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'''Books of the Bible''' are listed differently in the Bibles of [[Jew]]s, and [[Catholic]], [[Protestantism|Protestant]], and other [[Christians]]. In addition to books found in some Bibles but not others, there are further variations: order may differ; titles of the same books may differ; contrariwise, books with the same title may differ more or less substantially between Bibles; and what is a book in one Bible may be just part of a book in another. Most modern editions in English follow either the Roman Catholic or the standard Protestant canon.
  
'''Books of the Bible''' are listed differently in the canons of [[Jew]]s, and [[Catholic]], [[Protestantism|Protestant]], and [[Eastern Orthodox Church|Eastern Orthodox]] [[Christians]], although there is overlap. A table comparing the canons of these denominations appears below, for both the [[Hebrew Bible]] and the [[New Testament]]. For a detailed discussion of the differences, see "[[Biblical canon]]".
+
==Universal books==
  
The Eastern Orthodox, [[Oriental Orthodox]], and [[Eastern Catholic]] churches may have minor differences in their lists of accepted books. The list given here for these churches is the most inclusive: if at least one Eastern church accepts the book, it is included here. The books included by the Roman Catholic Church are universally included in the Eastern canons.
+
First, the books universally included in modern Bibles. These constitute the Jewish Bible, or Tanakh, known to Protestants as the Old Testament (Roman Catholic and Orthodox Old Testaments include additional material, for which see below).
  
== Tanakh==
+
The Tanakh, or Jewish scriptures, nowadays have the following standard arrangement.
A table cell with an asterisk (*) indicates that a book is present but in a different order. Empty cells indicate that a book is absent from that canon; such books are often called ''[[Biblical apocrypha|apocrypha]]'', a term that is sometimes used specifically (and possibly pejoratively) to describe the books in the Catholic canon that are absent from the Protestant Bible; Catholics describe these books as ''[[deuterocanonical books|deuterocanonical]]''.  
+
  
{| border="1" cellpadding="2" cellspacing="2"
+
{|class="wikitable"
 
|-
 
|-
! ''[[Tanakh]]''<br>
+
| colspan="3" align="center" bgcolor="#00CCFF" |'''Jewish Scriptures or Tanakh'''
! Protestant Old Testament
+
! Catholic Old Testament
+
! align="center" | Eastern Orthodox Old Testament
+
! Slavonic Old Testament
+
|- align="center"
+
| colspan="5" rowspan="1" | ''[[Torah]] or [[Pentateuch]]''
+
 
|-
 
|-
| align="center" bgcolor="#ccccff" | [[Genesis]]
+
| align="center" bgcolor="#00FF00" | '''''Torah'' <br> or Law'''
| align="center" bgcolor="#ccccff" | [[Genesis]]
+
| align="center" bgcolor="#66FFCC" | '''''Nevi'im'' <br> or Prophets'''
| align="center" bgcolor="#ccccff" | [[Genesis]]
+
| align="center" bgcolor="#FFFFCC" | '''''Ketuvim'' <br> or Writings'''
| align="center" bgcolor="#ccccff" | [[Genesis]]
+
| align="center" bgcolor="#ccccff" | [[Genesis]]
+
 
|-
 
|-
| align="center" bgcolor="#ccccff" | [[Exodus]]
+
| valign="top" bgcolor="#00FF00" | 1. Genesis <br> 2. Exodus <br> 3. Leviticus <br> 4. Numbers <br> 5. Deuteronomy
| align="center" bgcolor="#ccccff" | [[Exodus]]
+
| valign="top" bgcolor="#66FFCC" |  
| align="center" bgcolor="#ccccff" | [[Exodus]]
+
''Former Prophets'' <br>
| align="center" bgcolor="#ccccff" | [[Exodus]]
+
: 6. Joshua <br>
| align="center" bgcolor="#ccccff" | [[Exodus]]
+
: 7. Judges <br>
 +
: 8. Samuel <br>
 +
: 9. Kings <br> 
 +
''Latter Prophets'' <br>
 +
: 10. Isaiah <br>
 +
: 11. Jeremiah <br>
 +
: 12. Ezekiel <br>
 +
: 13. The Twelve Prophets <br>
 +
:: a. Hosea <br>
 +
:: b. Joel <br>
 +
:: c. Amos <br>
 +
:: d. Obadiah <br>
 +
:: e. Jonah <br>
 +
:: f. Micah <br>
 +
:: g. Nahum <br>
 +
:: h. Habakkuk <br>
 +
:: i. Zephaniah <br>
 +
:: j. Haggai <br>
 +
:: k. Zechariah <br>
 +
:: l. Malachi
 +
| valign="top" bgcolor="#FFFFCC" | 14. Psalms <br> 15. Proverbs <br> 16. Job <br>
 +
''The Five Rolls'' <br>
 +
: 17. Song of Songs <br>
 +
: 18. Ruth <br>
 +
: 19. Lamentations <br>
 +
: 20. Ecclesiastes  <br>
 +
: 21. Esther <br>
 +
22. Daniel <br>
 +
23. Ezra-Nehemiah  <br>
 +
24. Chronicles
 
|-
 
|-
| align="center" bgcolor="#ccccff" | [[Leviticus]]
 
| align="center" bgcolor="#ccccff" | [[Leviticus]]
 
| align="center" bgcolor="#ccccff" | [[Leviticus]]
 
| align="center" bgcolor="#ccccff" | [[Leviticus]]
 
| align="center" bgcolor="#ccccff" | [[Leviticus]]
 
|-
 
| align="center" bgcolor="#ccccff" | [[Book of Numbers|Numbers]]
 
| align="center" bgcolor="#ccccff" | [[Book of Numbers|Numbers]]
 
| align="center" bgcolor="#ccccff" | [[Book of Numbers|Numbers]]
 
| align="center" bgcolor="#ccccff" | [[Book of Numbers|Numbers]]
 
| align="center" bgcolor="#ccccff" | [[Book of Numbers|Numbers]]
 
|-
 
| align="center" bgcolor="#ccccff" valign="top" | [[Deuteronomy]]
 
| align="center" bgcolor="#ccccff" valign="top" | [[Deuteronomy]]
 
| align="center" bgcolor="#ccccff" valign="top" | [[Deuteronomy]]
 
| align="center" bgcolor="#ccccff" valign="top" | [[Deuteronomy]]
 
| align="center" bgcolor="#ccccff" valign="top" | [[Deuteronomy]]
 
|-
 
|align="center" | ''[[Nevi'im]] or Prophets''
 
| colspan="4" align="center" bgcolor="#ffffff" | <div align="center">''Historical books''</div>
 
|-
 
| align="center" bgcolor="#ffcc99" | [[Book of Joshua|Joshua]]
 
| align="center" bgcolor="#ffcc99" | [[Book of Joshua|Joshua]]
 
| align="center" bgcolor="#ffcc99" | [[Book of Joshua|Josue]]
 
| align="center" bgcolor="#ffcc99" | [[Book of Joshua|Joshua]]
 
| align="center" bgcolor="#ffcc99" | [[Book of Joshua|Joshua]]
 
|-
 
| align="center" bgcolor="#ffcc99" | [[Book of Judges|Judges]]
 
| align="center" bgcolor="#ffcc99" | [[Book of Judges|Judges]]
 
| align="center" bgcolor="#ffcc99" | [[Book of Judges|Judges]]
 
| align="center" bgcolor="#ffcc99" | [[Book of Judges|Judges]]
 
| align="center" bgcolor="#ffcc99" | [[Book of Judges|Judges]]
 
|-
 
| align="center" | see below
 
| align="center" bgcolor="#ffcc99" | [[Book of Ruth|Ruth]]
 
| align="center" bgcolor="#ffcc99" | [[Book of Ruth|Ruth]]
 
| align="center" bgcolor="#ffcc99" | [[Book of Ruth|Ruth]]
 
| align="center" bgcolor="#ffcc99" | [[Book of Ruth|Ruth]]
 
|-
 
| rowspan="2" align="center" bgcolor="#ffcc99" | [[Books of Samuel|Samuel]]
 
| align="center" bgcolor="#ffcc99" | [[Books of Samuel|1 Samuel]]
 
| align="center" bgcolor="#ffcc99" | [[Books of Samuel|1 Kings]]
 
| align="center" bgcolor="#ffcc99" | [[Books of Samuel|1 Samuel (1 Kingdoms)]]<ref name="septuagint">Names in brackets are the Septuagint names and are often used by the Orthodox Christians.</ref>
 
| align="center" bgcolor="#ffcc99" | [[Books of Samuel|1 Kingdoms]]
 
|-
 
| align="center" bgcolor="#ffcc99" | [[Books of Samuel|2 Samuel]]
 
| align="center" bgcolor="#ffcc99" | [[Books of Samuel|2 Kings]]
 
| align="center" bgcolor="#ffcc99" | [[Books of Samuel|2 Samuel (2 Kingdoms)]]<ref name="septuagint"/>
 
| align="center" bgcolor="#ffcc99" | [[Books of Samuel|2 Kingdoms]]
 
|-
 
| rowspan="2" align="center" bgcolor="#ffcc99" | [[Books of Kings|Kings]]
 
| align="center" bgcolor="#ffcc99" | [[Books of Kings|1 Kings]]
 
| align="center" bgcolor="#ffcc99" | [[Books of Kings|3 Kings]]
 
| align="center" bgcolor="#ffcc99" | [[Books of Kings|1 Kings (3 Kingdoms)]]<ref name="septuagint"/>
 
| align="center" bgcolor="#ffcc99" | [[Books of Kings|3 Kingdoms]]
 
|-
 
| align="center" bgcolor="#ffcc99" | [[Books of Kings|2 Kings]]
 
| align="center" bgcolor="#ffcc99" | [[Books of Kings|4 Kings]]
 
| align="center" bgcolor="#ffcc99" | [[Books of Kings|2 Kings (4 Kingdoms)]]<ref name="septuagint"/>
 
| align="center" bgcolor="#ffcc99" | [[Books of Kings|4 Kingdoms]]
 
|-
 
| rowspan="2" align="center" bgcolor="#ffffff" | Chronicles<br>see below
 
| align="center" bgcolor="#ffcc99" | [[Books of Chronicles|1 Chronicles]]
 
| align="center" bgcolor="#ffcc99" | [[Books of Chronicles|1 Paralipomenon]]
 
| align="center" bgcolor="#ffcc99" | [[Books of Chronicles|1 Chronicles]]
 
| align="center" bgcolor="#ffcc99" | [[Books of Chronicles|1 Chronicles]]
 
|-
 
| align="center" bgcolor="#ffcc99" | [[Books of Chronicles|2 Chronicles]]
 
| align="center" bgcolor="#ffcc99" | [[Books of Chronicles|2 Paralipomenon]]
 
| align="center" bgcolor="#ffcc99" | [[Books of Chronicles|2 Chronicles]]
 
| align="center" bgcolor="#ffcc99" | [[Books of Chronicles|2 Chronicles]]
 
|-
 
|
 
|
 
|
 
| align="center" bgcolor="#ffcc99" valign="top" | [[1 Esdras]]<br>
 
| align="center" | (2 Esdras)*
 
|-
 
| rowspan="2" align="center" bgcolor="#ffffff" | Ezra (includes Nehemiah)<br>see below
 
| align="center" bgcolor="#ffcc99" | [[Book of Ezra|Ezra]]
 
| align="center" bgcolor="#ffcc99" | [[Book of Ezra|1 Esdras]]
 
| align="center" bgcolor="#ffcc99" | [[Book of Ezra|Ezra (2 Esdras)]]<ref name="septuagint"/> <ref name="ezra">Some Eastern Orthodox churches follow the [[Septuagint]] and the Hebrew bibles by considering the books of Ezra and Nehemiah as one book.</ref>
 
| align="center" bgcolor="#ffcc99" | [[Book of Ezra|Ezra]]
 
|-
 
| align="center" bgcolor="#ffcc99" | [[Book of Nehemiah|Nehemiah]]
 
| align="center" bgcolor="#ffcc99" | [[Book of Nehemiah|2 Esdras]] (Nehemias)
 
| align="center" bgcolor="#ffcc99" | [[Book of Nehemiah|Nehemiah (2 Esdras)]]<ref name="septuagint"/> <ref name="ezra"/>
 
| align="center" bgcolor="#ffcc99" | [[Book of Nehemiah|Nehemiah]]
 
|-
 
|
 
|
 
|
 
| align="center" | (1 Esdras)*
 
| align="center" bgcolor="#ffcc99" valign="top" | [[1 Esdras|2 Esdras]]<br>
 
|-
 
| rowspan="2" |
 
| rowspan="2" |
 
| align="center" bgcolor="#ffcc99" | [[Book of Tobit|Tobias]]
 
| align="center" bgcolor="#ffcc99" | [[Book of Tobit|Tobit]]
 
| align="center" bgcolor="#ffcc99" | [[Book of Tobit|Tobit]]
 
|-
 
| align="center" bgcolor="#ffcc99" | [[Book of Judith|Judith]]
 
| align="center" bgcolor="#ffcc99" | [[Book of Judith|Judith]]
 
| align="center" bgcolor="#ffcc99" | [[Book of Judith|Judith]]
 
|-
 
| align="center" | see below
 
| align="center" bgcolor="#ffcc99" | [[Book of Esther|Esther]]
 
| align="center" bgcolor="#ffcc99" | [[Book of Esther|Esther]]<ref name="esther">The Catholic and Orthodox Book of Esther includes 103 verses not in the Protestant Book of Esther.</ref>
 
| align="center" bgcolor="#ffcc99" | [[Book of Esther|Esther]]<ref name="esther"/>
 
| align="center" bgcolor="#ffcc99" | [[Book of Esther|Esther]]<ref name="esther"/>
 
|-
 
| rowspan="4" |
 
| rowspan="4" |
 
| align="center" bgcolor="#ffcc99" | [[1 Maccabees|1 Machabees]]<ref name="maccabees">The [[Latin Vulgate]] and the [[Douay-Rheims]] place First and Second Maccabees after Malachi; modern Catholic translations place them after Esther.</ref>
 
| align="center" bgcolor="#ffcc99" | [[1 Maccabees]]
 
| align="center" | see below
 
|-
 
| align="center" bgcolor="#ffcc99" | [[2 Maccabees|2 Machabees]]<ref name="maccabees"/>
 
| align="center" bgcolor="#ffcc99" | [[2 Maccabees]]
 
| align="center" | see below
 
|-
 
| rowspan="2" |
 
| align="center" bgcolor="#ffcc99" | [[3 Maccabees]]
 
| rowspan="2" |
 
|-
 
| align="center" bgcolor="#ffcc99" | [[4 Maccabees]]
 
|-
 
|
 
| colspan="4" rowspan="1" align="center"| ''Wisdom books''<br>
 
|-
 
| align="center" bgcolor="#ffffff" | see below
 
| align="center" bgcolor="#99ff99" | [[Book of Job|Job]]
 
| align="center" bgcolor="#99ff99" | [[Book of Job|Job]]
 
| align="center" bgcolor="#99ff99" | [[Book of Job|Job]]
 
| align="center" bgcolor="#99ff99" | [[Book of Job|Job]]
 
|-
 
| align="center" bgcolor="#ffffff" | see below
 
| align="center" bgcolor="#99ff99" | [[Psalms]]
 
| align="center" bgcolor="#99ff99" | [[Psalms]]
 
| align="center" bgcolor="#99ff99" | [[Psalms]]<ref name="psalms">Eastern Orthodox churches include [[Psalm 151]], not present in all canons.</ref>
 
| align="center" bgcolor="#99ff99" | [[Psalms]]<ref name="psalms"/>
 
|-
 
|
 
|
 
|
 
| align="center" bgcolor="#99ff99" | [[Book of Odes (Bible)|Odes]]<ref>The Book of Odes includes the [[Prayer of Manasseh]]. This book is not present in the Catholic or Protestant Tanakhs.</ref>
 
|
 
|-
 
| align="center" bgcolor="#ffffff" | see below
 
| align="center" bgcolor="#99ff99" | [[Book of Proverbs|Proverbs]]
 
| align="center" bgcolor="#99ff99" | [[Book of Proverbs|Proverbs]]
 
| align="center" bgcolor="#99ff99" | [[Book of Proverbs|Proverbs]]
 
| align="center" bgcolor="#99ff99" | [[Book of Proverbs|Proverbs]]
 
      <!-- At least, that's what I think Притчи is, but I should check -->
 
|-
 
| align="center" bgcolor="#ffffff" | see below
 
| align="center" bgcolor="#99ff99" | [[Ecclesiastes]]
 
| align="center" bgcolor="#99ff99" | [[Ecclesiastes]]
 
| align="center" bgcolor="#99ff99" | [[Ecclesiastes]]
 
| align="center" bgcolor="#99ff99" | [[Ecclesiastes]]
 
|-
 
| align="center" bgcolor="#ffffff" | see below
 
| align="center" bgcolor="#99ff99" | [[Song of Solomon]]
 
| align="center" bgcolor="#99ff99" | [[Song of Solomon|Canticle of Canticles]]
 
| align="center" bgcolor="#99ff99" | [[Song of Solomon]]
 
| align="center" bgcolor="#99ff99" | [[Song of Solomon|Song of Songs]]
 
|-
 
| rowspan="2" |
 
| rowspan="2" |
 
| align="center" bgcolor="#99ff99" | [[Book of Wisdom|Wisdom]]
 
| align="center" bgcolor="#99ff99" | [[Book of Wisdom|Wisdom]]
 
| align="center" bgcolor="#99ff99" | [[Book of Wisdom|Wisdom of Solomon]]
 
|-
 
| align="center" bgcolor="#99ff99" | [[Sirach|Ecclesiasticus]]
 
| align="center" bgcolor="#99ff99" | [[Sirach]]
 
| align="center" bgcolor="#99ff99" | [[Sirach]]
 
|- align="center"
 
|
 
| colspan="4" rowspan="1" | ''[[Major prophet]]s''
 
|-
 
| align="center" bgcolor="#ff99ff" valign="top" | [[Book of Isaiah|Isaiah]]
 
| align="center" bgcolor="#ff99ff" valign="top" | [[Book of Isaiah|Isaiah]]
 
| align="center" bgcolor="#ff99ff" valign="top" | [[Book of Isaiah|Isaias]]
 
| align="center" bgcolor="#ff99ff" valign="top" | [[Book of Isaiah|Isaiah]]
 
| align="center" bgcolor="#ff99ff" valign="top" | [[Book of Isaiah|Isaiah]]
 
|-
 
| align="center" bgcolor="#ff99ff" | [[Book of Jeremiah|Jeremiah]]
 
| align="center" bgcolor="#ff99ff" | [[Book of Jeremiah|Jeremiah]]
 
| align="center" bgcolor="#ff99ff" | [[Book of Jeremiah|Jeremias]]
 
| align="center" bgcolor="#ff99ff" | [[Book of Jeremiah|Jeremiah]]
 
| align="center" bgcolor="#ff99ff" | [[Book of Jeremiah|Jeremiah]]
 
|-
 
| align="center" bgcolor="#ffffff" | see below
 
| align="center" bgcolor="#ff99ff" | [[Book of Lamentations|Lamentations]]
 
| align="center" bgcolor="#ff99ff" | [[Book of Lamentations|Lamentations]]
 
| align="center" bgcolor="#ff99ff" | [[Book of Lamentations|Lamentations]]
 
| align="center" bgcolor="#ff99ff" | [[Book of Lamentations|Lamentations of Jeremiah]]
 
|-
 
|
 
|
 
| *
 
| *
 
| align="center" bgcolor="#ff99ff" | [[Letter of Jeremiah]]
 
|-
 
| rowspan=2 |
 
| rowspan=2 |
 
| align="center" bgcolor="#ff99ff" rowspan=2 | [[Book of Baruch|Baruch]]<ref name="baruch">In Catholic Bibles, Baruch includes a sixth chapter called the [[Letter of Jeremiah]]. Baruch is not in the Protestant Tanakh.</ref>
 
| align="center" bgcolor="#ff99ff" | [[Book of Baruch|Baruch]]<ref name="baruch"/>
 
| align="center" bgcolor="#ff99ff" | [[Book of Baruch|Baruch]]<ref name="baruch"/>
 
|-
 
| align="center" bgcolor="#ff99ff" | [[Letter of Jeremiah]]<ref>Eastern Orthodox Bibles have the books of Baruch and the Letter of Jeremiah separate.</ref>
 
| *
 
|- align="center"
 
| bgcolor="#ff99ff" | [[Book of Ezekiel|Ezekiel]]
 
| bgcolor="#ff99ff" | [[Book of Ezekiel|Ezekiel]]
 
| bgcolor="#ff99ff" | [[Book of Ezekiel|Ezechiel]]
 
| bgcolor="#ff99ff" | [[Book of Ezekiel|Ezekiel]]
 
| bgcolor="#ff99ff" | [[Book of Ezekiel|Ezekiel]]
 
|- align="center"
 
| align="center" bgcolor="#ffffff" | see below
 
| bgcolor="#ff99ff" | [[Book of Daniel|Daniel]]
 
| bgcolor="#ff99ff" | [[Book of Daniel|Daniel]]<ref name="daniel">In Catholic and Orthodox Bibles, Daniel includes three sections not included in Protestant Bibles. [[The Prayer of Azariah and Song of the Three Holy Children]] are included between Daniel 3:23-24. [[Susanna (Book of Daniel)|Susanna]] is included as Daniel 13. [[Bel and the Dragon]] is included as Daniel 14. These are not in the Protestant Tanakh.</ref>
 
| bgcolor="#ff99ff" valign="top" | [[Book of Daniel|Daniel]]<ref name="daniel"/>
 
| bgcolor="#ff99ff" valign="top" | [[Book of Daniel|Daniel]]<ref name="daniel"/>
 
|- align="center"
 
|
 
| colspan="4" rowspan="1" | ''[[Minor prophet]]s''
 
|- align="center"
 
| bgcolor="#ffffcc" rowspan="12" colspan="1" | [[Minor prophet|The Twelve Prophets]]
 
| bgcolor="#ffffcc" | [[Book of Hosea|Hosea]]
 
| bgcolor="#ffffcc" | [[Book of Hosea|Osee]]
 
| bgcolor="#ffffcc" | [[Book of Hosea|Hosea]]
 
| bgcolor="#ffffcc" | [[Book of Hosea|Hosea]]
 
|- align="center"
 
| bgcolor="#ffffcc" | [[Book of Joel|Joel]]
 
| bgcolor="#ffffcc" | [[Book of Joel|Joel]]
 
| bgcolor="#ffffcc" | [[Book of Joel|Joel]]
 
| bgcolor="#ffffcc" | [[Book of Joel|Joel]]
 
|- align="center"
 
| bgcolor="#ffffcc" | [[Book of Amos|Amos]]
 
| bgcolor="#ffffcc" | [[Book of Amos|Amos]]
 
| bgcolor="#ffffcc" | [[Book of Amos|Amos]]
 
| bgcolor="#ffffcc" | [[Book of Amos|Amos]]
 
|- align="center"
 
| bgcolor="#ffffcc" | [[Book of Obadiah|Obadiah]]
 
| bgcolor="#ffffcc" | [[Book of Obadiah|Abdias]]
 
| bgcolor="#ffffcc" | [[Book of Obadiah|Obadiah]]
 
| bgcolor="#ffffcc" | [[Book of Obadiah|Obadiah]]
 
|- align="center"
 
| bgcolor="#ffffcc" | [[Book of Jonah|Jonah]]
 
| bgcolor="#ffffcc" | [[Book of Jonah|Jonas]]
 
| bgcolor="#ffffcc" | [[Book of Jonah|Jonah]]
 
| bgcolor="#ffffcc" | [[Book of Jonah|Jonah]]
 
|- align="center"
 
| bgcolor="#ffffcc" | [[Book of Micah|Micah]]
 
| bgcolor="#ffffcc" | [[Book of Micah|Micaeus]]
 
| bgcolor="#ffffcc" | [[Book of Micah|Micah]]
 
| bgcolor="#ffffcc" | [[Book of Micah|Micah]]
 
|- align="center"
 
| bgcolor="#ffffcc" | [[Book of Nahum|Nahum]]
 
| bgcolor="#ffffcc" | [[Book of Nahum|Nahum]]
 
| bgcolor="#ffffcc" | [[Book of Nahum|Nahum]]
 
| bgcolor="#ffffcc" | [[Book of Nahum|Nahum]]
 
|- align="center"
 
| bgcolor="#ffffcc" | [[Book of Habakkuk|Habakkuk]]
 
| bgcolor="#ffffcc" | [[Book of Habakkuk|Habacuc]]
 
| bgcolor="#ffffcc" | [[Book of Habakkuk|Habakkuk]]
 
| bgcolor="#ffffcc" | [[Book of Habakkuk|Habakkuk]]
 
|- align="center"
 
| bgcolor="#ffffcc" | [[Book of Zephaniah|Zephaniah]]
 
| bgcolor="#ffffcc" | [[Book of Zephaniah|Sophonias]]
 
| bgcolor="#ffffcc" | [[Book of Zephaniah|Zephaniah]]
 
| bgcolor="#ffffcc" | [[Book of Zephaniah|Zephaniah]]
 
|- align="center"
 
| bgcolor="#ffffcc" | [[Book of Haggai|Haggai]]
 
| bgcolor="#ffffcc" | [[Book of Haggai|Aggaeus]]
 
| bgcolor="#ffffcc" | [[Book of Haggai|Haggai]]
 
| bgcolor="#ffffcc" | [[Book of Haggai|Haggai]]
 
|- align="center"
 
| bgcolor="#ffffcc" | [[Book of Zechariah|Zechariah]]
 
| bgcolor="#ffffcc" | [[Book of Zechariah|Zacharias]]
 
| bgcolor="#ffffcc" | [[Book of Zechariah|Zechariah]]
 
| bgcolor="#ffffcc" | [[Book of Zechariah|Zechariah]]
 
|- align="center"
 
| bgcolor="#ffffcc" | [[Book of Malachi|Malachi]]
 
| bgcolor="#ffffcc" | [[Book of Malachi|Malachias]]
 
| bgcolor="#ffffcc" | [[Book of Malachi|Malachi]]
 
| bgcolor="#ffffcc" | [[Book of Malachi|Malachi]]
 
|- align="center"
 
| ''[[Ketuvim]] or Writings''<ref>These books are found among the historical and wisdom books of the Christian canons.</ref>
 
|- align="center"
 
| bgcolor="#ff6666" | [[Psalms]]
 
|- align="center"
 
| bgcolor="#ff6666" | [[Book of Proverbs|Proverbs]]
 
|- align="center"
 
| bgcolor="#ff6666" | [[Book of Job|Job]]
 
|- align="center"
 
| bgcolor="#ff6666" | [[Song of Songs]]
 
|- align="center"
 
| bgcolor="#ff6666" | [[Book of Ruth|Ruth]]
 
|- align="center"
 
| bgcolor="#ff6666" | [[Book of Lamentations|Lamentations]]
 
|- align="center"
 
| bgcolor="#ff6666" | [[Ecclesiastes]]
 
|- align="center"
 
| bgcolor="#ff6666" | [[Book of Esther|Esther]]
 
|- align="center"
 
| bgcolor="#ff6666" | [[Book of Daniel|Daniel]]
 
|- align="center"
 
| bgcolor="#ff6666" | [[Book of Ezra|Ezra]] (includes [[Book of Nehemiah|Nehemiah]])
 
|- align="center"
 
| bgcolor="#ff6666" | [[Books of Chronicles|Chronicles]]
 
|-
 
|
 
|
 
| align="center" | see above<ref name="maccabees"/>
 
|
 
| align="center" bgcolor="#ffcc99" | [[1 Maccabees]]
 
|-
 
|
 
|
 
| align="center" | see above<ref name="maccabees"/>
 
|
 
| align="center" bgcolor="#ffcc99" | [[2 Maccabees]]
 
 
|}
 
|}
  
 +
The Protestant Old Testament is identical to the Tanakh in contents, but different in arrangement; see below.
  
 +
==Universal Christian books==
  
== New Testament ==
+
Next, the books universally included in modern Christian Bibles but not Jewish ones. These are known as the New Testament. The usual Christian arrangement of both Old and New Testaments is into historical, teaching and prophetic (past, present and future). This is not usually made explicit in the tables of contents of English Bibles, though it is commoner in German and Latin ones. The order here is that followed in most modern Western Bibles.
In general, among Christian groups the New Testament canon is agreed-upon, although book order can vary.
+
{| border="1" cellpadding="2" cellspacing="2" width="60%"
+
! width="33%" | Catholic, most Protestant,
+
almost all Orthodox
+
! width="33%" | Luther Bible
+
! width="33%" | Slavonic Bible
+
|- align="center"
+
| valign="top" colspan="3" | ''The [[Gospels]]''
+
|- align="center"
+
| bgcolor="#ff9900" valign="top" | [[Gospel of Matthew|Matthew]]
+
| bgcolor="#ff9900" valign="top" | [[Gospel of Matthew|Matthew]]
+
| bgcolor="#ff9900" valign="top" | [[Gospel of Matthew|Matthew]]
+
|- align="center"
+
| bgcolor="#ff9900" valign="top" | [[Gospel of Mark|Mark]]
+
| bgcolor="#ff9900" valign="top" | [[Gospel of Mark|Mark]]
+
| bgcolor="#ff9900" valign="top" | [[Gospel of Mark|Mark]]
+
|- align="center"
+
| bgcolor="#ff9900" valign="top" | [[Gospel of Luke|Luke]]
+
| bgcolor="#ff9900" valign="top" | [[Gospel of Luke|Luke]]
+
| bgcolor="#ff9900" valign="top" | [[Gospel of Luke|Luke]]
+
|- align="center"
+
| bgcolor="#ff9900" valign="top" | [[Gospel of John|John]]
+
| bgcolor="#ff9900" valign="top" | [[Gospel of John|John]]
+
| bgcolor="#ff9900" valign="top" | [[Gospel of John|John]]
+
|- align="center"
+
| valign="top" colspan="3" | ''The History''
+
|- align="center"
+
| bgcolor="#0099FF" valign="top" | [[Acts of the Apostles|Acts]]
+
| bgcolor="#0099FF" valign="top" | [[Acts of the Apostles|Acts]]
+
| bgcolor="#0099FF" valign="top" | [[Acts of the Apostles|Acts]]
+
|- align="center"
+
| valign="top" | ''The [[Pauline epistles]]''
+
| valign="top" | ''The [[Pauline epistles]]''
+
| valign="top" | ''The [[General epistles]]''
+
|- align="center"
+
| bgcolor="#ffff33" valign="top" | [[Epistle to the Romans|Romans]]
+
| bgcolor="#ffff33" valign="top" | [[Epistle to the Romans|Romans]]
+
| bgcolor="#669966" valign="top" | [[Epistle of James|James]]
+
|- align="center"
+
| bgcolor="#ffff33" valign="top" | [[1 Corinthians]]
+
| bgcolor="#ffff33" valign="top" | [[1 Corinthians]]
+
| bgcolor="#669966" valign="top" | [[1 Peter]]
+
|- align="center"
+
| bgcolor="#ffff33" valign="top" | [[2 Corinthians]]
+
| bgcolor="#ffff33" valign="top" | [[2 Corinthians]]
+
| bgcolor="#669966" valign="top" | [[2 Peter]]
+
|- align="center"
+
| bgcolor="#ffff33" valign="top" | [[Epistle to the Galatians|Galatians]]
+
| bgcolor="#ffff33" valign="top" | [[Epistle to the Galatians|Galatians]]
+
| bgcolor="#669966" valign="top" | [[1 John]]
+
|- align="center"
+
| bgcolor="#ffff33" valign="top" | [[Epistle to Ephesians|Ephesians]]
+
| bgcolor="#ffff33" valign="top" | [[Epistle to Ephesians|Ephesians]]
+
| bgcolor="#669966" valign="top" | [[2 John]]
+
|- align="center"
+
| bgcolor="#ffff33" valign="top" | [[Philippians]]
+
| bgcolor="#ffff33" valign="top" | [[Philippians]]
+
| bgcolor="#669966" valign="top" | [[3 John]]
+
|- align="center"
+
| bgcolor="#ffff33" valign="top" | [[Colossians]]
+
| bgcolor="#ffff33" valign="top" | [[Colossians]]
+
| bgcolor="#669966" valign="top" | [[Epistle of Jude|Jude]]
+
|- align="center"
+
| bgcolor="#ffff33" valign="top" | [[1 Thessalonians]]
+
| bgcolor="#ffff33" valign="top" | [[1 Thessalonians]]
+
| valign="top" | ''The [[Pauline epistles]]''
+
|- align="center"
+
| bgcolor="#ffff33" valign="top" | [[2 Thessalonians]]
+
| bgcolor="#ffff33" valign="top" | [[2 Thessalonians]]
+
| bgcolor="#ffff33" valign="top" | [[Epistle to the Romans|Romans]]
+
|- align="center"
+
| bgcolor="#ffff33" valign="top" | [[1 Timothy]]
+
| bgcolor="#ffff33" valign="top" | [[1 Timothy]]
+
| bgcolor="#ffff33" valign="top" | [[1 Corinthians]]
+
|- align="center"
+
| bgcolor="#ffff33" valign="top" | [[2 Timothy]]
+
| bgcolor="#ffff33" valign="top" | [[2 Timothy]]
+
| bgcolor="#ffff33" valign="top" | [[2 Corinthians]]
+
|- align="center"
+
| bgcolor="#ffff33" valign="top" | [[Epistle to Titus|Titus]]
+
| bgcolor="#ffff33" valign="top" | [[Epistle to Titus|Titus]]
+
| bgcolor="#ffff33" valign="top" | [[Epistle to the Galatians|Galatians]]
+
|- align="center"
+
| bgcolor="#ffff33" valign="top" | [[Epistle to Philemon|Philemon]]
+
| bgcolor="#ffff33" valign="top" | [[Epistle to Philemon|Philemon]]
+
| bgcolor="#ffff33" valign="top" | [[Epistle to Ephesians|Ephesians]]
+
|- align="center"
+
| valign="top" | ''The [[General epistles]]''
+
| valign="top" | ''The [[General epistles]]''
+
| bgcolor="#ffff33" valign="top" | [[Philippians]]
+
|- align="center"
+
| bgcolor="#669966" valign="top" | [[Epistle to the Hebrews|Hebrews]]
+
| bgcolor="#669966" valign="top" | [[1 Peter]]
+
| bgcolor="#ffff33" valign="top" | [[Colossians]]
+
|- align="center"
+
| bgcolor="#669966" valign="top" | [[Epistle of James|James]]
+
| bgcolor="#669966" valign="top" | [[2 Peter]]
+
| bgcolor="#ffff33" valign="top" | [[1 Thessalonians]]
+
|- align="center"
+
| bgcolor="#669966" valign="top" | [[1 Peter]]
+
| bgcolor="#669966" valign="top" | [[1 John]]
+
| bgcolor="#ffff33" valign="top" | [[2 Thessalonians]]
+
|- align="center"
+
| bgcolor="#669966" valign="top" | [[2 Peter]]
+
| bgcolor="#669966" valign="top" | [[2 John]]
+
| bgcolor="#ffff33" valign="top" | [[1 Timothy]]
+
|- align="center"
+
| bgcolor="#669966" valign="top" | [[1 John]]
+
| bgcolor="#669966" valign="top" | [[3 John]]
+
| bgcolor="#ffff33" valign="top" | [[2 Timothy]]
+
|- align="center"
+
| bgcolor="#669966" valign="top" | [[2 John]]
+
| valign="top" | ''Books questioned by Luther''
+
| bgcolor="#ffff33" valign="top" | [[Epistle to Titus|Titus]]
+
|- align="center"
+
| bgcolor="#669966" valign="top" | [[3 John]]
+
| bgcolor="#ffcc99" valign="top" | [[Epistle to the Hebrews|Hebrews]]
+
| bgcolor="#ffff33" valign="top" | [[Epistle to Philemon|Philemon]]
+
|- align="center"
+
| bgcolor="#669966" valign="top" | [[Epistle of Jude|Jude]]
+
| bgcolor="#ffcc99" valign="top" | [[Epistle of James|James]]
+
| bgcolor="#ffff33" valign="top" | [[Epistle to the Hebrews|Hebrews]]
+
|- align="center"
+
| valign="top" | ''Apocalypse''
+
| bgcolor="#ffcc99" valign="top" | [[Epistle of Jude|Jude]]
+
| valign="top" | ''Apocalypse''
+
|- align="center"
+
| bgcolor="#FF33FF" valign="top" | [[Book of Revelation|Revelation of Christ to John]]
+
| bgcolor="#ffcc99" valign="top" | [[Book of Revelation|Revelation of Christ to John]]
+
| bgcolor="#FF33FF" valign="top" | [[Book of Revelation|Revelation of Christ to John]]
+
|}
+
  
The [[Ethiopian Orthodox Church]] has a few additional books in its canon: [[Jubilees]], [[Book of Enoch]], the [[Shepherd of Hermas]], [[Epistles of Clement|1 Clement]], [[Acts of Paul]], and some uniquely Ethiopian books. There is a matter of some controversy as to what constitutes "canon" in this religious body. The [[Peshitta]] excludes 2-3 John, 2 Peter, Jude, and Revelation, but Bibles of the modern [[Syriac Orthodox Church]] includes later translations of those books. [[Third Epistle to the Corinthians]] was once considered part of the [[Armenian Orthodox]] Bible.
+
*historical books
 +
**Gospels
 +
***Matthew
 +
***Mark
 +
***Luke
 +
***John
 +
**Acts of the Apostles
 +
*teaching books: Epistles (letters)
 +
**ascribed to Paul
 +
***Romans
 +
***1 Corinthians
 +
***2 Corinthians
 +
***Galatians
 +
***Ephesians
 +
***Philippians
 +
***Colossians
 +
***1 Thessalonians
 +
***2 Thessalonians
 +
***Pastoral Epistles
 +
****1 Timothy
 +
****2 Timothy
 +
****Titus
 +
***Philemon
 +
***Hebrews
 +
**"Catholic" Epistles
 +
***James
 +
***1 Peter
 +
***2 Peter
 +
***1 John
 +
***2 John
 +
***3 John
 +
***Jude
 +
*prophetic book: Revelation
 +
 
 +
==Majority books==
 +
 
 +
Next, the books found in the Bibles of a majority of Christians. Specifically, they are found in the Bible of the Roman Catholic Church, which seems to be the majority according to most authorities. These books are also included in most Eastern Bibles, and in the Apocrypha sections found both in traditional Anglican and Lutheran Bibles, and in modern ecumenical ones.
 +
 
 +
*Tobit
 +
*Judith
 +
*1 Maccabees
 +
*2 Maccabees
 +
*Wisdom of Solomon
 +
*Ecclesiasticus or Sirach
 +
*Baruch
 +
 
 +
The arrangement of the Old Testament in most modern Western Bibles is as follows. The Roman Catholic Old Testament includes books (marked here with *) and passages in other books (marked with †) not included in the Jewish Bible or Protestant Old Testament.
 +
 
 +
*historical books
 +
**Pentateuch
 +
***Genesis
 +
***Exodus
 +
***Leviticus
 +
***Numbers
 +
***Deuteronomy
 +
**Joshua
 +
**Judges
 +
**Ruth
 +
**Samuel (2 books)
 +
**Kings (2 books)
 +
**Chronicles (2 books)
 +
**Ezra
 +
**Nehemiah
 +
**Tobit*
 +
**Judith*
 +
**Esther†
 +
**1 Maccabees*
 +
**2 Maccabees*
 +
*teaching books
 +
**Job
 +
**Psalms
 +
**Proverbs
 +
**Ecclesiastes
 +
**Song of Songs or Song of Solomon
 +
**Wisdom*
 +
**Ecclesiasticus or Sirach*
 +
*prophetic books
 +
**Isaiah
 +
**Jeremiah
 +
**Lamentations
 +
**Baruch*
 +
**Ezekiel
 +
**Daniel†
 +
**Hosea
 +
**Joel
 +
**Amos
 +
**Obadiah
 +
**Jonah
 +
**Micah
 +
**Nahum
 +
**Habakkuk
 +
**Zephaniah
 +
**Haggai
 +
**Zechariah
 +
**Malachi
 +
 
 +
==Some other books==
 +
 
 +
Finally, a large number of books are or have been included in the Bible by various minorities. Neither the Eastern Orthodox Church nor the Oriental Orthodox Church has an agreed Bible, so fully detailed accounts similar to those for Catholics and Protestants above cannot be given. ''The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Books of the Bible'' (2011) has articles on the following in addition to those already listed above:
 +
 
 +
*Andrew, Acts of
 +
*Clement, Letters of: 2 letters included in the 5th-century Bible manuscript known as Codex Alexandrinus
 +
*Didache
 +
*1 Enoch: in the Ethiopian Bible
 +
*1 Esdras: in most Eastern Bibles and Apocrypha sections
 +
*2 Esdras: ditto; the latter version includes material not in the former
 +
*Ignatius, Letters of
 +
*Jeremiah, Letter of: separate book in most Orthodox Bibles and some Apocrypha sections, but part of Baruch in Catholic ones
 +
*Joseph and Aseneth
 +
*Jubilees: in the Ethiopian Bible
 +
*3 Maccabees: in most Eastern Bibles and Apocrypha section of (New) Revised Standard version since 1973
 +
*4 Maccabees: appendix in some Greek Orthodox Bibles; in (N)RSV Apocrypha since 1973
 +
*Manasseh, Prayer of: as a separate book in most Apocrypha sections; in 2 Chronicles in most Eastern Bibles
 +
*Mary, Gospel of
 +
*Paul and Thecla, Acts of
 +
*Philip, Gospel of
 +
*Pilate, Acts of
 +
*Psalm 151: as a separate book in Apocrypha section of (N)RSV since 1973; in Psalms in most Eastern Bibles
 +
*Shepherd of Hermas: included in Codex Sinaiticus, one of the two oldest Bibles in existence (4th century), and included in some canonical lists up to the 6th century
 +
*Thomas, Gospel of
 +
 
 +
Note on the books of Esdras:
 +
 
 +
The numbering of these is very confusing:
 +
 
 +
*Greek/English  1 Esdras = Latin 3 Esdras
 +
*Greek 2 Esdras = Hebrew/English Ezra/Nehemiah = Latin 1/2 Esdras
 +
*Latin 4 Esdras = English 2 Esdras and includes Slavonic 3 Esdras
 +
 
 +
Some scholars additionally refer to parts of English 2 Esdras as 5/6 Esdras.
 +
 
 +
The English terminology is used in this article.
 +
 
 +
==History==
 +
 
 +
The oldest surviving Christian lists of canonical books date from late in the second century, and the oldest actual Bibles from the fourth. For earlier times scholars must collate and interpret numerous individual references. They generally conclude that the situation was similar to that in the following centuries: the canon of scripture was fuzzy, with a grey area at the edges of both the Old Testament and the New. Both the lists and the physical Bibles vary somewhat in contents, but they contain mostly the same material. The differences were not considered important. People did not call each other heretics or excommunicate each other over them. Though ecumenical councils were convened to deal with disputes within the church, there is no documented canon of scripture from such a council until the (Roman Catholic) Council of Florence in 1439, though there is a tradition that the Council of Nicaea (325) approved one (Jerome, writing about 60 years later, says it included the book of Judith).
 +
 
 +
In the case of the New Testament this variation gradually disappeared. The modern canon of the New Testament is first documented in 367, in the Easter letter of Athanasius of Alexandria. It was adopted at various local Western church councils later in that century, but the church of Antioch continued to exclude several books well into the next century, and many Eastern authorities continued to exclude Revelation for several centuries thereafter. Gradually, though, over the centuries, an almost universal consensus evolved.
 +
 
 +
For the Old Testament, no such consensus has ever been achieved. The Easter letter mentioned above gives an Old Testament canon differing from the modern Jewish canon only in excluding Esther and including Baruch and the Epistle of Jeremiah. It also gives a separate list of Apocrypha, including Esther, and such a two-tier Old Testament is typical of most Eastern authorities in later centuries. The actual manuscripts, however, just as in the West, mix the Apocrypha in with the Old Testament, and this, together with studies of the way texts are cited, suggests the theoretical distinction was not considered very important in practice.
 +
 
 +
Most Western authorities, on the other hand, mention no such distinction, though it was not until 1546 that the Council of Trent explicitly stated that all the books and parts of books in the Roman Catholic canon are equally sacred and canonical. This canon first appears in the records of the same fourth century councils as approved Athanasius' canon of the New Testament, though the actual contents of manuscripts, as in the East, varied somewhat.
 +
 
 +
Disputes between Catholics and Protestants combined with the introduction of printing to fix Western canons definitively. Protestants adopted the by then standard Jewish canon as their canon for the Old Testament. However, at first their Bibles included a separate Apocrypha section, whose content was largely decided by historical accident: the contents of the Vulgate manuscript used by Gutenberg for the first printed edition. The seventeenth-century British Puritans were mainly responsible for a movement to excise them altogether from Protestant Bibles, which largely succeeded in the nineteenth century.
 +
 
 +
The Eastern Orthodox Church continues largely with the traditional attitude of the East: Bibles vary somewhat in contents, there is a theoretically recognized distinction between two grades of books, but they are mixed together.
 +
 
 +
For the ancient Jewish tradition, scholars are not agreed on which Jews regarded which books as canonical when, because of the uncertainty in the dates of many of the rabbis quoted.
  
 
==See also==
 
==See also==
Line 499: Line 214:
 
Return links: [[#Tanakh/Tanakh|Tanakh/Tanakh]] &mdash; [[#New Testament|New Testament]]<!--See http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wikipedia:Footnotes for an explanation of how to generate footnotes using the <ref> and </ref> tags and the tag below -->
 
Return links: [[#Tanakh/Tanakh|Tanakh/Tanakh]] &mdash; [[#New Testament|New Testament]]<!--See http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wikipedia:Footnotes for an explanation of how to generate footnotes using the <ref> and </ref> tags and the tag below -->
 
{{reflist}}
 
{{reflist}}
 
==External links==
 
* [http://www.teachinghearts.org/dre02biblenotes.html Bible Prophecy and History &ndash; an Evangelical perspective] Canon 325AD, translation issues, historically proven prophecy.
 
* [http://www.staycatholic.com/the_canon_of_scripture.htm The Canon of Scripture &ndash; a Catholic perspective] Canon 1546AD
 
* [http://www.breslov.com/bible/ The Tanakh at Breslov.com ] - Masoretic, Hebrew, Aramaic, JPS, Kaplan translations.
 
* [http://www.plymouthbrethren.org/passage.asp Articles on Various Books from Biblical Resource Database]
 
* [http://www.chabad.org/article.asp?aid=63255 Judaica Press Translation - Online Jewish translation of the books of the Bible.] The Tanakh and [[Rashi]]'s entire commentary.
 
*[http://www.biblegateway.com/ Protestant Bible at BibleGateway.com] 50 versions in 35 languages, searchable by verse or keyword.
 
*[http://www.blueletterbible.org/ Protestant Bible at BlueLetterBible.org] [[King James Version]] with Strong's Hebrew/Greek Concordance, many tools.
 
* [http://www.sbible.boom.ru/slavpdf.htm Slavonic Bible]
 
* [http://gbgm-umc.org/UMW/Bible/apocot.stm Books of the Apocrypha] (from the [[United Methodist Church|UMC]])
 
* [http://www.sain.org/Armenian.Church/Bible.txt Armenian Bible] (an essay, with full official canon at the end)
 
* [http://gbgm-umc.org/umw/Bible/ethold.stm Ethiopian Orthodox "narrow canon"] (from the [[United Methodist Church|UMC]])
 
* [http://gbgm-umc.org/umw/Bible/ '''The Book That Bridges Millennia'''] (online video and exploration of Biblical beginnings, authority, canonization, translation, and interpretation from the [[United Methodist Church|UMC]])
 

Latest revision as of 10:09, 24 August 2019

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This editable Main Article is under development and not meant to be cited; by editing it you can help to improve it towards a future approved, citable version. These unapproved articles are subject to a disclaimer.

Books of the Bible are listed differently in the Bibles of Jews, and Catholic, Protestant, and other Christians. In addition to books found in some Bibles but not others, there are further variations: order may differ; titles of the same books may differ; contrariwise, books with the same title may differ more or less substantially between Bibles; and what is a book in one Bible may be just part of a book in another. Most modern editions in English follow either the Roman Catholic or the standard Protestant canon.

Universal books

First, the books universally included in modern Bibles. These constitute the Jewish Bible, or Tanakh, known to Protestants as the Old Testament (Roman Catholic and Orthodox Old Testaments include additional material, for which see below).

The Tanakh, or Jewish scriptures, nowadays have the following standard arrangement.

Jewish Scriptures or Tanakh
Torah
or Law
Nevi'im
or Prophets
Ketuvim
or Writings
1. Genesis
2. Exodus
3. Leviticus
4. Numbers
5. Deuteronomy

Former Prophets

6. Joshua
7. Judges
8. Samuel
9. Kings

Latter Prophets

10. Isaiah
11. Jeremiah
12. Ezekiel
13. The Twelve Prophets
a. Hosea
b. Joel
c. Amos
d. Obadiah
e. Jonah
f. Micah
g. Nahum
h. Habakkuk
i. Zephaniah
j. Haggai
k. Zechariah
l. Malachi
14. Psalms
15. Proverbs
16. Job

The Five Rolls

17. Song of Songs
18. Ruth
19. Lamentations
20. Ecclesiastes
21. Esther

22. Daniel
23. Ezra-Nehemiah
24. Chronicles

The Protestant Old Testament is identical to the Tanakh in contents, but different in arrangement; see below.

Universal Christian books

Next, the books universally included in modern Christian Bibles but not Jewish ones. These are known as the New Testament. The usual Christian arrangement of both Old and New Testaments is into historical, teaching and prophetic (past, present and future). This is not usually made explicit in the tables of contents of English Bibles, though it is commoner in German and Latin ones. The order here is that followed in most modern Western Bibles.

  • historical books
    • Gospels
      • Matthew
      • Mark
      • Luke
      • John
    • Acts of the Apostles
  • teaching books: Epistles (letters)
    • ascribed to Paul
      • Romans
      • 1 Corinthians
      • 2 Corinthians
      • Galatians
      • Ephesians
      • Philippians
      • Colossians
      • 1 Thessalonians
      • 2 Thessalonians
      • Pastoral Epistles
        • 1 Timothy
        • 2 Timothy
        • Titus
      • Philemon
      • Hebrews
    • "Catholic" Epistles
      • James
      • 1 Peter
      • 2 Peter
      • 1 John
      • 2 John
      • 3 John
      • Jude
  • prophetic book: Revelation

Majority books

Next, the books found in the Bibles of a majority of Christians. Specifically, they are found in the Bible of the Roman Catholic Church, which seems to be the majority according to most authorities. These books are also included in most Eastern Bibles, and in the Apocrypha sections found both in traditional Anglican and Lutheran Bibles, and in modern ecumenical ones.

  • Tobit
  • Judith
  • 1 Maccabees
  • 2 Maccabees
  • Wisdom of Solomon
  • Ecclesiasticus or Sirach
  • Baruch

The arrangement of the Old Testament in most modern Western Bibles is as follows. The Roman Catholic Old Testament includes books (marked here with *) and passages in other books (marked with †) not included in the Jewish Bible or Protestant Old Testament.

  • historical books
    • Pentateuch
      • Genesis
      • Exodus
      • Leviticus
      • Numbers
      • Deuteronomy
    • Joshua
    • Judges
    • Ruth
    • Samuel (2 books)
    • Kings (2 books)
    • Chronicles (2 books)
    • Ezra
    • Nehemiah
    • Tobit*
    • Judith*
    • Esther†
    • 1 Maccabees*
    • 2 Maccabees*
  • teaching books
    • Job
    • Psalms
    • Proverbs
    • Ecclesiastes
    • Song of Songs or Song of Solomon
    • Wisdom*
    • Ecclesiasticus or Sirach*
  • prophetic books
    • Isaiah
    • Jeremiah
    • Lamentations
    • Baruch*
    • Ezekiel
    • Daniel†
    • Hosea
    • Joel
    • Amos
    • Obadiah
    • Jonah
    • Micah
    • Nahum
    • Habakkuk
    • Zephaniah
    • Haggai
    • Zechariah
    • Malachi

Some other books

Finally, a large number of books are or have been included in the Bible by various minorities. Neither the Eastern Orthodox Church nor the Oriental Orthodox Church has an agreed Bible, so fully detailed accounts similar to those for Catholics and Protestants above cannot be given. The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Books of the Bible (2011) has articles on the following in addition to those already listed above:

  • Andrew, Acts of
  • Clement, Letters of: 2 letters included in the 5th-century Bible manuscript known as Codex Alexandrinus
  • Didache
  • 1 Enoch: in the Ethiopian Bible
  • 1 Esdras: in most Eastern Bibles and Apocrypha sections
  • 2 Esdras: ditto; the latter version includes material not in the former
  • Ignatius, Letters of
  • Jeremiah, Letter of: separate book in most Orthodox Bibles and some Apocrypha sections, but part of Baruch in Catholic ones
  • Joseph and Aseneth
  • Jubilees: in the Ethiopian Bible
  • 3 Maccabees: in most Eastern Bibles and Apocrypha section of (New) Revised Standard version since 1973
  • 4 Maccabees: appendix in some Greek Orthodox Bibles; in (N)RSV Apocrypha since 1973
  • Manasseh, Prayer of: as a separate book in most Apocrypha sections; in 2 Chronicles in most Eastern Bibles
  • Mary, Gospel of
  • Paul and Thecla, Acts of
  • Philip, Gospel of
  • Pilate, Acts of
  • Psalm 151: as a separate book in Apocrypha section of (N)RSV since 1973; in Psalms in most Eastern Bibles
  • Shepherd of Hermas: included in Codex Sinaiticus, one of the two oldest Bibles in existence (4th century), and included in some canonical lists up to the 6th century
  • Thomas, Gospel of

Note on the books of Esdras:

The numbering of these is very confusing:

  • Greek/English 1 Esdras = Latin 3 Esdras
  • Greek 2 Esdras = Hebrew/English Ezra/Nehemiah = Latin 1/2 Esdras
  • Latin 4 Esdras = English 2 Esdras and includes Slavonic 3 Esdras

Some scholars additionally refer to parts of English 2 Esdras as 5/6 Esdras.

The English terminology is used in this article.

History

The oldest surviving Christian lists of canonical books date from late in the second century, and the oldest actual Bibles from the fourth. For earlier times scholars must collate and interpret numerous individual references. They generally conclude that the situation was similar to that in the following centuries: the canon of scripture was fuzzy, with a grey area at the edges of both the Old Testament and the New. Both the lists and the physical Bibles vary somewhat in contents, but they contain mostly the same material. The differences were not considered important. People did not call each other heretics or excommunicate each other over them. Though ecumenical councils were convened to deal with disputes within the church, there is no documented canon of scripture from such a council until the (Roman Catholic) Council of Florence in 1439, though there is a tradition that the Council of Nicaea (325) approved one (Jerome, writing about 60 years later, says it included the book of Judith).

In the case of the New Testament this variation gradually disappeared. The modern canon of the New Testament is first documented in 367, in the Easter letter of Athanasius of Alexandria. It was adopted at various local Western church councils later in that century, but the church of Antioch continued to exclude several books well into the next century, and many Eastern authorities continued to exclude Revelation for several centuries thereafter. Gradually, though, over the centuries, an almost universal consensus evolved.

For the Old Testament, no such consensus has ever been achieved. The Easter letter mentioned above gives an Old Testament canon differing from the modern Jewish canon only in excluding Esther and including Baruch and the Epistle of Jeremiah. It also gives a separate list of Apocrypha, including Esther, and such a two-tier Old Testament is typical of most Eastern authorities in later centuries. The actual manuscripts, however, just as in the West, mix the Apocrypha in with the Old Testament, and this, together with studies of the way texts are cited, suggests the theoretical distinction was not considered very important in practice.

Most Western authorities, on the other hand, mention no such distinction, though it was not until 1546 that the Council of Trent explicitly stated that all the books and parts of books in the Roman Catholic canon are equally sacred and canonical. This canon first appears in the records of the same fourth century councils as approved Athanasius' canon of the New Testament, though the actual contents of manuscripts, as in the East, varied somewhat.

Disputes between Catholics and Protestants combined with the introduction of printing to fix Western canons definitively. Protestants adopted the by then standard Jewish canon as their canon for the Old Testament. However, at first their Bibles included a separate Apocrypha section, whose content was largely decided by historical accident: the contents of the Vulgate manuscript used by Gutenberg for the first printed edition. The seventeenth-century British Puritans were mainly responsible for a movement to excise them altogether from Protestant Bibles, which largely succeeded in the nineteenth century.

The Eastern Orthodox Church continues largely with the traditional attitude of the East: Bibles vary somewhat in contents, there is a theoretically recognized distinction between two grades of books, but they are mixed together.

For the ancient Jewish tradition, scholars are not agreed on which Jews regarded which books as canonical when, because of the uncertainty in the dates of many of the rabbis quoted.

See also

Notes

Return links: Tanakh/TanakhNew Testament