Difference between revisions of "English spellings"

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-dôz '''tornâdos'''
 
-dôz '''tornâdos'''
 +
 +
'''rhinóceros
  
 
-pss '''hélps
 
-pss '''hélps

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A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z Apostrophe

The letter links above lead to alphabetically arranged selections of commonly misspelt and/or mispronounced words, alongside some regular ones for contrast; in addition, the present page features a 'retroalphabetical' list (see Contents) with words arranged alphabetically by their final letters

English is famous, even notorious, for its varied spellings. This can be seen at its most extravagant in the field of proper names, as, for example, simply adding an 'h' to 'Maria' to make it rhyme with 'pariah', or calling oneself 'Cholmondeley Featherstonehaugh', pronounced 'Chumley Fanshaw'. On a more prosaic level, however, there are dangers. An example of a common misspelling is 'disasterous' for 'disastrous', retaining the 'e' of 'disaster'. And conversely, words may not turn out to have the pronunciation they appear to have: 'do' and 'to' you might expect to rhyme with 'go' and 'no', while 'seismic', instead of being 'seezmic' or 'sayzmic' or even 'sayizmic' is in fact 'size-mic'. These lists are devoted to these things.

A few notes on how to read them: linguists conventionally signal an incorrect spelling by putting an asterisk before it, like *thiss, and here we also include accent marks to show stress and pronunciation, thús. A table of these (which are not part of the language[1]) can be found at the end of this article; there is also an IPA key at English phonemes. Where there is more than one accent, the first is stressed, and the same is true after a hyphen, so in the respelling *Chŷ-kóffsky, it is 'kóff' that has the main stress. A sentence from the preceding paragraph can thus be rewritten as follows: An example of a common misspelling is *disāsterous for disāstrous, retaining the e of disāster.

Particular attention is given to homophones, words with the same pronunciation. English is rich in homophones; it also has many homonyms, words with the same spelling and pronunciation, and homographs, words with the same spelling but different pronunciation. Examples of all three are grouped together here.

Also of special note are words that many writers incorrectly divide. ôver and dûe, for example, combine to form overdûe, without a space in the middle. Such examples are included with ‘one word’ alongside them: alongsîde one word.

An equals sign = is placed between homophones (in some cases the approximately equals sign ≈ is more appropriate). Homographs and other similar-looking words are included after 'cf.' (from Latin conferre, 'compare').

Some words from other languages, in most cases French, may appear in English with accents from those languages. Such spellings are shown using bold italics: touchè may be written with a French accent: touché *tooshây.

The apostrophe is an important part of spelling and so it is treated as a letter, with its own place at the end of the alphabet. Fragments of words are in bold when correctly spelt: Ukrâine has -âine, not -âne. Words in italics are used to suggest meanings, in the case of similar words. The word person (or persons after more than one) implies either a personal or family name. Such words are included because they often contrast with the spellings of homophones, for example a bank clerk might be named Clàrk or Clàrke, but most probably not 'Clerk' (which is pronounced identically in BrE). It may, of course, also be a commercial or place name, as this is a matter regarding individuals: the fact that one is more likely to meet a person, most probably male, called Maurice Mórris than one called Mórris Maurice, both words and hence both names being pronounced the same in BrE (Maurìce in AmE), is about as relevant as the fact that one is unlikely to meet a person called either.

Template:TOC-right

Retroalphabetical list

For the conventionally alphabetical list, see the links at the top of the page

This list is in alphabetical order beginning with the final letter of the word and continuing backwards through it. The headword is on the right. In this way, suffixes and other word endings can be seen grouped together, just as prefixes can be seen in normal alphabetical order. So, instead of ádd båll coúsin, we have réplicA fláB plástiC; and so for mûsiC, see under -c, for mûsicaL, see under -l, for pàrticlE, see under -e, and so on.

Some suffixes are included separately with their pronunciation applying or not to following words.

Throughout, the apostrophe is treated as the last letter, after z. For clarity, italic association words are to the left of the example word:

woman mâid = make mâde

A

mostly schwa -a

BrE barrier, drink bàr = sheep bàa

Ábba

Shêba

Cûba

Hécuba

scûba

tûba

Lŏrca

(but Nabokov's is Àda) Âda

Granàda

Grenâda

propagánda

referénda[2]

.*îdêə idêa

.*flê flêa

.*plê plêa

-êə Crîmêa

-êə ãrêa

person Chélsy, etc. = place Chélsêa

.*Swónzy Sẁansêa

.*nåuzêə nåusêa

Ólga

broûhàhà

gèisha

clóss- claustrophôbìa

rhymes with milítia: -íshə -ícia

Alícia

Galìcia

Patrícia

Albânia

Tanzanìa

Armênia

.*skítzô-frêniə schizophrênia

Slovênia

insómnia

Wó- Wallônia

ària

malãria

Bavãria

Alexāndria

Lîbêria

hystêria

pìts- pizzerìa

Victŏria

trattorìa

.*Âyshə or *Âyzhə Âsia

-zhə amnêsia

-zhə Indonêsia

.*Toô-nìzhə AmE; BrE Chû-nízìə Tunisia

-zhə Maláysia

mostly -shə -tia

.*Crôw-âyshə Croâtia

-tìə Ossétia

Patrícia rhymes with milítia

inërtia

vîa

trŏika

Kampàla

Mandéla

-zwâyla Venezuèla

umbrélla

côla

scrófula

.*pé-nínssyələ península

Alabáma

Pánamà

dràma

or -mə cínemà

Émma

dilémma

diplôma

carcinôma

Victoriàna

.*Loû-êasy-Ánna Louisiána

banāna

Fontāna

Montána

-wàna iguàna

- nirvàna

Guyāna

vagîna

Regîna

Polyánna

hénna

anténna

tûna

bôa

Nôah rhymes with Gôa

môa

spà

brà

cf. Ôprah - ópera

Pandŏra

Andŏrra AmE; BrE Andórra

Sumàtra

Sinàtra

ork- ŏrchestra

strâta AmE ≈ BrE strâighter - stràta

táffeta

excrêta

-wə Manágua

-yûə or -wə Nicarágua

nôva

sŏya

Gàza

plàza

.*pêetsa pìzza

B

náb

jáb

Árab

stáb

ébb

fíb

níb

.*lám lámb

.*lím límb

climate clîme = up clîmb

.*côam cômb

còme, húm, súm rhyme with succúmb

.*dúm dúmb

.*thúm thúmb

fruit plúm = plumbing plúmb

.*núm númb

.*bóm bómb

.*côam cômb

.*toôm tomb

hóbnob

.*dŏrnób dŏorknob

AmE *érb hërb

vërb

ŏrb

súburb

blürb

pertürb

distürb

cúb

dúb

húb

clúb

C

mâniac

insómniac

.*afrô-dízzỳác aphrodísìac

lîlac

ålmanac

Quebéc

terrífic

horrífic

lógic

.*shêek chìc

pýrrhic

éthic

Góthic

mýthic

repúblic

seîsmic

irónic

Byrónic

herôíc

cf. Pátrick - Éric

ill síck = thus síc

-zíc mûsic

dramátic

tråumátic

fanátic

noun, verb státic

parasític

plástic

drástic

acoûstic

cf. adjective mýstical - noun mýstic

loft áttic = Greek Áttic

paralýtic

wood blóck = political blóc

súbfúsc

can be móllusk in American - móllusc

D

bád

dád

book Bêde = string bêad

déad

héad

knêad

bréad

dréad

spréad

instéad

fád

hád

Ílìád

Jeremîád

trîád

lád

mád

gôad

rôad

brŏad

abrŏad

tôad

sád

qùad rhymes with ẁad

ádd

ódd

ae as schwa: *səbpênəd subpoênaed

-did -ded

woûnded

låuded

procêed

hêed

nêed

grêed

wêed

áct = -ácked

tactful táct = tack tácked

stácked

AmE tráveled

-ld fîled

-ld smîled

-ld pîled

l doubled after stressed syllable - BrE and AmE rebélled

BrE trávelled

abándoned

boôed

-pt stépped

réd

bare bãred

scãred

.*sâycríd sâcred

hámpered

cf. compãred - cómpéred

two syllables neûtered

revêred

sévered

mîred

cf. hâte - *hâtíd hâted

cf. hâte - *hâtríd hâtred

cf. kînd - *kíndríd kíndred

-rəd húndred

bar bàrred

food bâste = base bâsed

.*bîast bîased

-éssed mostly rhymes with -ést: conféssed

.*blést, but can be *bléssid before a noun bléssed

asséssed

obséssed

-tíd -ted

tàrgeted

.*rícoshâid rícochèted

intërpreted

excîted

éxited

ẁanted

bígoted

-vd shôved

-vd lòved

allòwed

hállowed

néxt rhymes with séxed

stare stãry-eŷed

star stàrry-eŷed

person Bŏyd = buoy buŏyed

âid

lâid

make mâde = woman mâid

.*pâyed pâid

bray brâyed = hair brâid

.*séd said

bíd

díd

líd

sqùalid

válid

vŏid

rápid

vápid

flûíd

Réginald

Rónald

géld

héld

fìêld

wìêld

mèld

wéld

gíld

chîld

mîld

wîld

ôld

bôld

fôld

thrêefôld

gôld

hôld

x yêars ôld in the plural, but hyphens when it's an adjective or noun x-yêar-ôld

sôld

tôld

cf. gôld - Goûld

cf. coùld, shoùld and woùld, all -ùd - môuld

ánd

hánd

lánd

-lənd: mostly schwa in (place or people’s) names, where it conveys familiarity: -lánd used for countries suggests alienness, even lack of sovereignty -land

Díxielánd

Tŷ- Thaîland

blánd = Blánd

Åuckland

Hólland

fàrmlánd

a as schwa before nouns, e.g. Ínland Révenue, otherwise á - ínlánd

á as schwa possible in adjectival use - mâinlánd

Fínland

Pôland

Láplánd

Súnderland

mòtherlánd

hínterlánd

ôverlánd

Swítzerland

Quêensland

Scótland

heàrtland

Mãryland

demānd

Hélmand

sánd

fìênd

friénd

blénd

pénd

rénd

sénd

ténd

wénd

bînd

crime fîned = discover fînd

hînd

one word hûmankînd

blînd

mînd

rînd

támarínd

blow wínd

round wînd

beyónd

ròund

woûnd

religion Gód = idol gód

clód

nód

pód

foôd

goòd

hoòd

no y before -hoòd

lîkelihoòd

lîvelihoòd

moôd

broôd

woòd

apart from monosyllables, mostly -ə(r)d -ard

càrd

bêard

hëard

hàrd

.*Ríchərd Ríchard

shàrd

làrd

cf. wide brŏad - boring bŏred = wood, company bŏard

.*cúbbərd cúpboard

flŏorbŏard

.*lépərd léopard

lêotàrd

bāstard

bústard

.*gàrd guàrd

wård

báckward

åwkward

except for Fránkie Hòwerd: Hòward

yàrd

házard

lízard

wízard

blízzard

búzzard

hear hëard = animals hërd

nërd

bïrd

tie chŏrd = vocal cörd

person Fŏrd = water fŏrd

name suffix, -fəd -ford

Brádford

Rédford

Blándford

Rétford

Óxford

rope cŏrd = music chörd

wörd

absürd

türd

applåud

Måud

fråud

Î’d

listen hêed = he hê’d

shê’d

plant wêed = we wê’d

.*prâycêed prècis’d

ít’d

yoû’d

thèy’d

E

final e is mostly silent; for words often italicised and ending in written -é see French words in English. e

AmE -ê -

nébulaê

fŏrmulaê

anténnaê

nôvaê

scrîbe

descrîbe

medicine prescrîbeillegal proscrîbe

zé- xénophobe

lôbe

fâce

.*préffis préface

.*ménnis ménace

Ẁallis = Ẁallace

.*Hórris, rhyming with words in -óris - Hórace

.*térris térrace

îce

sácrifîce

órifíce BrE; AmE ǒrifíce

sürplíce

nîce

Véníce

cŏrníce

chŏice

vŏice

hóspíce

thrîce

caprìce

trîce

pôultíce

láttíce

BrE verb práctíse = noun, AmE verb práctíce

nôtíce

devîce

crévíce

véngeance

sometimes written as in French séance - sèànce

chānce

vígilance

románce

perfŏrmance

noun = verb either stressed fînánce

híndrance

forbéarance

enter éntrance

beguile entrānce

cf. exístence - stānce

cf. exístence - resístance

AmE lîcense, cf. BrE and AmE suspénse - lîcence

.*ákwêeyéssənss; cf. présence, -zənss - acquiéscence

câdence

décadence

transcéndence

subsîdence

évidence

próvidence

cf. dénse - fénce

AmE defénse - defénce

AmE offénse - offénce

hénce

scîence

-shənss cónscience

åudience

-âshence impâtience

cf. prevâil - prévalence

vîolence

përmanence

adhêrence

occúrrence

rêcúrrence

ábsence

cómpetence

séntence

insístence

cf. stānce - exístence

ínfluence

mint míntsmeat mínce

print príntsroyal prínce

fìêrce

pìêrce

coërce

enfŏrce

-êí- reinfŏrce

divŏrce

verbs -ésce

-éss acquiésce

.*côwaléss coalésce

-éss effervésce

BrE -dyoôss or -joôss, AmE doôss -dûce

redûce

indûce

verb prodûce

noun próduce

Jŏyce

fâde

shâde

jâde

glâde

woman mâid = make mâde

grenâde

sh-; AmE charâde, BrE charàde

parâde

concêde

intercêde

supersêde

stressed in verbs, unstressed in nouns, but always pronounced -îde

régicide

sûicide

cŷanide

derîde

asîde

besîde

.*rizîde resîde

one word úpside

one word dòwnside

provîde

óxide

in some names -forde

íl- elûde

əl- allûde

lóngitude

látitude

áttitude

insect bêe

divorcêe

fêe

cóffee

banóffee

tóffee

Yánkee

glêe

referêe

as a suffix meaning ‘without’ -frêe should be at least hyphenated, never a separate word: cãrefrêe and commítment-frêe

degrêe

pédigree

sêe

.*lîcencêe licensêe

cf. députy - devotêe

payêe

-êe has main stress when in contrast to emplŏyer - emplŏyêe

gáffe

lîfe

.*nîfe knîfe

wîfe

âge

mostly -íj -age

-íj cábbage

-íj bándage

.*hémərij haémorrhage

.*fôlìíj fôlìage

.*cárríj cárriage

.*márríj márriage

-àzh fûselage

-àzh cámouflage

-íj víllage

-àzh cóllage

-íj dámage

-íj mánage

-àzh bádinage

BrE *gáràj; *gáríj is regarded by many as uneducated; AmE *gəràzh gáràge

-íj áverage

person Béveridge = -íj drink béverage

-íj lêverage

-àzh míràge

-íj stŏrage

BrE *báràj, AmE *bəràzh bárràge

sâge

BrE *məssàj, AmE *məssàzh mássàge

-íj méssage

-àzh dréssàge

-íj ûsage

-àzh sábotàge

-íj cóttage

-íj wâstage

-íj hóstage

-íj lánguage

-íj sávage

bádge

édge

plédge

slédge

-íj knówledge

mídge

rídge

brídge

pórridge

dódge

stódge

fúdge

sácrilege

prívilege

cf. édge - allége

oblîge

-êezh prestìge

-íj véstíge

chânge

whínge

lòunge

scròunge

Dôge

bàrge

làrge

dïrge

fŏrge

ürge

scöurge

pürge

sürge

.*âke âche

BrE *məstàsh, AmE *mústásh moustāche

-kê synécdochê

cf. trôphy, átrophy - catástrophê

apóstrophê

.*dhə before consonants, *dhê before vowels - thê

lôathe rhymes with clôthe

colour dŷe = death dîe

bïrdìê

Chàrly = Chàrlie

surname Wílley = Wílly = Wíllie

Cónnie

Lónnie

Rónnie

pîe

soft g - menágerìê

côterìê

cálorìê

éyrìê

bâke

câke

Jâke

cf. bláck, Bláck - Blâke

mâke

snâke

sâke

tâke

eat steâk = hold stâke

mistâke

lîke

chîldlîke

gódlîke

wårlîke

cátlîke

pîke

chôke

brôke

broòk rhymes with Ládbroke

broòk rhymes with Bólingbroke

evôke

provôke

wôke

rebûke

dûke

cf. noun, adjective fînal - noun finàlê

cf. adjective rátional - noun rationàle

cf. Âbel, Bâbel, 'lâbel, Mâbel - âble

impertürbable

applícable

dis- despícable

it is normal to retain an e before -able to show either the pronunciation of the preceding consonant or the long sound of the preceding vowel -eable

-nsəble pronòunceable

-jəble mánageable

-jəble chângeable

-kəble unshâkeable

-ləble sâleable

gâble

cf. lâbel - avâilable

unwínnable

ádmirable

desîrable

sâble

advîsable

tâble

debâtable

insurmòuntable

stâble

cònstable

forgívable

dábble

rábble

cf. rébel - pébble

dríbble

cóbble

góbble

hóbble

nóbble

wóbble

Húbble

rúbble

stúbble

édible

tánj- tángible

fállible

térrible

hórrible

comprehénsible

apprehénsible

sénsible

-sable is French - respónsible

axé- accéssible

colléctible

suscéptible

contémptible

irresístible

ámble

prê- preámble

gámble

rámble

scrámble

assémble

dissémble

.*rizémble resémble

.*onsómble ensemble

nímble

thímble

búmble

fúmble

húmble

júmble

múmble

rúmble

crúmble

grúmble

túmble

stúmble

nôble

doúble

AmE rûble = BrE roûble

troúble

pínnacle

bàrnacle

téntacle

óbstacle

.*vêícle vêhicle

véntricle

pàrticle

.*úngkəl úncle

càrbuncle

tréadle

crâdle

páddle

stráddle

ẁaddle

tẁaddle

médal medallion = interfere méddle

bicycle pédal = sell péddle

díddle

fíddle

míddle

píddle

ríddle

códdle

cúddle

fúddle

befúddle

húddle

múddle

cándle

dándle

hándle

spíndle

noôdle

poôdle

gïrdle

cürdle

hürdle

kerfúffle

trúffle

strúggle

invêigle

g sounded separately from ng -ngle

ángle

bángle

dángle

spángle

wrángle

wángle

bürgle

bûgle

bîle

BrE -île, AmE -əl môbile

åutomobìle

fîle

BrE -île, AmE -əl frágile

Ánglophîle

mîle

símilê

.*fáx-íməly facsímilê

smîle

pîle

rîle

BrE -île, AmE -əl stérile

BrE -île, AmE -əl prayers míssal = war míssile

tîle

BrE -île, AmE -əl vólatile

mërcantîle

ínfantîle

BrE -île, AmE -əl hóstile

.*gîle, hard g - guîle

revîle

táckle

héckle

fréckle

píckle

tíckle

cóckle

búckle

ánkle

tínkle

wrínkle

wínkle

food gríll = screen grílle

fire côal = person Côle

dôle

hôle

môle

ballot pôll = Poland Pôle = wood pôle

over, eat rôll = play rôle

partíciple

adjective, person príncipal = belief prínciple

discîple

sāmple

exāmple

dímple

símple

rúmple

crúmple

stêeple rhymes with pêople

nípple

rípple

típple

coúple

scrûple

vással and in AmE words in -āstle rhyme with hássle

-zle tòusle

person Súttle = obvious súbtle

chŏrtle

-səl -stle

cāstle

véssel rhymes with -éstle

néstle

tréstle

wréstle

whístle

grístle

Rússell rhymes with -ústle

bústle

hústle

rústle

líttle

cáttle

kéttle

gold métal = courage méttle

bóttle

súbtle rhymes with shúttle

-ûel rhymes with -ûle

módule

mûle

rûle

cápsule

dázzle

fízzle

cf. drível - drízzle

sízzle

púzzle

person Mêe = you

cf. âim - câme

gâme

lâme

sâme

frâme

tâme

extrême

dîme

.*rèzhìme regìme

lîme

verse rhŷme = frost rîme

tîme

íncòme

òutcòme

dôme

hôme

gênome

Alaska Nôme = garden gnôme

sòme

səm -some

troúblesome

hándsome

thrêesome

h- whôlesome

wínsome

cf. hysteréctomy - epítomê

.*rizyûme resûme

.*rézumây, written with French accents avoids confusion with resûme: résumé

.*prizyûme presûme

-syû- consûme

-syû- assûme

frost rîme = verse rhŷme

fruit lîme = England Lŷme

énzŷme

bâne

persons Câin = Câine = stick câne

urbâne

Dâne

mêthane

Jâne

lâne

cf. remâin - relevant germâne

scêne

obscêne

gángrêne

-ône colôgne

-îgn rhymes with -îne

person Germâine

mìgrâine

Ukrâine

.*Mádlin or *Mádlən - Mádeleíne

refîne

confîne

éngíne

cf. hérôín drug, hérôíne hero - méscalíne

declîne

reclîne

mîne

vërmín rhymes with ërmíne

detërmíne

sërpentîne

türpentîne

intéstíne

K- Chrístìne

prístìne

magazìne

win wòn = number òne

cône

cf. Stône of Scone, *Scoôn - scóne

dòne

condône

góne

alône

anémonê

nòne

atône

stône

cf. Kíngston, both have o as schwa - Mâidstone

zône

ãirbŏrne

o as schwa in best Aus pronunciation Mélbourne

Êastbŏurne

  • dí-mâin demèsne

= -ô, -ôw - -ôe

ôboe

dôe

fôe

-oô shoe

Jôe

-oô canoe

rôe

tôe

wôe

Zôê

grâpe

Penélopê

ántelôpe

or ón- énvelôpe

shãre

awãre

bewãre

prepãre

îronwãre

sóftwãre

-re as schwa - *âkər âcre

-re as schwa - -kər mássacre

ear hêar = this hêre

them théir = that thére

clothes wéãr = place whère

mêre

was wëre

sevêre

shîre

in England, schwa, -shə -shire

.*Glóstersher Glóucestershire

.*Léstersher Léicestershire

.*Wùstersher Worcestershire

-shîre in Scotland – though non-Scots may not comply Âyrshîre

hîre

mîre

AmE mêter = BrE length mêtre

cf. fŏr - befŏre

to the fŏre

thérefore

(and, for some, toûr guide) rock tŏr = téar tŏre

bizàrre

cf. grándeûr - cûre

endûre

pāstûre

abjûre

-jər ínjure

-jər cònjure

përjure

lûre

-lyər fâilure

BrE əlyûə allûre

BrE Shåw = AmE sûre

-zhər -sure

pléasure

méasure

tréasure

léisure

clôsure

-sh- préssure

-sh- físsure

-chər -ture

matûre

nâture

státure

fûture

sûture

wê’re

of you yŏur = days yŏre = you are yŏu’re

here thére = them théir = they thèy’re

chêese, slêaze and frêeze rhyme with êase

-ss lêase

êase rhymes with plea plêas = request plêase

-ss crêase

verb, noun -ss decrêase

verb, noun -ss incrêase

-z têase

âce rhymes with châse

confuse fâze = temporary phâse

-êez (no nationalities end in -ìse); usually stressed but can become unstressed before a noun as in Jápanese: -êse

chêese

jöurnalêse

Nepalêse

Jápanêse

Chînêse

In all words apart from those specified below, -îse can be spelt -îze, for example críticize, and this is how -îse is pronounced in most verbs -îse

críticîse

pronounced but never spelt -ize noun, verb éxercîse

pronounced but never spelt -ize mërchandîse

pronounced but never spelt -ize fránchîse

vërbalîse

rêalise

êqualîse

-êez valìse

fërtilîse

never spelt -ize because it is a noun and pronounced -íss prémíse

never spelt -ize because pronounced -íss noun, verb prómíse

pronounced but never spelt -ize cómpromîse

pronounced but never spelt -ize surmîse

.*pŏrpus pŏrpoise

.*tŏrtus tŏrtoise

pronounced but never spelt -ize despîse

glámorise

pronounced but never spelt -ize comprîse

pronounced but never spelt -ize surprîse

presh- pressurîse

émphasîse

práctíce = BrE verb práctíse

áppetîse

pronounced but never spelt -ize ádvertîse

.*éxpertêez expertìse

silent u; pronounced but never spelt -ize disguîse

pronounced but never spelt -ize advîse

cf. noun devîce - -z verb devîse

pronounced but never spelt *wîze wîse

pronounced but never spelt -wize -wîse

pronounced but never spelt -ize lîkewîse

pronounced but never spelt -ize clóckwîse

-ss, as also hénce, fénce - dénse

sénse

nónsense

cf. defénce, lîcence, offénce where AmE has -ense, all -ss suspénse

cf. dôze -ss dôse

-z chôse

grandiôse

.*loôze lose

noun, adjective -s, verb -z clôse

-z nôse

-z choôse

.*lûce loôse

-z expôse

can have French accent: exposé *expôzây expôsè

-z rôse

ápse

lápse

noun rêlapse

verb relápse

collápse

trâipse

eclípse

cop cóps = wood cópse

hëarse

cf. revërse - rehëarse

tërse

vërse

avërse

ádverse

cf. rehëarse - revërse

gŏrse

voice hŏarse = animal hŏrse

wörse

bŏurse

vulgar cŏarse = run cŏurse

-z ûse

no! -z refûse

rubbish -ss réfuse

-z mûse

-ss spòuse

-îze ánalyse

-îze páralyse

lure bâit = anger, breath bâte

debâte

rêbâte

-âte verb, -ət noun prédicate

índicâte

víndicâte

-ət certíficate

BrE -ət, AmE -âte - cándidate

fâte

hâte

lâte

-âte verb, -ət adjective artículate

régulâte

mâte

-ít or -ət clîmate

-âte verb, -ət adjective éstimate

person Spèight = rush spâte

séparate

-rət dísparate

-âte verb, -ət adjective delíberate

cf. ônerous - exónerâte

-rət désperate

émigrate

ímmigrate

-âte verb, -ət adjective eláborate

máj- mágistrâte

démonstrâte

rémonstrâte

-âte verb, -ət adjective precípitate

áctivâte

effête

complête

.*sôshalîte sôcialîte

elìte

polîte

gráníte

fînîte

.*définət définite

.*ínfinət ínfinite

unîte

despîte

AmE réspíte - réspîte

hýpocríte

AmE -or-; BrE fâvouríte

Trótskyîte

can be written 'Brontë' - Bróntê

ánecdote

ántidote

môte

nôte

vôte

fŏrtè

càste

hâste

châste

usually stressed -ét -étte

oô- oubliétte

serviétte

matress pállet = paint pálette

cf. hámlet - *ómlet ómelette

kitchenétte

tríbûte

cóntríbûte

dístríbûte

noun áttribûte

verb attríbute

.*mínít time mínute

.*mŷ-neŵt small minûte

repûte

compûte

cf. ínput - impûte

bŷte

nêophŷte

mostly silent -ue

bàrbecûe

âgûe

.*lêag lêague

persons Hãig = Hâigh = city, person Hâgue

.*plâig plâgue

.*Pràg Pràgue

.*sâygwây sèguè

-êeg noun íntrigue

-êeg verb intrìgue

-êeg fatìgue

.*meráng meringue

.*túng tòngue

-góg: all these words may, and in most cases must lose the final ue in American English -gógue

-óg sýnagogue

-óg dîalogue

àrgûe

blow bleŵ = colour blûe

clûe

glûe

cf. síneŵ - ávenûe

révenûe

final que is -k: many words end like this, but not bàrbecûe - que

-àk pláque

-âik opâque

.*Môzám-bêek Mozambìque

cf. reálpolitìk - critìque

-ésk burlésque

-ésk Pinterésque

-ésk picturésque

-ósk mósque

cf. brísk -oòsk brùsque

Susan Sûe = law sûe

.*insyû ensûe

-syû pursûe

.*íshû íssue

.*tíshû tíssue

câve

Dâve

gâve

háve

cónclâve

pâve

râve

crâve

serious, dead grâve

accent gràve

sw- suàve

êve

slêeve

belìêve

relìêve

grìêve

síeve

sémibrêve

côërcíve

dîve

éndíve

recêive

concêive

fîve

cf. jîve dance - hard g in take gíve

hîve

líve

alîve

derîve

arrîve

contrîve

persuâsíve

adhêsíve

defénsíve

offénsíve

crêâtíve

tålkatíve

...but words which have secondary stressed AmE -âtive, two syllables after the main stress: AmE imáginâtive, BrE a as schwa: imáginatíve

sénsitíve

repétitíve

môtíve

revîve

abòve

bird dòve

(BrE is regular dîved) AmE dive dôve

England Hôve = heave hôve

shòve

lòve

glòve

.*moôve move

groôve

rôve

grôve

stôve

trôve

strôve

nërve

sërve

.*prizërv presërve

Î’ve

wê’ve

yoû’ve

thèy’ve

Zimbàbwè

Lilóngwè

AmE áx - BrE áxe

me Î = sight eŷe

pig, eye stŷ = eye stŷe

plêase and frêeze rhyme with slêaze

period phâse = confuse fâze

gâze

ádze

free frêes = cold frêeze

trapêze

most words in -îse can also be spelt -îze: all exceptions are listed under -îse. -îze

never -ise sêize

apart prîse = present prîze

never -ise sîze

dôze

búlldoze

Drûze

both pronounced -îze BrE ánalŷse, AmE ánalŷze

both pronounced -îze BrE páralŷse, AmE páralŷze

F

chìêf

míschíef

thìêf

belìêf

relìêf

stāff

whíff

táriff

óff

féoff

Géoff

blúff

stúff

íf

sérif

cf. reason môtíve - *mô-têef pattern môtìf

Álf

.*cāf cālf

.*hāf hālf

one word himsélf

one word hersélf

one word yoursélf

one word itsélf

one word mŷsélf ´ Ádólph = Ádólf

gôlf

Rôlph = Rôlf

.*wùlf wolf

gúlf

Bêowùlf

No expressions with modal verbs followed by ‘of’ exist. What may sound like ‘of’ is the weak form of háve and so this or apostrophes should be written instead: woùld have, shoùld’ve, cān’t have, mîght’ve etc. - *óv óf

goôf

cf. plural hoôves - hoôf

cf. plural roôfs *roôves roôf

G

fág

hág

nág

drág

ság

lég

pég

égg

díg

jíg

píg

ríg

wíg

sáng

âgeing

cf. sing sínging - -j- singe síngeing

.*âking âcheing

mâking

snooker, drama cûeing = line queûeing

rûeing

brínging

cf. singe síngeing -j- - sing sínging

thíng

often mispronounced 'Beizhing': Bèijíng

AmE lâbeling

fîling

BrE lâbelling

fílling

dúmpling

êvening

mîning

exámining

sound bŏing

.*dûíng doing

gôing

tûí- toíng and frôíng

bell, round ríng

bríng

squeeze wríng

síng

cf. râcing - râising

tàrgeting

intërpreting

bétting

gétting

forgétting

accrûing

flôwing

lápwing

léft-wíng

rîght-wíng

lóng

sóng

dúng

lúng

súng

bóg

dóg

hóg

lóg

cf. Jôe Blóggs - blóg

Stríndbërg

îcebërg

.*Hŷdlebërg Heîdelbërg

Bŏrg

Mágdebürg

Lúxemböurg

.*Shãrebŏrg Chérbourg

.*Strázbërg Strásböurg

búg

dúg

thúg

slúg

túg

H

silent after a vowel, combines to form consonant sounds with preceding consonant -h

can be several à’s: àh

mostly schwa -ah

cf. Marìa - Marîah

parîah

blàh

ayatóllah

Gôa rhymes with Nôah

hurràh

Ûtàh

êach

blêach

pêach

impêach

rêach

AmE *spínních; BrE *spínnídge spínach

sand bêach = tree bêech

besêech

.*ték: abbreviation of téchnical; also hî-téch - téch

whích

-k Zûrich

cf. same sound in Åldwých -wích

and S- town; AmE -ch; BrE -dge sándwich

.*Woòlidge Woòlwich

.*Brómmidge Brómwich

.*Grénnidge Gréenwich

.*Hárrídge Hárwich

.*Nórrídge, rhyming with pórridge - though some say -rích Nórwich

-wích Ípswich

-wích Drŏitwich

-wích Nántwich

squélch

Wales Wélsh = person Wélch

fílch

zílch

drénch

sténch

wénch

ínch

wínch

cónch

búnch

húnch

púnch

lýnch -ch

cf. easy sínch, ch sound; down, wash sínk = together sýnch

-dóck Mürdoch

smoôch

àrch

sëarch

làrch

-k pâtriàrch

BrE -ək mónarch

kítsch

pùtsch

bátch

cátch

hátch

nátch

ẁatch

étch

fétch

kétch

ítch

dítch

hítch

glítch

pítch

stítch

cf. Åldwých - what whích BrE = wizard wítch

twítch

bótch

hótchpotch

Dútch

múch

-k eûnuch

còuch

gròuch

toúch

vòuch

súch

cf. place names in -wích - Åldwých

-d Rìyadh

ð éth or édh

  • ây èh

mostly silent -gh

no nây = horse nèigh

kill slây = ride slèigh

cf. convèy, purvèy - invèigh

how wây = heavy wèigh

greeting = up hîgh

cf. voiced th in thŷ: vowel sound identical - unvoiced th in thîgh

.person Nŷe = near nîgh

.*sŷe sîgh

.*Éddinbrə Édinburgh

.*Frâzerbrə Frâserburgh

.*Pítsbürg Píttsburgh

BrE *làf AmE *láf lāugh

-òw bòugh

thôugh

-ôw fûrlôugh

.*slòu - England Slòugh = swamp slòugh

.*slúff skin sloúgh

.*rúff roúgh

-û - throw threŵ = preposition throûgh

AmE = búrrow ground - BrE *búrrə bòrough

.*Lúfbrə Loúghborough

.*Scàrbrə Scàrborough

.*Míddlzbrə Míddlesborough

BrE *thúrrə, AmE *thúrrôw thòrough

-óff trôugh

-úff toúgh

-úff enoúgh

letter Ô = exclamation ôh

-f -ph

Rálph

oòmph

trîumph

lýmph

nýmph

mŏrph

glýph

AmE -r, BrE silent -rrh

catàrrh

mÿrrh

ásh

básh

cásh

dásh

gásh

hásh

flásh

slásh

smásh

rásh

crásh

thrásh

stásh

qùash

ẁash

Bangladésh

mésh

frésh

thrésh

réddish

chîldish

bánish

Spánish

vánish

end fínish = Finland Fínnish

astónish

gàrnish

tàrnish

vàrnish

Cŏrnish

bürnish

fürnish

púnish

wísh

fíftyish

person Wålsh

-sh - person Wélch = Wales Wélsh

cósh

dósh

nósh

whoòsh

pósh

tósh

bùsh

lúsh

blúsh

flúsh

plúsh

pùsh

rúsh

thrúsh

mostly unvoiced -th

déath

hêath

bréath

wrêath

ôath

pāth

-drət + unvoiced th - húndredth

shibbóleth

voiced th - wíth

héalth

stéalth

wéalth

plínth

nînth

bôth

dòth

lôth

slôth

ëarth

dëarth

heàrth

bïrth

gïrth

héncefŏrth

Fïrth of Fŏrth

gô fŏrth

nŏrth

wörth

4th fŏurth

noun th unvoiced, verb th voiced mòuth

ou as schwa, th unvoiced -mouth

-məth Bŏurnemouth

-məth Pŏrtsmouth

-məth Plýmouth

síxth

voiced th - casual blîthe = persons Blŷthe = Blŷth

voiced th - persons Smŷthe = Smŷth

schwa: BrE er = AmE uh

I

-î or -ì

Dubaî

h sounded Shanghaî

Ábu Dhàbì

rábbî

álibî

Sàùdì

likewise other plurals of -us - nûclêî

Hawàìì

Isrâeli

Disrâeli

.*sémmy sémi

eat pîe = number

girls’ names tend to end in -i or -ie, boys’ in -y - Térrì

.*paparatsy - paparázzi

J

-zh Ràj

-zh Mahal Tàj

-dj hàjj

K

-que = -k

vegetable lêek = liquid lêak

blêak

spêak

car brâke = pieces breâk

strêak

têak

money, wood stâke = meat steâk

days wêek = feeble wêak

flák

ánorák

háck

sáck

déck

líck

gímmick

hŏick

bríck

síck

tíck

Pàrtick

cf. Éric - Pátrick

Bûíck

quíck

wíck

.*Wórrick Ẁarwick

.*Bérrick Bérwick

w sounded in Lërwick

.*Kézzíck Késwick

.*Smédhík (voiced th sound) Sméthwick

cf. Bangkók - cóck

dóck

lóck

wédlock

flóck

wårlock

.*nóck knóck

sóck

dúck

lúck

liquid lêak = vegetable lêek

mêek

rêek

sêek

feeble wêak = days wêek trék

cf. sqwåwk - -åwk -ålk

or båulk - -åwk bålk

-åwk chålk

cf. talcum powder tálc, l sounded - -åwk speak tålk

-åwk bird stŏrk BrE = plant, follow stålk

-åwk wålk

whélk

.*fôk fôlk

-fək Nŏrfolk

-fək Súffolk

ox yôke = egg yôlk

bánk

sánk

tánk

thánk

dránk

person Fránk = honest fránk

thínk

rínk

drínk

shrínk

sínk

hónk

plónk

mònk

hónky-tónk

dúnk

fúnk

Bángkók

noòk

spoôk

roòk

broòk

wók

pàrk

jërk

bersërk

smïrk

shïrk

kïrk

quïrk

wörk

lürk

Türk

āsk

bāsk

flāsk

tāsk

désk

record dísc = computer dísk

whísk

óbelisk

rísk

ásterisk

dúsk

músk

túsk

åuk

squåwk

L

lógical

mýthical

puritánical

histórical

hystérical

thê- theátrical

mûsical

práctical

scéptical

mýstical

nåutical

quízzical

fôcal

lôcal

vôcal

interfere méddle = coin médal

sell péddle = bicycle pédal

rhyming with cándle, hándle - scándal

rhyming with above sándal

concêal

repêal

squêal

vêal

revêal

lêgal

illêgal

rêgal

Bengål

.*commërshal commërcial

denîal

mênial

.*pàrshal pàrtial

ânal

AmE bânal - BrE banàl

canál

phenómenal

diágonal

hexágonal

-shənəl -tional

nátional

rátional

nôtional

hôle rhymes with gôal

shôal

cf. main, headteacher prínciple - basic, credo príncipal

quadriláteral

âmóral

immóral

-zəl apprâisal

cf. véssel - hássle rhymes with vással

ántênâtal

pôstnâtal

quality méttle = iron métal

.*péttle pétal

AmE inståll - BrE instål

-zhəl cásual

-kchəl áctual

evéntual

belly-button nâvel = ship nâval

cf. êvil - *medêvəl or medìêval

  • Mŷcle Mîchael

Ráphâél

a common mistake is to write 'Isreal' - Ísrâel

= capable âble, cf. tâble, stâble - person Âbel

cf. bábble - Bâbel

lâbel

Mâbel

noun rébel

verb rebél

excél

módel

yôdel

êel

fêel

pêel

fálafel

air ãerial = person Ãriel

Mûriel

shékel

cf. lôcal, vôcal - yokel

cf. përsonal - personnél

repél

compél

dispél

expél

appárel

cóckerel

bárrel

mínstrel

wâstrel

êasel

wêasel

words in -éstle rhyme with véssel

- hotél

cf. módel - - motél

cartél

-ûle rhymes with -ûel

two dûal = fight dûel

fûel

crûel

grûel

navy nâval = stomach nâvel

Ravél

unrável

trável

cf. drízzle - drível

swível

hóvel

shòvel

nóvel

bòwel

tròwel

tòwel

vòwel

píxel

TÉFL

fâil

avâil

prevâil

vèil

AmE fulfíll, BrE fulfíl

níl

fŏil

êvil

dévil

Brazíl

åll

båll

cåll

fåll

tåll

wåll

béll

déll

féll

héll

nútshell

péll-méll

O'Cónnell

O'Dónnell

séll

téll

quéll

wéll

fíll

píll

tíll

quíll

dóll

cf. parrot póll, elect pôll

part rôle = along rôll

drôll

strôll

tôll

bùll

cúll

dúll

but the suffix is -fùl - fùll

city Húll = boat húll

lúll

island Múll = over múll

and void núll

anúll

pùll

hê’ll

shê’ll

wê’ll

Î’ll

ít’ll

yoû’ll or yoù’ll or yŏu’ll

thèy’ll

prôtocol

álcohol

coôl

foôl

.*skoôl schoôl

poôl

spoôl

toôl

woòl

AmE enróll, BrE enrôl

patrôl

pétrol

cf. rôll - contrôl

párasól

-təl pístol

gïrl

whïrl

twïrl

whŏrl

fürl

Gåul

måul

Påul

Såul cáterwåul

cf. word fùll suffix -fùl

hôpeful

cãreful

beaûtiful

dûtiful

noun spoônful

wònderful

stréssful

àrtful

jŏyful

bird fòwl = bad fòul

ghoûl

only sôle = Korea Seôul = spirit sôul

åwl

båwl

cråwl

all meanings bôwl

bird fòwl

hòwl

y as schwa - Síbyl

y as schwa - Béryl

M

glêam

rêam

drêam

appear sêem = thread, coal sêam

stêam

scrêam

drêam

strêam

hám

BrE h silent, a as schwa, -əm; AmE -hám

h silent, g not sounded separately Búckingham

h silent, g not sounded separately Bïrmingham

-nəm Twíckenham

-nəm Chéltenham

.*Tótnəm Tóttenham

.*Méppəm Méopham

-səm Tópsham

-təm Stréatham

-təm Chátham

-təm Éltham

-təm Wåltham

unvoiced th sound Bôtham

unvoiced th sound Gótham

.*Rûtəm Wrotham

Wést Hám

môdém

dêem

group têam = pour têem

hém

ahém

Béthlehém

sounding like -um thêorem

stém

-ám dîaphragm

.*flém phlégm

-îm páradigm

rhýthm

âim

mâim

dím

dénim rhymes with Blénheim

whím

Kím

skím

dénim

mínim

BrE and AmE -àm bàlm

BrE and AmE -àm càlm

BrE and AmE -àm quàlm

tálcum rhymes with *Málcum Málcolm

dwell hôme = oak, islet hôlm

frêedom

bŏredom

kíngdom

slàlom

Tóm

árm

fàrm

hàrm

cf. wörm, wårn - wårm

pák- páchydërm

j- gërm

spërm

tërm

fïrm

fŏrm

nŏrm

cf. heat wårm - animal wörm

ŏrgasm

.*kázəm chásm

-zəm spásm

-ízəm; never stressed -ísm

âthêísm

Bùddhism

existéntialism

shôv- chauvinism

térrorism

mîcrocosm

tálcum

memorándum

referéndum

glúm

húm

válium

thállium

gerânium

aquãrium

delírium

drúm

húmdrúm

conúndrum

gymnâsium

fŏrum

-kyûm - vácûum

-ûəm contínûum

gým

name -ným

syû- pseûdonym

hómonym

sýnonym

ántonym

Î’m

N

bán

ürban

türban

cán

Gŏrdon rhymes with Jŏrdan

-tion crustâcean

lôtion rhymes with ôcean

dêan

clêan

mêan

-ìən epicûrêan

fán

Ìan

-íshən -ícian

technícian

patrícian

.*Óstrâlìən in rapid speech ends like míllion etc., -lyən - Austrâlian

-íshən abstract -ítion = person -ícian

logícian

patrícian

politícian

mathematícian

reptílian

civílian

Brazílian

Gíllian

nonagenãrian

quinquagenãrian

septuagenãrian

sexagenãrian

octogenãrian

lîbrãrian

sectãrian

vegetãrian

libertãrian

no words end in *-erian

histŏrian

from -sia + n, = -sion, mostly -zh- -sian

-zh- Âsian

-zh- Caucâsian

-zh- Frêsian

Artêsian

Cartêsian

AmE -izh-, BrE -ízì- Parísian

-shən = -tion -tian

Dalmâtian

nâtion rhymes with Crôâtian

Alsâtian

Títian

-bîzh- Azerbaijàn

mán

.*Îləv-Mán Îsle of Mán

mostly -mən -man

pâcemán

polìceman

hénchman

Omàn

Sûpermán

gásmán

ómbùdsman

Cóngressman

bátman

Bátmán

táxmán

Nŷman

-ən Kôfi Ànnan

môan

alone lône = lend lôan

grôan

god Pán = food pán

tán

Tîtan

Spàrtan

tàrtan

can be stressed in any word depending on speaker -stān

usually second syllable stressed Uzbékistan

Tajíkistan

Afghánistan

Manháttan

ván

ẁan

Tŷ- Taiwàn

ón =French en

letter én

dén

wîden

cf. Lòndon, both -dən - Cámden

shêen

splêen

cf. gángrêne - grêen

sêen

fén

hén

dh- thén

léngthen

stréngthen

âlien

tâken

wêaken

brôken

tôken

wôken

dàrken

heàrken

póllen

swôllen

mén

-mən in most words -men

Yémen

spŏrtsmen

spécimen

chíldren

bréthren

wörsen

léssen

delicatéssen

bêaten

.*sóffən sóften

.*fāssən fāsten

.*hâyssən hâsten

.*líssən lísten

.*glíssən glísten

bird bíttërn ≈ bite bítten

íll-gótten

héaven

hâven

êven

eléven

séven

òven

còven

or prû- prôven

wôven

Ôwen

óxen

yén

Zén

-n -gn

campâign

vèin rhymes with dèign

would fâin = pretend fèign

wet râin = monarch rèign

.*sóvrin sóvereign

-lîne malîgn

-nîne benîgn

mathematics sîne = signal sîgn

-zîne desîgn

-zîne resîgn

-sîne énsîgn

-pyûne impûgn

pub ínn = out ín

Câin

disdâin

gâin

.*əgén; some regularise it to agâin - again

slâin

explâin

mâin

cf. germâne relevant = Germâine person - remâin

brâin

Bahrâin

trâin

retâin

person Bríton = country Brítain

-tín cáptain

dín

skèin

Elmer Bërnstêin

Leonard Bërnsteîn

thín

detërmine rhymes with vërmin

pín

sín

bâsin

tín

-m -mn

condemn dám = water dámn

condémn

sólemn

cólumn

åutumn

man hím = church hýmn

out ín = pub ínn

ón

mostly schwa, as are Cámden, Màrsden, Hámpden, Hámpton -on

càrbon

university, clothing dón

Héndon

Lòndon

cŏrdon

cf. gàrdenGŏrdon

curmúdgeon

pígeon

-njən dúngeon

-jən sürgeon

-jən stürgeon

-nchən trúncheon

bandôneon

Lêón

.*kəmêlêən; AmE -mê-; in fast speech -lyən, like míllion, Austrâlian - chamaêlêon

Napôleon

nêón

péntagon

bándwagon

àrgón

BrE *pólygən, AmE pólygón

îón

-yən -ion

most words spelt thus in Spanish are -tion in English -cion

-sh- suspícion

Asunción

-sh- côërcion

rêgion

lêgion

relígion

fáshion

cf. percússion, also -sh- - cùshion

vermílion

gálleon rhymes with stállion

bíllion

míllion

tríllion

búllion

ònion

ûnion

Orîon

centûrion

-zhən after vowels; -shən after consonants, including after another s and, in BrE, after another r: -sion

lêsion

vísion

télevision

revísion

scánsion

expánsion

-éntion -énshən = -énsion

comprehénsion

pénsion

suspénsion

ténsion

preténsion

exténsion

avërsion

dîvërsion

convërsion

excürsion

dîgréssion

séssion

míssion

ím- emíssion

əm- omíssion

-sh- percússion

fûsion

delûsion

illûsion

intrûsion

mostly -shən –tion

inundâtion

foundâtion

creâtion

renunciâtion

pronunciâtion

installátion

constellátion

confirmâtion

formâtion

nâtion

rátion

vî- vibrâtion

mî- migrâtion

-kshən -ction

áction

afféction

conféction

BrE can be -éxion - refléction

colléction

BrE can be -éxion - connéction

eréction

diréction

contradíction

.*sángktchən sánction

.*úngktchən únction

.*fúngktchən fúnction

.*júngktchən júnction

.*cəmpúngkshən compúnction

complêtion

discrétion

definítion

preposítion

proposítion

opposítion

competítion

frûítion

= -énsion, -énshən -éntion

méntion

deténtion

inténtion

atténtion

prevéntion

absŏrption

erúption

abŏrtion

contŏrtion

contribûtion

distribûtion

pollûtion

solûtion

-éxion is, except for compléxion, BrE only: other words end in -éction - éxion

so AmE, BrE refléction = BrE only refléxion

cf. conféction - *compléction compléxion

cf. convíction - crucifíxion

nŷlón

dêmon

lémon

Sólomon

Lébanon

cánnon

Shánnon

moôn

buffoôn

balloôn

lampoôn

harpoôn

cf. càrton - cartoôn

upón

person Bárron = lord báron

person Sháron

person AmE Sharôn, BtE Sharón

sáffron

eléctrón

neûtrón

sh- chévrón

boy sòn

bîson

Áshton

Élton

Lýttelton

prôtón

càrton

Nŏrton

east êastern BrE = person Êaston

west wéstern BrE = person Wéston

cf. Féatherstone, etc. Ålston

Màrston

Rŏyston

bútton

mútton

Sútton

wòn

cf. Jáckson, Híckson, etc. Díxon

Níxon

Ríxon

bàrn

dàrn

ëarn

lëarn

cf. wårm, wörm: wear wŏrn = person Wårne = warning wårn

yàrn

direction türn = bird tërn

lántern

stërn

astërn

persons Pátten = Pátton = BrE arrange páttern

bŏrn

cŏrn

cf. wriggly wörm - warning wårn = wear wŏrn

ürn

bürn

chürn

round türn

fún

gún

nòun

shine sún

Whítsun

dåwn

påwn

spåwn

pråwn

heŵn

.*sône seed sewn

gòwn

blôwn

môwn

renòwn

.*nôan knôwn

bròwn

cròwn

grôwn

tòwn

O

mostly ô; never -ó -o

placêbô

usually *ənkô - & cô, and cô

stúccô

flaméncô

do

vídêo

Montevidèo

Lêo

Clìo = Clêo

Galilèo

lumbâgo

dóggô

vërtigo

Djángo

lôgô

Tôgo

mácho

.*sŷko psŷcho

.*Tŷko Tŷcho

-shô braggadôcio

portfôlio

pôlio

-ss- impresàrio

-shô râtio

-shô Horâtio

taboô

gôo

ígloô

Wåterloô

shampoô

kangaroô

woô

.*Búrə - it means Míddlesbrough, which doesn’t have the ò - ends in schwa - Bòro

prô

cf. bûreau - pólitburo

Plâto

AmE tomâto BrE tomàto

potâto

f- phôto

Plûto

at to = also, many toô = 2 tŵo

émbrỳo

P

cáp

gáp

snáp

táp

stép

híp

friéndship

kíngship

crāftsmanship

shôwmanship

wörship

kíp

skíp

líp

clíp

flíp

slíp

whíp

gríp

tríp

stríp

whélp

kélp

cámp

dámp

lámp

rámp

crámp

trámp

hémp

ímp

skímp

límp

pímp

wímp

búmp

dúmp

thúmp

júmp

lúmp

slúmp

frúmp

trúmp

devélop

cf. noun énvelôpe - verb envélop

flóp

póp

sóp

désktóp

láptóp

hoôp

droôp

troôp

loôp

sloôp

stoôp

càrp

hàrp

wårp

bürp

slürp

clāsp

rāsp

grāsp

crísp

wísp

cúsp

úp

cùp

bird coô = overthrow coûp

.*rêcoôp recoûp

.*groôp groûp

gåwp

Q

Mùshtaq

Iràq

Sádiq

Táriq

R

where unstressed, schwa -ar

bazàar

bàr

càr

râdàr

cálendar

êar

cf. drink bêer - naked bãre = animal, tolerate béãr

cf. risk dãre - animal dêer = beloved, expensive dêar

fêar

gêar

there hêre = ear hêar

look lêer = person Lêar

clêar

unclêar

.*nûclêə(r) nûclear

smêar

yêar or yëar

cf. búgger - béggar

though contemporaries pronounced it ending in schwa - Élgàr

sh- sùgar

buŷer, flŷer and trîer rhyme with lîar

brîar

jàr

símilar

píllar

cáterpillar

cóllar

hóller rhymes with dóllar

sk- schólar

môlar

múscular

régular

júgular

grámmar

-z- quâsàr

púlsàr

Qátàr

néctar

scímitàr

sítàr

change ålter = church åltar

mŏrtar

stàr

schwa: AmE uh = BrE er

mostly schwa; stressed -ër in some words; some AmE -er words are -re in BrE. -er

câber

silent b: *clîmer clîmber

tímber

encúmber

cûcumber

lúmber

silent b: *plúmmer plúmber

cáncer

dāncer

cîder

glîder

spîder

person Rŷder = ride, logic rîder

insîder

bold bôlder = rock bôulder

shôulder

propagánda rhymes with BrE gánder

- Leánder

- meánder

cf. sqùalor - sqùander

ẁander

wònder

yónder

enginêer

pîonêer

iléc- electionêer

cf. wither sêar, one diphthong, one syllable - *sêeər, two syllables see sêer

voluntêer

defër

confër

refër

prefër

óffer

próffer

cónifer

pílfer

hard g - làger

-j- mánager

cf. béggar - dágger

bígger

lógger

blógger

.*Nizhãir Nigér

hard g - tîger

hard g pronounced separately: áng-ger ánger

.*dânjer dânger

g not pronounced separately from -ng-; aeroplane hángar = coat hánger

.*mânjer mânger

.*strânjer strânger

.*jínjer gínger

hard g sounded separately: líng-ger línger

no g sound sínger

no g sound wínger

hard g sounded separately *mòng-ger -mònger

físhmònger

warmonger

hard g sounded separately: *stróng-ger - strónger

àrcher

màrcher

cátcher

decîpher

gôpher

cîpher or cŷpher

usually voiced th and schwa -ther

bâther

féather

héather

léather

climate wéather

BrE far fàrther = AmE as well as BrE dad fàther

cf. AmE fàther - AmE láther - lāther

bláther

cf. AmE fàther - AmE ráther - rāther

unvoiced th - êther

togéther

if whéther

téther

for most speakers where whíther = decay wíther

òther

bóther

smòther

mòther

one word anòther

bròther

fàrther

fürther

idéntifîer

supplîer

ëarlier

person Crŷer = cry, town crîer

pìêr

silent French r - dóssièr

cry têar = level tìêr

jôker

hoòker

snoôker

pôker

bàrker

wörker

hándler

tóddler

jâiler

tåller

dóllar rhymes with hóller

rôller

stámmer

baseball hômer = person Hômer

wårmer

fŏrmer

góner

lôner

kêeper

léper

.*loôzer loser

câter

lâter

wåter

cf. áctor - k- cháracter

detër

cf. BrE mêtre, AmE mêter distance, rhythm - parámeter

perímeter

thermómeter

Pêter

trúmpeter

.*dåwter dåughter

āfter rhymes with lāughter

.*slåwter slåughter

wâiter

church åltar = change ålter

fålter

Wålter

shélter

helter-skélter

wélter

promôter

hélicopter

stàrter

disāster

Chéster

Mánchester

Dŏrchester

or -or: protéster

gángster

yoúngster

blíster

síster

hípster

bátter

fátter

hátter

mátter

pátter

bétter

bítter

lítter

hótter

tótter

bútter

stútter

commûter

compûter

.*lácker lácquer

avër

hâver

brâver

quâver

wâver

fêver

whichéver

AmE léver - BrE lêver

cléver

whenéver

.*hû-éver whoéver

wheréver

.*wót-éver whatéver

hòwéver

fîver

líver

ríver

arrow, shake quíver

ôver

còver

Dôver

hóver

lòver

plòver

art dråwdesk dråwer

bòwer

flòwer

glòwer

pòwer

tòwer

cf. lãir - *lãyə lâyer

.*plâyə(r) plâyer

.*prãir prãyer

.*fŏyây fŏyèr

låwyer rhymes with emplŏyer

buŷer

.*lŏyer låwyer

thére *thãir rhymes with ãir

hãir

despãir

fïr

-vwàr réservoir

tâpìr

stïr

bestïr

mostly schwa, as also -er and -our; none of the words listed right here have the -our ending in British English, see -our for some other American English -or spellings: -or

córridŏr

cóndŏr

fŏr

abhŏr

ultêrior

antêrior

postêrior

ánk- ánchor

person Tâylor = clothes tâilor

pállor

chāncellor

trémor

gòvernor

dŏor

pŏor

térror

hórror

spónsor

téar tŏre = crag tŏr

álligâtor

flagellâtor

órator

colláborator

narrâtor

spectâtor

áctor

léctor

Selécter band = seléctor

colléctor

protéctor

véctor

dóctor

proprîetor

trâitor

méntŏr

protéster is much more common than protéstor

invéstor

resístor

transístor

impóstor

whïrr

Cŏrr

fürr

pürr

occür

incür

concür

.*grándure, BrE *gránjə grándeur

on- entreprenëur

rapportëur

frottëur

longuëur

voyëur

für

AmE súlfur BrE súlphur

demür

fêmur

lêmur

mürmur

we òur = time hòur

doûr

AmE hàrbor BrE *hàrbə hàrbour

AmE ráncor BrE *ráncə ráncour

scòur

preposition fŏr = 4 fŏur

petal flòwer = dough flòur

AmE còlor BrE *cúlə còlour

cf. sqùander: AmE sqùalor BrE *skwólə sqùalour

AmE glámor BrE *glámə glámour

AmE hûmor BrE *hûmə hûmour

silent h: AmE hónor BrE *ónə hónour

sòur

téar tŏre = hill tŏr = for some speakers travel toûr

nón séquitur

-ə(r) -yr

zéphyr

màrtyr

S

.*áz ás

.*(h)w(é)əráz whereás

.*ház hás

.*Cánzus Kánsas

-såw Årkansås

.*wóz ẁas

AmE *ërbs hërbs

thê- theátrics

-x athlétics

-x gymnástics

-x logístics

Nétherlands

-dz fŏrwards

words from Greek, etc: -êz -ês

Ándês

antípodês

côdes

-íz édges

-íz lódges

-íz Hódges

hew heŵs = person Hûghes

lúllabîes

-íz râbíes

.*síəríz sêríes

-íz AmE wörríes, BrE wòrríes

Lós = lóss lose; -íz Lós Ángeles

distance mîles = person Mîles

minimal pair: cf. shékels - sháckles

minimal pair: êasels rhymes with mêasles

-z Hërculês

-nz Bàrnes

Jóhn Mâynard Kèynes

Mílton Kêynes

.*dúzz dòes

.*gôze gôes

hêroes

.*tôze tôes

-tôze potâtoes

plural of -sís in Greek-derived words (see English irregular nouns) -sês

parénthesês

cf. prîces *prîsíz - *crŷsêez crîsês

.*loôziz loses

glāsses

-zíz hòuses

-ssíz spòuses

Sócratês

hêaves

leave, leaf lêaves

have-nots háves

shâves

wâves

thief thìêves

Îves

gíves

-k- àrchîves

plural noun lîves

singular verb líves

knife knîves

arrîves

môtíves

wife wîves

calf càlves

valve válves

elf élves

delve délves

shelf shélves

self sélves

one word, as with following: *òursélvz oursélves

.*yŏrsélvz yoursélves

.*dhəmsélvz themsélves

.*wùlvz wolves

cf. dòves - drôves

hoof hoôves

scarf scàrves

.*yéss yés

hoôves rhymes with roôfs

-gz dógs

parîahs

big sîze = sigh sîghs

-āffs lāughs

-óffs cóughs

.*íz ís

.*híz hís

plurals, no apostrophes, -íz Bangladéshis

-íz Bengålis

-íz Nepålis

-íz Isrâelis

-iz semifinals sémis

-əss pênis

-íz Sùnnis

-nŏy Íllinois

-íss Páris

Hórace and Mórris = BrE Maurice rhyme with Bóris and Dóris

Hárris

térrace rhymes with Férris

rhyming with Hórace, BrE Maurice = Mórris

Nórris

thêsis

Greek-derived words in -sís, *síss, have -sês, *sêez, to mark their plurals (see English Irregular Nouns) sýnthesis

némesis

-íss Dâvis

-íss Mâvis

-íss Trávis

Élvis

pélvis

-íss áxis

léxis

.*nóx knócks

loòks

spoôks

-z sélls

-z húms

words from Greek: -óss -ós

.*kâyós châos

insect lòuse = nation Làos

-dôz tornâdos

rhinóceros

-pss hélps

schnápps

heart cŏre = army cŏrps

-z stàrs

lîars, trîers and buŷers rhyme with plîers

bôres, BrE påuse, and påws rhyme with dŏors

mostly -íss -ess

.*áxéss áccéss

góddéss

cãreless

ûseless

hápless

hélpless

t can be silent in lístless

t can be silent in réstless

méss

goòdness

lîonéss

cf. clêan - cléanliness

clúmsiness

nāstiness

shŷness

dréss

áctress

stréss

headmístress

cf. áccess *áxéss - asséss

silent u - guéss

kíss

míss

lóss

grôss

cúss

-tss cáts

Kêats

Yâtes = Yeâts

it is ít’s = of it íts

mostly -əss -us

-ss bús

ábacus

fôcus

-oôz Híndûs

-kəss Bácchus

Sibèlius

Dêlius

Jûlius

j-; cf. adjective ingênious - noun gênius

ignorâmus

j- gênus

-yoôz ménûs

for adjectives = -us mostly for nouns: -əss –ous

cåucus rhymes with råucous

-dəss - only found in the following five words -dous

treméndous

stûpendous

horréndous

jép- jéopardous

házardous

-jəss outrâgeous

-jəss gŏrgeous

simultâneous

pugnâcious

-êsh- spêcious

-ésh- précious

-ísh- vícious

uncónscious

relígious rhymes with sacrilegious

cf. noun gênius - adjective ingênious

pîous

censŏrious

kyù- cùrious

-ísh- fictítious

óbvious

prêvious

.*ánkshus ánxious

jéalous

zéalous

màrvellous

ridículous

fâmous

ínfə- ínfamous

ánimus cf. ûnánimous

cf. vërtigo, hard g - g as j in vertíginous

glûtinous

glúttonous

scábrous

wòndrous

slānderous

thúnderous

mürderous

nûmerous

from BrE -our (AmE -or) - -orous

rígorous

vígorous

glámorous

hûmorous

díz- disàstrous

mónstrous

vácûous

fátûous

nërvous

.*Bélla-Roôse Belarûs

cf. prósperous - phósphorus

rhêsus

cénsus

consénsus

sánctus

ríctus

-z jåws

irregular: *séz says

regular: *stâze stâys

-âze sîdeways

never used to form plurals: either a singular possessive or an abbreviation of ís - 's

w-, plural ònes = possessive òne’s

or *híz hê’s

or *shíz shê’s

chíldren’s

of it íts = it is ít’s

T

át

cát

bêat

hêat

chêat

plêat

nêat

fát

voiced th - thát

slát

ash grâte = big greât

swéat

bôat

côat

flôat

glôat

môat

Crôát

thrôat

.*dét débt

.*dòut dòubt

touch afféct

emotion áffect

result í- efféct

adjective përfect

verb perféct

thing óbject

disagree objéct

matter súbject

cruel subjéct

verb rejéct

noun rêjéct

colléct

connéct

áspect

respéct

.*éxtradîte éxtradîct

person áddict

verb addíct

êdict

.*indîte indîct

vërdict

person cónvict

verb convíct

mostly -ít (-ət in Australasian English), but some have French -ây -et

BrE Hërbert rhymes with shërbet

t sounded hit búffet

.*bùffây food bùffèt

.*crôshây crôchet

rátchet

crótchet

thícket

pícket

crícket

wícket

màrket

-lây chálèt

cf. -létte - *boòklít; these words are -lət in Australasian English - boòklet

píglet

.*bállây bállèt

mállet

ẁallet

bíllet

tríplet

AmE all stressed on medial û: -ûplet; BrE medial u as schwa - qùadruplet, quíntuplet, séxtuplet, séptuplet, óctuplet

stàrlet

Jánet

plánet

gánnet

cŏrnet

límpet

-rây bérèt

å - quartét

bánquet

-kây crôquèt

-kây sóbriquèt

BrE *pàhkây, AmE *parkây pàrquèt

.*boô-kây bouquèt

déft

héft

léft

beréft

míffed rhymes with ríft

dríft

shríft

lóft

.*yót yacht

mostly silent gh -ght

èight

heîght

frèight

wèight

fîght

lîght

delîght

plîght

cf. sleîght-of-hánd - little slîght

nîght

rîght

frîght

tîght

person Wrîght = correct, left rîght = maker -wrîght

.*plâywrîte plâywrîght

cópyrîght

should ŏught = any åught

cåught

drāft = drāught

fråught

any åught = should ŏught

bŏught

fŏught

nŏught

brŏught

dròught

wrŏught

ít

-ate rhymes with -âit

breath bâte = catch bâit

door gâte = walk gâit

heavy wèight = linger wâit

awâit

bít

inhábit

prohíbit

déficit

còunterfeít

fŏrfeít

sürfeít

Fáhrenheît

befít

fít

hít

kít

lít

admít

commít

ômít

vómit

sít

-kít cïrcuit

-skít bíscuit

cóndûít

quít

-roôt recrûit

.*froòt frûit

cf. soòt - *sût or *syût sûit

Jésûít

-syoôt pursûit

quít

wít

dímwit

outwít

côbålt

hålt

målt

bélt

K- Célt

n- knélt

félt

jílt

kílt

sílt

tílt

.*bílt buílt

wílt

fåult

cúlt

only word ending in -mt (cf. prómpt) - dréamt

ánt

AmE cannot cán’t = philosopher Kánt = words cánt

signíficant

descéndant

deféndant

adjective depéndent = person depéndant

BrE *pànshàn, AmE pénchant

trénchant

clâimant

dŏrmant

còvenant

cf. próminent - dóminant

rámpant

árrant

érrant

now cúrrent = eat cúrrant

pléasant

incéssant

blâtant

hésitant

contéstant

resístant

rélevant

sërvant

ẁant

send sént = money cént

.*áxent áccent

dêcent

rêcent

magníficent

ascént

dént

précedent

antecêdent

áxi- áccident

óxi- óccident

résident

président

person depéndant = adjective depéndent

indepéndent

j- man (abbreviation of géntleman) gént

stríngent

púngent

hard G- Belgium Ghént

obêdient

Christian Lént = lend lént

éxcellent

repéllent

fråudulent

cf. mean méant - suffix -ment

engâgement

mánagement

séttlement

AmE´ádvertîsement, BrE -tíssm- advërtísement

âilment

gòvernment

pâyment

përmanent

cf. dóminant - próminent

përtinent

oppônent

pãrent

appárent

transpárent

dífferent

inhérent

cohêrent

réverent

irréverent

eat cúrrant = now cúrrent

money cént = send sént

tént

cómpetent

inadvërtent

consístent

persístent

nón-exístent

vént

fërvent

línt

flínt

glínt

mínt

pînt

frònt

dåunt

gåunt

håunt

verb discòunt

noun díscount

vîc- vîscount

blúnt

rúnt

stúnt

gót

.*éscàr-gô escargôt

Màrgo = Màrgôt

hót

lót

no nót = tie knót

boôt

hoôt

foòt

loôt

roôt

soòt

pót

rót

árrow rhymes with tárôt

gold cárat = eat cárrot

párrot

tót

ápt

léapt

accépt

excépt

képt

slépt

wépt

prê-émpt

unkémpt

exémpt

noun éxcërpt

íx- verb excërpt

àrt

pàrt

depàrt

impàrt

wårt

dïrt

flïrt

fŏrt

shŏrt

repŏrt

noun ímport

verb impŏrt

sŏrt

verb consŏrt

cf. cóncert - noun cónsŏrt

person Kürt = terse cürt

hürt

êast

bêast

fêast

lêast

bréast

yêast

fāst

lāst

māst

vāst

stréssed rhymes with -est

bést

íncést

.*hŷíst hîghest

.*drŷíst drîest

priêst

jést

lést

nést

vést

wést

lôwest

ángst

râcist

.*fáshist fáscist

líst

sôshə- sôcialist

týpist

gríst

K- Chrîst

-k- Gílchríst

insíst

consíst

persíst

exíst

whîlst

cóst

dusty dúst = archaic do dòst

hôst

ghôst

lóst

fŏremôst

úppermôst

òutermôst

pôst

fïrst

thïrst

wörst

cürsed rhymes with bürst

hürst

búst

lôcust

lúst

trúst

cýst

ánalýst

cátalýst

more common in family names like Péttitt and Sénnett (= sénate house) than in ordinary words: -tt

ẁatt

head bútt

Àrgonaut

cóz- cósmonaut

ástronaut

júggernaut

however bút

cút

jút

glút

slút

nút

òut

gòut

clòut

pòut

tòut

.*impùt ínput

rút

neŵt

nòwt

séxed rhymes with néxt

téxt

cān’t

shān’t

hádn’t

nêedn’t

dídn’t

.*cùdənt coùldn’t

.*shùdənt shoùldn’t

.*wùdənt woùldn’t

àren’t

dãren’t

wëren’t

háven’t

âin’t

dôn’t

habit wônt = will wôn’t

.*házzənt hásn’t

.*wózzənt ẁasn’t

.*dúzzənt dòesn’t

.*ízzənt ísn’t

.*åwtənt ŏughtn’t

.*mússənt mústn’t

.*mîtənt mìghtn’t

U

.*táblô tábleau

.*byoôrô bûreau

.*troôssô troûsseau

.*pláttô pláteau

silent u in Guinea; -ssòw Guínea Bíssàù

illness flû

.*êemyoô êmû

cáriboû

gùrû

V

-óff Gorbachev

-nyéff Brézhnev

along with many other such Slavonic names, -ov as -óff (such words were once spelt -off) Chékhov

-óff Mólotov

dërv

W

guffåw

jåw

låw

clåw

animal påw

dråw

see, wood såw

little feŵ = relief pheŵ

Jeŵ

neŵ

reneŵ

síneŵ

therefore = needle sew

dreŵ

me yoû = sheep eŵe = tree yeŵ

London Bôw = ribbon bôw

incline bòw

còw

(some say -òw) Móscôw

Dòw

wíndôw

hòw

lôw

belôw

flôw

allòw

-llôw

fállow

ẁallow

sẁallow

béllow

féllow

méllow

yéllow

bíllow

píllow

fóllow

hóllow

môw

nòw

negative = knowledge knôw

line rôw

argue ròw

grôw

thrôw

pròw

árrôw

bárrôw

fárrôw

hárrôw

nárrôw

spárrôw

needle sew = seeds sôw

pig sòw

foot tôe = pull tôw

stôw

bestôw

vòw

X

data fácts = machine fáx

hasn’t lácks = careless láx

côax

hôax

wáx

dúst flécks = cord fléx

rêflex

cïrcumflex

véx

fíx

míx

síx

high jínks = curse jínx

mínx

quíncunx

lýnx

phárynx

óx

bóx

person Cóx = boat cóx

páradóx

ŏrthodóx

flúmmox

dêtóx

plural -lôz tábleaux

plural -rôz bûreaux

flúx

crúx

Y

after a consonant, mostly -

as a suffix, may be pronounced -dỳ in days of the week such as Mònday, but normally: dây

bïrthday

hóliday

Frîday

wêekday

wörkday

Mònday

Súnday

todây

yésterday

Sáturday

doom doômsday = Book Domesday

Wédnesday

Tûesday

Thürsday

Mâyday

hèyday

elf fèy = person Fây

gây

hây

clây

delây

plây

displây

verb mây = month Mây

sây

.*Línzy Líndsay

daresây

hêarsay

stây

cf. place names in - - *Páragwŷ Páraguaŷ

.*Yûrəgwŷ Ûruguaŷ

weight wèigh = how wây

awày

verb is two words breâkaway

verb is two words rúnaway

verb is two words gétaway

Gålway

cricket, farewell bŷe = 2 - = preposition

bâby

cábbie and words in -ábby rhyme with Gáby

lúllabŷ

abbot ábbey = persons Àbbey = Ábby

shábby

flábby

tábby

lóbby

Dígby

rúgby

Dólby

lâybŷ

sight sêe = -sỳ = -cỳ

Mâcy

râcy

cf. hypócrisy - thêócracy

cf. hypócrisy - demócracy

.*byurócracy bureaucracy

áccuracy

cf. verb próphesŷ - noun próphecỳ

nŏrmalcy

fáncy

chāncy

nécrománcy

person Náncy

France Nàncy

discrépancy

téndency

cúrrency

constítuency

shâdy

lâdy

trágedy

cómedy

përfidy

súbsidy

persons Àbbey = Ábby = abbot ábbey

obèy

person Fây = whimsy fèy

Hárringây = Háringèy

thèy

whèy

kêy

cf. lúcky, tácky - láckêy

hóckey

dónkêy

mònkêy

lèy

állêy

válley

trólley

fólly rhymes with vólley

jóckêy

dónkêy

mònkêy

cart drây = nest, cart drèy

Jéffrêy

AmE all meanings stŏry = BrE floor stŏrey

ósprêy or ósprèy

-zy Jërsêy

cf. invèigh, final syllable rhymes - convèy

purvèy

Hàrvêy

íffy

jíffy

stúffy

símplifŷ

mágnifŷ

vérifŷ

goôfy

dódgy

pódgy

-jy strátegy

fóggy

-njỳ -ngy

-jy mângy

-jy díngy

-ləjỳ -logy

jêó- geólogy

sôsh- sociólogy

-jy astrólogỳ

-jy énergy

-jy sýnergy

-jy líturgy

.*díng-y dínghy

.*dôwy dôughy

jó- geógraphy

cf. catástrophê, apóstrophê - trôphy

átrophy

voiced th, cf. thîgh, unvoiced, same vowel sound: thŷ

telépathy

sýmpathy

lêaky

tácky

cf. jóckey - lúcky

plúcky

pôky

âbly

próbably

regréttably

nó- knóbbly

fêebly

vísibly

respónsibly

dumb *dúmly dúmbly

crumble crúmbly

nôbly

cf. bâsically - públicly

admíttedly

lîkely

two ls pronounced - sôlely

delíberately

complêtely

prîmãrily

necessãrily

temporãrily

militãrily

momentãrily

-z- êasily

quíckly

cf,állêy - állŷ

cf. públicly - económically

tópically

bâsically

mûsically

illêgally

víscerally

incidéntally

tôtally

mostly female Bíllie = either Bílly

two l’s pronounced shrílly

sílly

minimal pair: vólley rhymes with fólly

two l’s pronounced whôlly

two l’s pronounced coôlly

two l’s pronounced dúlly

fùlly

replŷ

ëarly

dêarly

nêarly

pëarly

cléverly

fãirly

bürly

vígorously

cf. Béntley - AmE evidéntly, BrE évidently

áptly

trûly

Âmy

astrónomy

- gastrónomy

autónomy

cf. epítomê - hysteréctomy

.*énny any

.*ménny many

zâny

prógeny

shîny

Plíny

cf. tin tínny - small tîny

whîny

Jénnie = Jénny

Kénny

Lénnie = Lénny

Pénny = pénny

Jóhnnie = Jóhnny

Dónny

fúnny

súnny

BrE o as schwa, AmE -môny

BrE *hígémony (hard g), AmE *héjəmôny hegemony

îrony

pôny

Tôny

misógyny

bŏy

jŏy

tŏy

álloy

annŏy

háppy

AmE, when stressed syllable does not come immediately before it, -ãry or -éry, cf. -ery; BrE a as AmE or as schwa or silent; see also -ory - -ary

Cãry

Gáry

-shəry judíciary

vocábulary

canãry

gránary

paper stâtionery = stop stâtionary

díctionary

.*lîbry, *lîbəry - though some pronounce both rs: lîbrary

nécessary

líterary

suppleméntary

documéntary

BrE *Jányəry, AmE *Jányûãry, Jánuary

BrE *Fébry, *Fébyəry, AmE *Fébyûãry, though some pronounce both rs - Fébruary

vãry

wãry

crŷ

gímmickry rhymes with mímicry

drŷ

tåwdry

mostly e as schwa: can sound like -ry in BrE: -ery

físhery

fîery

bâkery

coòkery

sh- chicânery

stop stâtionary = paper stâtionery

conféctionery

míz- mísery

cürsory rhymes with nürsery

cémetery

quêry

véry

brâvery

recòvery

discòvery

quêry

frŷ

bélfry

ángry

húngry

mímicry rhymes with gímmickry

gŏry

glŏry

compúlsory

nürsery rhymes with cürsory

Tŏry

usually pronounced -trỳ in BrE, ŏ pronounced in AmE: -tory

oblígatory

óratory

AmE láboratŏry, BrE labóratory

satisfáctory

réctory

diréctory

trajéctory

dŏrmitory

stŏry

hístory

prŷ

Bárry

person Cárrie = fetch cárry

Hárry

márry

earth burỳ = fruit bérry

AmE -bérry, BrE -brêe bláckberry

blûeberry

AmE rázb-, BrE ràzb- rāspberry

stråwberry

lórry

sórry

AmE wörry, BrE wòrry

cúrry

fürry

húrry

trŷ

påltry

pléasantry

péasantry

bígotry

áncestry

sóphistry

ké- chémistry

fruit bérrỳ = earth bury

Dûry

Drûry

lúxury

mostly = -cỳ -sỳ

-zêe êasy

-sêe grêasy

-zêe quêasy

like demócracy, thêócracy all -ssy idiosýncrasy

-sêe écstasy

-zêe chêesy

cf. noun próphecỳ -sêe - verb próphesŷ

-sêe héresy

demócracy and thêócracy rhyme with hypócrisy

léprosy

-sêe émbassy

-sêe fússy

dízzy rhymes with *bízzy busy

-sêe jéalousy

-zêe Sûzy = Sûsie = Sûzie = Sûsy

-rity entîrety

cíty

felícity

stupídity

reálity

cf. spécialty - speciálity

mentálity

facílity

relîabílity

flexibílity

celébrity

iníquity

antíquity

fêalty

cf. speciálity - spécialty

lŏyalty

rŏyalty

crûelty

silent h - hónesty

thïrsty

Kïrsty

goodbye, cricket bŷe = preposition = money buŷ

nâvy

wâvy

bévy

cf. lévêe, Lêvî - Lêvy

îvy

prívy

ánchovy

scürvy

sávvy

cívvy

skívvy

deŵy

wáxy

fóxy

slêazy

dâzy

hâzy

lâzy

crâzy

whêezy

dízzy

Z

bíz

whízz or whíz

quíz

Óz

cat cáts = Kátz

get géts = Stan Gétz

-ts kibbùtz

Strâit of Hormùz

jázz

razzmatázz

pizzázz

fízz

búzz

fúzz

zzzz

Double letters

The following alphabetical table shows examples of how letters can be doubled in English.

Double letters before suffixes are used to preserve short vowel sounds as in flípped (not *flîped), rebélled (not *rebêled) and pégged (not *pêged, which would probably in any case be pronounced *pêjed). Compare scrâped, past of scrâpe, and scrápped, from scráp. In the case of t, doubling it after an unstressed vowel and before a suffix may seem unnecessary, but in some cases it can be doubled before -ed: either tàrgeted or tàrgetted.

The sign # indicates a double letter that is rare in that position; capital-letter words indicate that the double letter in this position is only found in names. An asterisk (*) indicates a respelling to show pronunciation and an equals sign (=) introduces a homophone.

letter initial medial final final + silent e
a àardvark #[3] Transvàal # bàa #
b ríbbon ébb # Crábbe
c sóccer (*sócker), accépt (*əxépt)
d hídden ádd
e êel bêen sêe
f éffort clíff Clíffe
g aggréssion égg # Légge (= lég)
h hítchhike # (accidental)
i skìíng # Hawàìi #
j hàjj # (also spelt hàdj)
k púkka #[4]
l llàma # fílling wéll bélle
m súmmer Crámm grámme
n dínner ínn # pub Ánne (= Ánn)
o oôze, oòmph # foôd, foòt, flòod, BrE doŏr toô Loôe (= loô)
p flípped
q Sadìqqi #
r érror pürr
s méssy lóss crevásse
t bétter ẁatt couchétte -sh-
u vácuum # (*vákyoôm)
v flívver #
w
x Éxxon ™ # Bób B. Sóxx #
y Khayyàm #
z fízzy búzz

Table of accents

These accents are intended to show the pronunciation while retaining the spelling: they are not part of the language. Those on i and y show the same sound; similarly with u, oo and w. Accented vowels are stressed ( is normally unstressed, as in háppy). ā, not in the table, means that the sound is à in British English and á in American.

Front vowels Back vowels
e i y[5] a o u oo w[6]
The typical short sound: pét pít crýpt cát dóg[7] nút
The typical long sound, corresponding to the names of the letters A, E, I, O and U: sêe nîce nâme nôse tûne toô neŵ
The 'third' sound (- and - indicate the ó sound of the following a, ẁad rhyming with qùad; òu and òw are diphthongs sounding like àù in àùtobahn: nòw has this sòund): èight machìne quaỳ water = keỳ (kêy) lock àre òther fùll, qùantity foòt ẁant[8]
The ër sound, as in ër, Î dôn’t thínk sô: përson bïrd mÿrtle wörd pürr
The ŏr sound, as in thís ŏr thát (also used for cŏin and jŏy): såw mŏre (for some BrE speakers) sůre
The ãir sound, as in frésh ãir: (thére) stãre
Irregular (with respelling): sęw (ô) merįngue (á) becąuse (ó) wǫman (ù) bųsiness (í)

Example sentences

Words without accents have the schwa sound, a neutral grunt.

The usual short sound:

The gínger cát was jéalous of the bláck cát: howéver, the tábby was a véry dífferent mátter - the stúff of réveries, ín fáct.

The usual long sound:

Sây mŷ nâme thrêe tîmes with stŷle and Î’ll gô and fînd a tûne to plây for yoû.

The third sound:

Christìna Grèy shoùld lòve her mòther and fàther (and dòes).

The ‘ër’ sound:

But fïrst, Mÿrtle, fürther dïrty, ïrksome and distürbing wörk for the nürses.

The ‘ŏr’ sound (sůre here is with British pronunciation = Shåw):

Sůre yoû ŏught to cråwl ón åll fŏurs, m’lŏrd?

Irregular, with respelling:

Many women? Any woman! (pronounced: *Ménny *wímmin? *Énny *wùman!)

Notes

  1. Different accents, mostly from French, are sometimes used, however; see French words in English. Also, some Hawaiian words have accents.[1]
  2. Plural of referéndum: for more words like this, see English irregular nouns.
  3. àardvark and Transvàal are from Afrikàans, itself a further example.
  4. Also accidental in boòkkeeper, with a pause to indicate both k’s are pronounced.
  5. When not accented, y is usually the semi-consonant of yoû and yés.
  6. When not accented, w is usually the semi-consonant of and wíll.
  7. In American English this short British sound is replaced by the longer à in most positions, and by ŏ before r.
  8. Grave accents on w and on a u following a q indicate the sound of the following a: à in American English, but in British the extra sound ó as in the British pronunciation of hót.