User:Timothy Perper/SandboxMangaAdded

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Purely for additional text

Stephenson's introduction to Manga copied here

One of the most popular forms of entertainment in Japan is manga (漫画), meaning 'comic' or 'cartoon'; in recent years, Japanese-style comics have also become more popular overseas, and the word is now firmly established in the English language to refer to these.

From a Western perspective, manga appear similar to the more adult-orientated graphic novel, but in Japan they are a staple of popular culture and are read by people of all ages. They also serve as an interesting way of getting the news: government ministries as well as corporations have often used manga to put across complicated ideas to the public.<ref>Kinsella (2000). For a controversial example of the use of manga to explain defence policy, see ''Mainichi Daily News'': '[http://mdn.mainichi.jp/culture/waiwai/archive/news/2007/07/20070724p2g00m0dm010000c.html Defense Ministry turns to 'Lolita' manga character to reveal inner self]'. 24th July 2007.</ref>

Typically, manga are printed in black and white, and as is the case with much other Japanese reading matter, they are read from right to left, top to bottom, starting from the 'back' of the book.

In Japan, manga fans can be seen reading their favourite stories in 24-hour convenience stores or with coffee in special round-the-clock 'manga cafés' (漫画喫茶 or マンガ喫茶, manga kissa). Another place to find the legions of manga readers is at the three-day 'Comic Market' (コミック・マーケット Komikku Māketto) in Tokyo, Japan's largest public indoor gathering; at this magazine fair a vast number of manga are available to browse and buy.<ref>''Comiket.co.jp'': '[http://www.comiket.co.jp/info-a/WhatIsEng080225.pdf What is the Comic Market?]'</ref>

Wiki Manga article intro

'''Manga'''in [[kanji]] 漫画; in [[hiragana]] まんが; in [[katakana]] マンガ}} is the Japanese word for [[comics]] (sometimes called ''komikku'' コミック) and print [[cartoon]]s.<ref name="Lent">Lent, John A. 2001. "Introduction." In John A. Lent, editor. ''Illustrating Asia: Comics, Humor Magazines, and Picture Books''. Honolulu, HI: University of Hawai'i Press. pp. 3-4. ISBN 0-8248-2471-7.</ref><ref name = "Gravett">Gravett, Paul. 2004. ''Manga: Sixty Years of Japanese Comics.'' NY: Harper Design. ISBN 1-85669-391-0. p. 8.</ref><ref>{{cite web | author = Go Tchiei| url = http://www.dnp.co.jp/museum/nmp/nmp_i/articles/manga/manga2.html | title = Characteristics of Japanese Manga | datepublished = 1998 | accessdate = 2008-04-05 }}</ref> In their modern form, manga date from shortly after [[World War II]]<ref name="Kinsella">Kinsella, Sharon 2000. ''Adult Manga: Culture and Power in Contemporary Japanese Society.'' Honolulu: University of Hawai'i Press. ISBN 978-0824823184.</ref> but have a long, complex history in earlier [[Japanese art]].<ref name="Kern">Kern, Adam. 2006. ''Manga from the Floating World: Comicbook Culture and the Kibyōshi of Edo Japan'' Cambridge: Harvard University Press. ISBN 978-0674022669.</ref><ref name="Ito">{{cite web | author = Ito, Kinko| url = http://www.ingentaconnect.com/content/bpl/jpcu/2005/00000038/00000003/art00002 | title = A history of manga in the context of Japanese culture and society | publisher = [[The Journal of Popular Culture]]| datepublished = 2005 | pages= 38 (3): 456-475| accessdate = 2008-04-05 }}</ref><ref name="Schodt 1986">Schodt, Frederik L. 1986. ''[[Manga! Manga! The World of Japanese Comics]]''. Tokyo: Kodansha. ISBN 978-0870117527.</ref> In Japan, manga are widely read by people of all ages,<ref name = "Gravett"/> and include a broad range of subjects: action-adventure, romance, sports and games, historical drama, comedy, science fiction and fantasy, mystery, horror, sexuality, and business and commerce, among others.<ref name="Gravett"/> Since the 1950s, manga have steadily become a major part of the Japanese publishing industry,<ref name="Kinsella"/><ref name="Schodt 1996">Schodt, Frederik L. 1996. ''[[Dreamland Japan: Writings on Modern Manga]].'' Berkeley, CA: Stone Bridge Press. ISBN 978-1880656235.</ref> representing a 481 billion [[Japanese yen|yen]] market in Japan in 2006<ref name="ComiPress">{{cite web | url = http://comipress.com/news/2007/03/10/1622 | title = Japanese Manga Market Drops Below 500 Billion Yen | publisher = ComiPress | datepublished = 2007-03-10 | accessdate = 2008-04-05 }}</ref> (approximately [[Dollar sign|$]]4.4 billion dollars).<ref>{{cite web | url = http://www.google.com/search?client=opera&rls=en&q=500+billion+yen+in+dollars&sourceid=opera&ie=utf-8&oe=utf-8 | title = 500 billion yen in dollars | accessdate = 2007-09-14 |date=2007-09-14 | publisher = Google}}</ref> Manga have also become increasingly popular worldwide.<ref name="Wong 2006">Wong, Wendy Siuyi. 2006. "Globalizing manga: From Japan to Hong Kong and beyond." ''Mechademia: An Academic Forum for Anime, Manga, and the Fan Arts'', 1:23-45.</ref><ref name="Patten">Patten, Fred. 2004. ''Watching Anime, Reading Manga: 25 Years of Essays and Reviews.'' Berkeley, CA: Stone Bridge Press. ISBN 978-1880656921.</ref> In 2006, the United States manga market was $175–200 million.<ref name="Cha">{{cite web | author = Cha, Kai-Ming | url = http://www.publishersweekly.com/article/CA6430330.html?nid=2789 | title = Viz Media and Manga in the U.S. | publisher = [[Publishers Weekly]] | datepublished = April 3, 2004 | accessdate = 2008-04-05 }}</ref> Manga are typically printed in [[black-and-white]],<ref>Katzenstein, Peter. J. & Takashi Shiraishi 1997. ''Network Power: Japan in Asia.'' Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press. ISBN 978-0801483738.</ref> although some full-color manga exist (e.g. ''Colorful'' manga, not the [[Colorful|anime series]]).<ref>Kishi, Torajiro. 1998. ''Colorful''. Tokyo: Shueisha. ISBN 4-08-782556-6.</ref> In Japan, manga are usually serialized in telephone book-size manga magazines, often containing many stories each presented in a single episode to be continued in the next issue.<ref name="Gravett" /><ref name="Schodt 1986"/> If the series is successful, collected chapters may be republished in paperback books called ''[[tankōbon]]''.<ref name="Gravett"/><ref name="Schodt 1986"/> A manga artist (''[[mangaka]]'' in Japanese) typically works with a few assistants in a small studio and is associated with a creative editor from a commercial publishing company.<ref name="Kinsella"/> If a manga series is popular enough, it may be [[Anime|animated]] after or even during its run,<ref>Kittelson, Mary Lynn. 1998. ''The Soul of Popular Culture: Looking at Contemporary Heroes, Myths, and Monsters.'' Chicago: Open Court. ISBN 978-0812693638.</ref> although sometimes manga are drawn centering on previously existing [[live-action]] or animated films<ref>{{cite web | author = Johnston-O'Neill, Tom |url = http://parobs.org/index.php?module=article&view=279&lay_quiet=1&8dced886a4bd24eb30fc46843fb4287a=23679635f7832235dae9949749a76f35 | title = Finding the International in Comic Con International | publisher = The San Diego Participant Observer | datepublished = August 3, 2007 | accessdate = 2008-04-05 }}</ref> (e.g. ''[[Star Wars (manga)|Star Wars]]'').<ref>{{Cite comic | Cartoonist = Hisao Tamaki | Story = George Lucas | Title=Star Wars: A New Hope Manga | Volume = | Issue = 1 |date=1998-07-15 | Publisher=[[Dark Horse Comics]]}}</ref>