Citizendium - a community developing a quality comprehensive compendium of knowledge, online and free. Click here to join and contribute—free
Many thanks June 2014 donors; special to Darren Duncan. July 2014 donations open; need minimum total $100. Let's exceed that. Donate here. Donating gifts yourself and CZ. -- June 2014 Election Results --




Lumbalgia

From Citizendium, the Citizens' Compendium

(Difference between revisions)
Jump to: navigation, search
m (Surgery)
m (Surgery)
Line 129: Line 129:
Some of the more common forms of surgery are:<ref name=pmid12065987>{{cite journal | author = Birkmeyer N, Weinstein J, Tosteson A, Tosteson T, Skinner J, Lurie J, Deyo R, Wennberg J | title = Design of the Spine Patient outcomes Research Trial (SPORT). | journal = Spine | volume = 27 | issue = 12 | pages = 1361-72 | year = 2002 | id = PMID 12065987}}</ref>
Some of the more common forms of surgery are:<ref name=pmid12065987>{{cite journal | author = Birkmeyer N, Weinstein J, Tosteson A, Tosteson T, Skinner J, Lurie J, Deyo R, Wennberg J | title = Design of the Spine Patient outcomes Research Trial (SPORT). | journal = Spine | volume = 27 | issue = 12 | pages = 1361-72 | year = 2002 | id = PMID 12065987}}</ref>
-
* [[Artificial disc replacement]], a relatively new form of surgery in the U.S. but has been in use in Europe for decades, primarily used to treat low back pain from a [[degenerative disc disease|degenerated disc]].  
+
* [[Artificial disc replacement]], a relatively new form of surgery in the U.S. but has been in use in Europe for decades, primarily used to treat low back pain from a [[degenerative disc disease|degenerated disck]].  
-
* [[Discectomy]]/microdiscectomy, usually used to treat pain (especially pain that radiates down the arm or leg) from [[herniated disc]]s.
+
* [[Discectomy]]/microdiscectomy, usually used to treat pain (especially pain that radiates down the arm or leg) from [[herniated disk]]s.
* [[Kyphoplasty]] and [[Vertebroplasty]], minimally invasive procedures designed to treat pain from osteoporotic compression fractures and sometimes other forms of fracture, such as a fracture caused by certain types of cancer.
* [[Kyphoplasty]] and [[Vertebroplasty]], minimally invasive procedures designed to treat pain from osteoporotic compression fractures and sometimes other forms of fracture, such as a fracture caused by certain types of cancer.

Revision as of 19:16, 5 November 2008

This article is developing and not approved.
Main Article
Talk
Related Articles  [?]
Bibliography  [?]
External Links  [?]
Citable Version  [?]
 
This editable Main Article is under development and not meant to be cited; by editing it you can help to improve it towards a future approved, citable version. These unapproved articles are subject to a disclaimer.

Lumbalgia is the medical term for the more common lay discription of low back pain or lower back pain. It is used to describe a symptom related to the lower section of the human spine. Persistant and recurring low back pain affects 60 - 80% of people at some stage in their life and is the most common reason for lost work.[1]

Low back pain varies in intensity, frequency, duration, and quality depending on the cause and stage of injury or illness as well as the time of day and activity level. It is considered either acute (of recent origin) or chronic (longer term) in nature, though these give little insight as to a particular cause of the pain. The degree of pain ranges from a mild annoyance that comes and goes to constant and totally disabling.

Contents

Etymology

"Lumbalgia" derives from the Latin "Lumbaris" referring to the lower or loin region of the body and "algia" is from the Greek "algos" for pain.

Background

The low back performs two major functions; to act as a weight bearing column that supports upright posture and to act as a conduit that protects the spinal cord and the tender nervous system that tranmits through it. As a supporting structure, it carries the weight of the upper torso including the head, arms, thorax, and abdominal contents. Impact forces from actions such as walking or jumping multiply these forces exponentially.

The structures of the adult low back consist of the lower five verterbae along with the ligaments, discs and muscles that support it. Together they are identified as the lumbar region of the spine and are frequently labeled L1 to L5. The range of movement that occurs at the lumbar level combined with flexion of the hips is responsible for the majority of the total range of motion necessary for bending. The lumbar spine sits atop the sacrum which is a wedge shaped bone that rests into a space formed by the left and right innominate bones. The innominates are divided into the ilium, ischium and pubis and, with its attached musculature, make up the pelvic girdle that acts to connect the leg to the torso. Together with the sacrum, the left and right innominates wrap around to the lower abdominal region, creating a "bowl" that supports the organs contained within the abdomen. The joint between the sacrum and each innominate (sacroiliac joint) allows for slight motion with walking and bending. The sacrum and innominates together with their supporting ligaments and muscles are referred to as the pelvis. The resulting circle-like formation is commonly called the pelvic ring. For the lay person, the combination of the lumbar and pelvic regions are effectively called the low back. Low back pain can be generated from injury to any or all of the joints, muscles, ligaments or nerves that make up the region as well as organs in the pelvic bowl that get their nerve supply from the low back.

For the purposes of understanding the causes of low back pain, it is important to note that all pain is a perception of the person that is experiencing it. These perceptions are the result of an intricate relationship between the nerve endings that monitor the condition of the tissues and send that information to the higher centers of the brain where the conscious perception actually occurs. The vast majority of the nerve endings are in the ligaments, muscle and outer layer of the disc tissues that support the boney structures. While bones have a thin 'skin' or periosteum that has a plentiful nerve supply, the bones themselves do not. This is also the case of the inner portions of the disc.

Causes

The majority of acute causes of low back pain are grouped as mechanical type injuries to the ligaments, muscles and joints that are responsible for the function of the vertebral column. The injury may be the result of one traumatic event or multiple, repetitive type traumas. If the cause of these mechanical conditions persist, the pain may develop into a chronic low back pain with a change in symptom quality and frequency depending on the type of structures that become affected, such as discs and nerves. These include diagnoses such as osteoarthritis, degeneration of the discs or a spinal disc herniation.

Some cases of low back pain are related to systemic conditions that affect other regions of the body such as rheumatoid arthritis or cardivascular disease, while a small percentage are caused by tumors (including cancer). There are psychological or emotional components of all disease and low back pain is no exception.

Possible causes of low back pain:

Diagnosis

Often, getting a diagnosis of the underlying cause of low back pain and/or related symptoms, such as sciatica, is quite complex. A complete diagnosis is usually made through a combination of a patient's medical history, physical examination, and, when necessary, diagnostic testing, such as an magnetic resonance imaging or x-ray.[2] However, a randomized controlled trial of routinely obtaining an MRI scan in back pain showed no benefit but increased costs.[3]

History and physical examination

The goal of the history and physical examination is to place the patient into one of three categories:[4]

Nonspecific low back pain

"nonspecific low back pain"

Possible radiculopathy or spinal stenosis

"Back pain potentially associated with radiculopathy or spinal stenosis (suggested by the presence of sciatica or pseudoclaudication)"[4] These patients may have a positive straight leg raise sign.

Other specific spinal causes

"Back pain potentially associated with another specific spinal cause. The latter category includes the small proportion of patients with serious or progressive neurologic deficits or underlying conditions requiring prompt evaluation (such as tumor, infection, or the cauda equina syndrome), as well as patients with other conditions that may respond to specific treatments (such as ankylosing spondylitis or vertebral compression fracture)."

Non-spinal causes

Sometimes back pain may be pain radiating from another location.

MRI scan and CT scan

"MRI or CT is recommended in patients who have severe or progressive neurologic deficits or are suspected of having a serious underlying condition (such as vertebral infection, the cauda equina syndrome, or cancer with impending spinal cord compression)". Obtaining MRI scan for lesser reasons may lead to increased costs of unnecessary tests, unnecessary follow-up, and possibly even unnecessary treatment of incidental findings [3]

Treatment

The management goals when treating back pain are to achieve maximal reduction in pain intensity as rapidly as possible; to restore the individual's ability to function in everyday activities; to help the patient cope with residual pain; to assess for side effects of therapy; and to facilitate the patient's passage through the legal and socioeconomic impediments to recovery.

Not all treatments work for all conditions or for all individuals with the same condition, and many find that they need to try several treatment options to determine what works best for them. When evaluating treatment options, concepts utilized in Evidence based medicine can help determine which treatments that might be appropriate. Systematic reviews of medical evidence by the Cochrane Collaboration and systematic review-based clinical practice guidelines American College of Physicians[4][5][6][7] are available to guide treatment choices. Listed alphabetically, some of those evaluations include:

Home or Outpatient

Nondrug treatments

  • Acupuncture has a similar benefit for chronic back pain as other therapies in the short term and shows promise for 1 to 2 year follow up.[8][9]
  • Heat therapy is useful for back spasms or other conditions in acute or subacute situations.[10]
  • Exercises, whether performed individually or under supervision of a professional, are generally believed to be an essential component of most back treatment programs. However, exercises are effective for chronic back pain, but not for acute pain. Back-mobilizing exercises in acute settings are less effective than continuation of ordinary activities as tolerated, though there is some evidence that when part of a 'back school', exercises can improve back pain.[11][12][13][4]
  • Massage has shown some benefit for patients with subacute and chronic non-specific low-back pain, especially when combined with exercises and education.[14].
  • Mobilization does not seem to add to standard treatment of acute lumbalgia[22] and is less effective than manipulation.[23]
  • Respondent-cognitive therapy and progressive relaxation therapy can reduce chronic pain as well as exercise therapy.[24][5].
  • Work place and home habit modifications help most people through assessing any ergonomic or postural factors that may contribute to their back pain, such as improper lifting technique, poor posture, or poor support from their bed or office chair, etc.[13].
  • Yoga either Viniyoga[25], Iyengar[26], or Hatha[27] might help with the best evidence, albeit only fair-quality evidence, supporting Viniyoga.[5]

Medications

Combination therapies

Difficulties in treating chronic back pain have to lead to investigations of combined modalities. One trial found some benefit from combining exercise with cognitive behavioral therapy. [34]

Surgery

There are a number of different types of spine surgery to treat a variety of back conditions. Surgery should be considered if a patient has a significant neurological deficit, or if they fail non-surgical therapy. There is particular concern if back pain is associated with loss of bowel or bladder function and may indicate Cauda equina syndrome or Conus medularis syndrome. Urgent surgical considerations are necessary for these conditions.

Some of the more common forms of surgery are:[35]

  • Discectomy/microdiscectomy, usually used to treat pain (especially pain that radiates down the arm or leg) from herniated disks.
  • Kyphoplasty and Vertebroplasty, minimally invasive procedures designed to treat pain from osteoporotic compression fractures and sometimes other forms of fracture, such as a fracture caused by certain types of cancer.
  • Laminectomy, removes a portion of the bone to relieve pressure on the spinal nerve from behind.
  • Spinal cord stimulation, where an electrical device is used to interrupt the pain signals being sent to the brain.

Treatments with uncertain or doubtful benefit

  • Cold compression therapy is advocated for a strained back or chronic back pain and is postulated to reduce pain and inflammation, especially after strenuous exercise such as golf, gardening, or lifting. However, a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials by the Cochrane Collaboration concluded "The evidence for the application of cold treatment to low-back pain is even more limited, with only three poor quality studies located. No conclusions can be drawn about the use of cold for low-back pain" [10]
  • Bed rest is rarely recommended as it can exacerbate symptoms [38], and when necessary is usually limited to one or two days.

Prognosis

Criteria by the United States Social Security Administration for disability are available on line.[39]

Prevention

In some setting, lumbar supports may be able to prevent back pain.[40]

References

  1. Waddell G, Burton AK(2000) Occupational health guidelines for the management of low back pain at work: evidence review. London:Faculty of Occupational Medicine. PDF version
  2. Ullrich PE (2007). What's a Herniated Disc, Pinched Nerve, Bulging Disc. . . ? - Spine-health.com. Retrieved on 2007-11-09.
  3. 3.0 3.1 Jarvik JG, Hollingworth W, Martin B, et al (2003). "Rapid magnetic resonance imaging vs radiographs for patients with low back pain: a randomized controlled trial". JAMA 289 (21): 2810–8. DOI:10.1001/jama.289.21.2810. PMID 12783911. Research Blogging.
  4. 4.0 4.1 4.2 4.3 Chou R, Qaseem A, Snow V, et al (2007). "Diagnosis and treatment of low back pain: a joint clinical practice guideline from the American College of Physicians and the American Pain Society". Ann. Intern. Med. 147 (7): 478–91. PMID 17909209[e]
  5. 5.0 5.1 5.2 5.3 Chou R, Huffman LH (2007). "Nonpharmacologic therapies for acute and chronic low back pain: a review of the evidence for an American Pain Society/American College of Physicians clinical practice guideline". Ann. Intern. Med. 147 (7): 492–504. PMID 17909210[e]
  6. 6.0 6.1 6.2 6.3 Chou R, Huffman LH (2007). "Medications for acute and chronic low back pain: a review of the evidence for an American Pain Society/American College of Physicians clinical practice guideline". Ann. Intern. Med. 147 (7): 505–14. PMID 17909211[e]
  7. (2007) "Summaries for patients. Diagnosis and treatment of low back pain: recommendations from the American College of Physicians/American Pain Society". Ann. Intern. Med. 147 (7): I45. PMID 17909203[e]
  8. Furlan A, van Tulder M, Cherkin D, Tsukayama H, Lao L, Koes B, Berman B. "Acupuncture and dry-needling for low back pain.". Cochrane Database Syst Rev: CD001351. PMID 15674876.
  9. Thomas K, MacPherson H, Thorpe L, Brazier J, Fitter M, Campbell M, Roman M, Walters S, Nicholl J (2006). "Randomised controlled trial of a short course of traditional acupuncture compared with usual care for persistent non-specific low back pain.". BMJ 333 (7569): 623. PMID 16980316.
  10. 10.0 10.1 French SD, Cameron M, Walker BF, Reggars JW, Esterman AJ (2006). "A Cochrane review of superficial heat or cold for low back pain". Spine 31 (9): 998-1006. DOI:10.1097/01.brs.0000214881.10814.64. PMID 16641776. Research Blogging.
    A meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials by the Cochrane Collaboration concluded that heat therapy can reduce symptoms of acute and sub-acute low-back pain
  11. Hayden J, van Tulder M, Malmivaara A, Koes B. "Exercise therapy for treatment of non-specific low back pain.". Cochrane Database Syst Rev: CD000335. PMID 16034851.
  12. Malmivaara A, Häkkinen U, Aro T, Heinrichs M, Koskenniemi L, Kuosma E, Lappi S, Paloheimo R, Servo C, Vaaranen V (1995). "The treatment of acute low back pain--bed rest, exercises, or ordinary activity?". N Engl J Med 332 (6): 351-5. PMID 7823996.
  13. 13.0 13.1 Heymans M, van Tulder M, Esmail R, Bombardier C, Koes B. "Back schools for non-specific low-back pain.". Cochrane Database Syst Rev: CD000261. PMID 15494995.
  14. Furlan A, Brosseau L, Imamura M, Irvin E. "Massage for low back pain.". Cochrane Database Syst Rev: CD001929. PMID 12076429.
  15. Andersson GB, Lucente T, Davis AM, Kappler RE, Lipton JA, Leurgans S (1999). "A comparison of osteopathic spinal manipulation with standard care for patients with low back pain". N. Engl. J. Med. 341 (19): 1426–31. PMID 10547405[e]
  16. Assendelft W, Morton S, Yu E, Suttorp M, Shekelle P. "Spinal manipulative therapy for low back pain.". Cochrane Database Syst Rev: CD000447. PMID 14973958.
  17. Cherkin D, Sherman K, Deyo R, Shekelle P (2003). "A review of the evidence for the effectiveness, safety, and cost of acupuncture, massage therapy, and spinal manipulation for back pain.". Ann Intern Med 138 (11): 898-906. PMID 12779300.
  18. Assendelft WJ, Morton SC, Yu EI, Suttorp MJ, Shekelle PG (2003). "Spinal manipulative therapy for low back pain. A meta-analysis of effectiveness relative to other therapies". Ann. Intern. Med. 138 (11): 871–81. PMID 12779297[e]
  19. 19.0 19.1 Shekelle PG, Adams AH, Chassin MR, Hurwitz EL, Brook RH (1992). "Spinal manipulation for low-back pain". Ann. Intern. Med. 117 (7): 590–8. PMID 1388006[e]
  20. Waddell G, Newton M, Henderson I, Somerville D, Main CJ (1993). "A Fear-Avoidance Beliefs Questionnaire (FABQ) and the role of fear-avoidance beliefs in chronic low back pain and disability". Pain 52 (2): 157–68. PMID 8455963[e]
  21. Childs JD, Fritz JM, Flynn TW, et al (2004). "A clinical prediction rule to identify patients with low back pain most likely to benefit from spinal manipulation: a validation study". Ann. Intern. Med. 141 (12): 920–8. PMID 15611489[e]
  22. Hancock MJ, Maher CG, Latimer J, et al (2007). "Assessment of diclofenac or spinal manipulative therapy, or both, in addition to recommended first-line treatment for acute low back pain: a randomised controlled trial". Lancet 370 (9599): 1638–43. DOI:10.1016/S0140-6736(07)61686-9. PMID 17993364. Research Blogging.
  23. Hadler NM, Curtis P, Gillings DB, Stinnett S (1987). "A benefit of spinal manipulation as adjunctive therapy for acute low-back pain: a stratified controlled trial". Spine 12 (7): 702–6. PMID 2961085[e]
  24. Ostelo R, van Tulder M, Vlaeyen J, Linton S, Morley S, Assendelft W. "Behavioural treatment for chronic low-back pain.". Cochrane Database Syst Rev: CD002014. PMID 15674889.
  25. Sherman KJ, Cherkin DC, Erro J, Miglioretti DL, Deyo RA (2005). "Comparing yoga, exercise, and a self-care book for chronic low back pain: a randomized, controlled trial". Ann. Intern. Med. 143 (12): 849–56. PMID 16365466[e]
  26. Williams KA, Petronis J, Smith D, et al (2005). "Effect of Iyengar yoga therapy for chronic low back pain". Pain 115 (1-2): 107–17. DOI:10.1016/j.pain.2005.02.016. PMID 15836974. Research Blogging.
  27. Galantino ML, Bzdewka TM, Eissler-Russo JL, et al (2004). "The impact of modified Hatha yoga on chronic low back pain: a pilot study". Alternative therapies in health and medicine 10 (2): 56–9. PMID 15055095[e]
  28. Hancock MJ, Maher CG, Latimer J, et al (2007). "Assessment of diclofenac or spinal manipulative therapy, or both, in addition to recommended first-line treatment for acute low back pain: a randomised controlled trial". Lancet 370 (9599): 1638–43. DOI:10.1016/S0140-6736(07)61686-9. PMID 17993364. Research Blogging.
  29. van Tulder M, Touray T, Furlan A, Solway S, Bouter L. "Muscle relaxants for non-specific low back pain.". Cochrane Database Syst Rev: CD004252. PMID 12804507.
  30. Urquhart D, Hoving J, Assendelft W, Roland M, van Tulder M (2008). "Antidepressants for non-specific low back pain". Cochrane Database Syst Rev (1): CD001703. DOI:10.1002/14651858.CD001703.pub3. PMID 18253994. Research Blogging.
  31. Salerno SM, Browning R, Jackson JL (2002). "The effect of antidepressant treatment on chronic back pain: a meta-analysis". Arch. Intern. Med. 162 (1): 19–24. PMID 11784215[e]
  32. van Tulder M, Koes B (2006). "Low back pain (chronic)". Clin Evid (15): 1634–53. PMID 16973063[e]
  33. van Tulder M, Scholten R, Koes B, Deyo R. "Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs for low back pain.". Cochrane Database Syst Rev: CD000396. PMID 10796356.
  34. Johnson RE, Jones GT, Wiles NJ, et al (2007). "Active exercise, education, and cognitive behavioral therapy for persistent disabling low back pain: a randomized controlled trial". Spine 32 (15): 1578-85. DOI:10.1097/BRS.0b013e318074f890. PMID 17621203. Research Blogging. PMID 1762120
  35. Birkmeyer N, Weinstein J, Tosteson A, Tosteson T, Skinner J, Lurie J, Deyo R, Wennberg J (2002). "Design of the Spine Patient outcomes Research Trial (SPORT).". Spine 27 (12): 1361-72. PMID 12065987.
  36. Nelemans P, de Bie R, de Vet H, Sturmans F. "Injection therapy for subacute and chronic benign low back pain.". Cochrane Database Syst Rev: CD001824. PMID 10796449.
  37. Yelland M, Mar C, Pirozzo S, Schoene M, Vercoe P. "Prolotherapy injections for chronic low-back pain.". Cochrane Database Syst Rev: CD004059. PMID 15106234.
  38. Hagen K, Hilde G, Jamtvedt G, Winnem M. "Bed rest for acute low-back pain and sciatica.". Cochrane Database Syst Rev: CD001254. PMID 15495012.
  39. Anonymous (2006). 1.00 Musculoskeletal System - Adult. Social Security Administration. Retrieved on 7/22/2008.
  40. Roelofs PD, Bierma-Zeinstra SM, van Poppel MN, et al (2007). "Lumbar supports to prevent recurrent low back pain among home care workers: a randomized trial". Ann. Intern. Med. 147 (10): 685–92. PMID 18025444[e]

See also


External links

Views
Personal tools