User:Martin Baldwin-Edwards/Countries draft

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There is no internationally-accepted definition of what constitutes a ‘country’. Frequently, the term is taken as being synonymous with ‘state’, in line with legal conceptions of sovereignty which stem philosophically from Rousseau and practically from the 1648 Peace of Westphalia. However, not all states are recognized: thus, we can distinguish between states with de jure sovereignty [with full recognition by the United Nations] and states with de facto sovereignty, whose claim to statehood is contested by some parties. For the purposes of this article, a country is considered as such if it is an area of land distinguished by its political autonomy and whose population possesses a common or shared sense of identity. This broad definition covers many legal-political forms of country, whose different characteristics are shown by category in the table below.

The first category consist of countries with full sovereignty and, usually, direct control of their foreign policy and relations with foreign governments. 194 [check with UN] of these are recognized within the United Nations; four more constitute exceptional cases. These are the Holy See, which is granted Observer status within the UN; Kosovo, which is technically a constituent region of Serbia but is under UN administration; Taiwan (also known as the Republic of China) which is a de facto state not recognized by China; and the Western Sahara, which is territory occupied by Morocco. Arguably, Palestine and Northern Cyprus could be placed in this category of de facto states, but legally it is clear that they remain constituent territories of Israel and Cyprus, respectively.

The second category [Constituent Countries] consists of countries which are part of a larger country: the most important example is that of the constituent countries of the United Kingdom, namely England, Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland. The distinguishing characteristic of such countries is that they are usually part of a federal, or quasi-federal, system of governance.

The third category [Associated States] comprises a small number of countries with full sovereignty in domestic affairs, but in the international sphere the more powerful country of association – Australia, Netherlands, New Zealand or the UK – is responsible for foreign policy and defence. All of the countries in this category are small islands, which previously had been colonial possessions.

The final category [Dependent Territories] consists of territories which have the weakest claim to statehood and the status of ‘country’. All, apart from Gibraltar, are islands – although Greenland is a great landmass – and all were colonial acquisitions. Some have limited political autonomy, others do not: this category is a complex mix of legal arrangements.


Name 

Population 2005 [thousands] 

Capital 

Currency 

Constituent countries 

Associated states 

Dependent territories 

Afghanistan

29,863 

Kabul

Afghani

Albania

3,130 

Tirana

Lek

Algeria

32,854 

Algiers

Algerian dinar

Andorra

67 

Andorra la Vella

Euro

Angola

15,941 

Luanda

Kwanza

Antigua and Barbuda

81 

Saint John's

East Caribbean dollar

Argentina

38,747 

Buenos Aires

Argentine peso

Armenia

3,016 

Yerevan

Armenian dram

Australia

20,155 

Canberra

Australian dollar

Norfolk Island

Christmas Island; Cocos Islands

Austria

8,189 

Vienna

Euro

Azerbaijan

8,411 

Beku

Azerbaijani manat

Bahamas

323 

Nassau

Bahamian dollar

Bahrain

727 

Manama

Bahraini dinar

Bangladesh

141,822 

Dhaka

Taka

Barbados

270 

Bridgetown

Barbadian dollar

Belarus

9,755 

Minsk

Belarusian rouble

Belgium

10,419 

Brussels

Euro

Belize

270 

Belmopan

Belizean dollar

Benin

8,439 

Porto Novo (official)
Cotonou (de facto)

CFA franc

Bhutan

2,163 

Thimphu

Ngultrum

Bolivia

9,182 

Sucre (judicial)
La Paz (administrative)

Boliviano

Bosnia and Herzegovina

3,907 

Sarajevo

convertible mark

Botswana

1,765 

Gaborone

Botswana pula

Brazil

186,405 

Brasilia

Brazilian real

Brunei Darussalam

374 

Bandar Seri Begawan

Brunei dollar

Bulgaria

7,726 

Sofia

Lev

Burkina Faso

13,228 

Ouagadougou

CFA franc

Burundi

7,548 

Bujumbura

Burundi franc

Cambodia

14,071 

Phnom Penh

 

Cameroon

16,322 

Yaoundé

 

Canada

32,268 

Ottawa

Canadian dollar

Cape Verde

507 

Praia

 

Central African Republic

4,038 

Bangui

 

Chad

9,749 

N'Djamena

 

Chile

16,295 

Santiago

Chilean peso

China, People's Republic of

1,315,844 

Beijing

Renminbi

Colombia

45,600 

Bogota

Colombian peso

Comoros

798 

Moroni

 

Congo, Democratic Republic of the...

57,549 

Kinshasa

 

Congo, Republic of the

3,999 

Brazzaville

 

Costa Rica

4,327 

San José

 

Côte d'Ivoire

18,154 

Yamoussoukro

 

Croatia

4,551 

Zagreb

 

Cuba

11,269 

Havana

Cuban peso

Cyprus

835 

Nicosia

 

Northern Cyprus, Turkish Rep. of

Czech Republic

10,220 

Prague

 

Denmark

5,431 

Copenhagen

 

Faeroe Islands; Greenland

Djibouti

793 

Djibouti

 

Dominica

79 

Roseau

 

Dominican Republic

8,895 

Santo Domingo

 

Ecuador

13,228 

Quito

 

Egypt

74,033 

Cairo

 

El Salvador

6,881 

San Salvador

 

Equatorial Guinea

504 

Malabo

 

Eritrea

4,401 

Asmara

 

Estonia

1,330 

Tallinn

 

Ethiopia

77,431 

Addis Ababa

 

Fiji

848 

Suva

 

Finland

5,249 

Helsinki

Euro

France

60,496 

Paris

Euro

French Guiana; French Polynesia; French Southern and Antarctic Lands; Martinique; Mayotte; New Caledonia; Reunion; St. Barthelemy; St.-Pierre et Miquelon; Wallis and Futuna

Gabon

1,384 

Libreville

 

Gambia

1,517 

Banjul

 

Georgia

4,474 

Tbilisi

 

Germany

82,689 

Berlin

Euro

Ghana

22,113 

Accra

 

Greece

11,120 

Athens

Euro

Grenada

103 

St. George's

 

Guatemala

12,599 

Guatemala City

 

Guinea

9,402 

Conakry

 

Guinea-Bissau

1,586 

Bissau

 

Guyana

751 

Georgetown

 

Haiti

8,528 

Port-au-Prince

 

Honduras

7,205 

Tegucigalpa

 

Hungary

10,098 

Budapest

 

Iceland

295 

Reykjavik

 

India

1,103,371 

New Delhi

 

Indonesia

222,781 

Jakarta

 

Iran, Islamic Rep. of

69,515 

Tehran

 

Iraq

28,807 

Baghdad

 

Ireland

4,148 

Dublin

Euro

Israel

6,725 

Jerusalem

New (Israeli) Sheqel (NIS)

Palestine 

Italy

58,093 

Rome

Euro

Jamaica

2,651 

Kingston

Jamaican dollar

Japan

128,085 

Tokyo

Yen

Jordan

5,703 

Amman

 

Kazakhstan

14,825 

Astana

 

Kenya

34,256 

Nairobi

 

Kiribati

99 

South Tarawa

 

Korea, Democratic People's Republic of

22,488 

Pyongyang

 

Korea, Republic of

47,817 

Seoul

 

Kuwait

2,687 

Kuwait City

 

Kyrgyzstan

5,264 

Bishkek

 

Lao People's Democratic Rep.

5,924 

Vientiane

 

Latvia

2,307 

Riga

 

Lebanon

3,577 

Beirut

 

Lesotho

1,795 

Maseru

 

Liberia

3,283 

Monrovia

 

Libyan Arab Jamahiriya

5,853 

Tripoli

 

Liechtenstein

35 

Vaduz

Swiss Franc

Lithuania

3,431 

Vilnius

 

Luxembourg

465 

Luxembourg

Euro

Madagascar

18,606 

Antananarivo

 

Malawi

12,884 

Lilongwe

 

Malaysia

25,347 

Kuala Lumpur

 

Maldives

329 

Malé

 

Mali

13,518 

Bamako

 

Malta

402 

Valletta

 

Macedonia, former Yugoslav Republic of

2,034 

Skopje

 

Marshall Islands

62 

Majuro

 

Mauritania

3,069 

Nouakchott

 

Mauritius

1,245 

Port Louis

 

Mexico

107,029 

Mexico City

Mexican peso

Micronesia, Federated States of...

110 

Palikir

 

Moldova, Rep. of

4,206 

Chisinau

 

Monaco

35 

Monaco

Euro

Mongolia

2,646 

Ulaanbaatar

 

Montenegro

Podgorica

Euro

Morocco

31,478 

Rabat

 

Mozambique

19,792 

Maputo

 

Myanmar

50,519 

Naypyidaw

 

Namibia

2,031 

Windhoek

 

Nauru

14 

none 

 

Nepal

27,133 

Kathmandu

 

Netherlands

16,299 

but_seat_of_govt._in_The_Hague';">[[Amsterdam but seat of govt. in The Hague]]

Euro

Aruba; Netherlands Antilles

New Zealand

4,028 

Wellington

New Zealand Dollar

Cook Islands; Niue

Tokelau 

Nicaragua

5,487 

Managua

 

Niger

13,957 

Niamey

 

Nigeria

131,530 

Abuja

 

Norway

4,620 

Oslo

Norwegian Krone

Svalbard

Oman

2,567 

Muscat

 

Pakistan

157,935 

Islamabad

 

Palau

20 

Melekeok

 

Panama

3,232 

Panama City

 

Papua New Guinea

5,887 

Port Moresby

 

Paraguay

6,158 

Asuncion

Guarani

Peru

27,968 

Lima

Peruvian sol

Philippines

83,054 

Manila

 

Poland

38,530 

Warsaw

 

Portugal

10,495 

Lisbon

Euro

Madeira 

Qatar

813 

Doha

 

Romania

21,711 

Bucharest

 

Russian Federation

143,202 

Moscow

Ruble

Rwanda

9,038 

Kigali

 

Saint Kitts and Nevis

43 

Basseterre

 

Saint Lucia

161 

Castries

 

Saint Vincent and the Grenadines

119 

Kingstown

 

Samoa

185 

Apia

 

San Marino

28 

San Marino

Euro

Sao Tome and Principe

157 

Sao Tome

 

Saudi Arabia

24,573 

Riyadh

 

Senegal

11,658 

Dakar

 

Serbia

10,503 

Belgrade

 

Vojvodina 

Seychelles

81 

Victoria

 

Sierra Leone

5,525 

Freetown

 

Singapore

4,326 

Singapore

 

Slovakia

5,401 

Bratislava

 

Slovenia

1,967 

Ljubljana

Euro

Solomon Islands

478 

Honiara

 

Somalia

8,228 

Mogadishu

 

South Africa

47,432 

Pretoria (executive),

 

Cape Town (legislative),

and Bloemfontein (judicial)

Spain

43,064 

Madrid

Euro

Ceuta & Melilla; Canary Islands

Sri Lanka

20,743 

Colombo

 

Sudan

36,233 

Khartoum

 

Suriname

449 

Paramaribo

 

Swaziland

1,032 

Mbabane

 

Sweden

9,041 

Stockholm

Swedish krona

Switzerland

7,252 

Bern

Swiss Franc

Syrian Arab Republic

19,043 

Damascus

 

Tajikistan

6,507 

Dushanbe

 

Tanzania, United Rep. of

38,329 

Dodoma

 

Thailand

64,233 

Bangkok

 

Timor-Leste, Democratic Rep. of

947 

Dili

 

Togo

6,145 

Lomé

 

Tonga

102 

Nuku'alofa

 

Trinidad and Tobago

1,305 

Port of Spain

 

Tunisia

10,102 

Tunis

 

Turkey

73,193 

Ankara

 

Turkmenistan

4,833 

Ashgabat

 

Tuvalu

10 

Funafuti

 

Uganda

28,816 

Kampala

 

Ukraine

46,481 

Kiev

 

United Arab Emirates

4,496 

Abu Dhabi

 

United Kingdom

59,668 

London

Pound sterling

England; Scotland; Wales; Northern Ireland

Guernsey; Jersey; Isle of Man

Anguilla; Bermuda; British Indian Ocean Territory; British Virgin Islands; Cayman Islands; Falkland Islands; Gibraltar; Montserrat; Pitcairn Islands; St. Helena; South Georgia and South Sandwich Islands; Turks and Caicos Islands

United States of America

298,213 

Washington

 

Puerto Rico; Northern Mariana Islands

American Samoa; Baker Island; Howland Island; Jarvis Island; Jonston Atoll; Kingman Reef; Midway Atoll; Guam; Navassa Island; US Virgin Islands; Wake Island

Uruguay

3,463 

Montevideo

Uruguayan peso

Uzbekistan

26,593 

Tashkent

 

Vanuatu

211 

Port Vila

 

Venezuela

26,749 

Caracas

Venezuelan bolivar

Viet Nam

84,238 

Ha Noi

 

Yemen

20,975 

Sana

 

Zambia

11,668 

Lusaka

 

Zimbabwe

13,010 

Harare

 

 

 

Holy See

Vatican City

 

Kosovo

 

Pristina

 

Taiwan

 

Taipei

 

Westerb Sahara