefeller Years, (1974) online.
- Davis Kenneth S. FDR: The New York Years, 1928-1933. 1979.
- Doig, Jameson W. Empire on the Hudson: Entrepreneurial Vision and Political Power at the Port of New York Authority (2000) online edition
- Galie, Peter J.; Ordered Liberty: A Constitutional History of New York (1996)
- Gallagher, Jay. The Politics of Decline, A Chronicle of New York's Descent and What You Can Do To Save Your State (2005), conservative critique
- Hartzwell, Karl Drew The Empire State at War: World War II (19490 online edition
- Ingalls, Robert P. Herbert H. Lehman and New York's Little New Deal (1975) online edition
- Liebschutz, Sarah F., Robert W. Bailey, Jeffrey M. Stonecash, Joseph F. Zimmerman, and Jane Shapiro Zacek; New York Politics & Government: Competition and Compassion (1998) textbook online
- McClelland, Peter D., and Alan L. Magdovitz, Crisis in the Making: The Political Economy of New York State since 1945 (1981)
- McElvaine Robert S. Mario Cuomo: A Biography. 1988.
- Marlin, George J. Squandered Opportunities: New York's Pataki Years (2006) by Conservative party activist
- Moscow Warren. Politics in the Empire State. 1948.
- Munger Frank J., and Ralph A. Straitz. New York Politics. 1960.
- Mumpower,Jeryl L., and Warren F. Ilchman, New York State in the Year 2000 (1988)
- New York State Writers' Program; New York: A Guide to the Empire State (1940) famous guidebook by WPA online
- Pecorella, Robert F., and Jeffrey M. Stonecash. Governing New York State (2006) excerpt and online search from Amazon.com
- Slayton, Robert A. Empire Statesman: The Rise and Redemption of Al Smith (2001) excerpts and online search from Amazon.com
- Smith, Richard Norton. Thomas E. Dewey and His Times. 1982,
- Spitzer, Robert J. The Right to Life Movement and Third Party Politics (1987) online edition
- Stonecash, Jeffrey M., John K. White, and Peter W. Colby, eds., Governing New York State (1994)
- Thompson, John Henry. The Geography of New York State (1977)
- Ward, Robert B. New York State Government (2nd ed 2006), 512pp
- Zeller, Belle; Pressure Politics in New York: A Study of Group Representation before the Legislature (1937) online
- online books on New York
- New York History Net
- New York State Historical Association
- New York State History, a journal sponsored by SUNY-Albany
- New York Local Histories (over 300)
- Annotated Bibliography of Selected New York State Maps: 1793-1900
- The Crooked Lake Review A New York history journal with numerous articles online
- 1911 Britannica article "New York"
- ↑ https://www.nysdot.gov/portal/page/portal/about-nysdot/history/past-present
- ↑ http://www.usairways.com/awa/content/aboutus/pressroom/history/chronology.aspx
- ↑ http://newsblaze.com/story/2006072806261200001.pz/topstory.html
- ↑ https://www.nysdot.gov/portal/page/portal/about-nysdot/history/past-present
- ↑ In New York, the "Supreme Court of New York", despite its name, is one of the lowest state courts.