NOTICE: Citizendium is still being set up on its newer server, treat as a beta for now; please see here for more.
Citizendium - a community developing a quality comprehensive compendium of knowledge, online and free. Click here to join and contribute—free
CZ thanks our previous donors. Donate here. Treasurer's Financial Report -- Thanks to our content contributors. --

User:Daniel Mietchen/Sandbox/Popular Pages/251-500

From Citizendium, the Citizens' Compendium
Jump to: navigation, search
  • Developed Article PWA [r]: A New Deal era government agency created in 1933 and closed in 1939 that made contracts with private firms for the construction of public works, with an aim to bring the U.S. economy out of the Great Depression. [e] 1280
  • Approved Article Bacteriophage [r]: A virus that infects bacteria; often called a phage. [e] 1278
  • Developing Article Medical ethics [r]: The study of moral values as they apply to medicine. [e] 1277
  • Stub Default risk premium [r]: The portion of a nominal interest rate or bond yield that represents compensation for the possibility of default. [e] 1274
  • Chemical compound/Catalogs/Organic compounds [r]: Add brief definition or description 1273
  • Developing Article Computer network [r]: A collection of computers or digital devices ("nodes") connected by communication links. [e] 1271
  • Stub Scientific journal [r]: A publication venue for original research and scholarly review articles — for more than three centuries on paper and now increasingly online. [e] 1270
  • Stub Neutron [r]: An elementary particle of neutral charge, normally found in the nucleus of chemical elements, but having significant effects when in free flight; the number of neutrons in the nucleus of an element defines its identity as an isotope [e] 1269
  • Developing Article Garrett Morgan [r]: African American inventor and businessman who is well-known for his protective breathing hood, a variety of hair-straightening and cosmetic preparations, and a type of traffic signal. [e] 1266
  • Approved Article Joule-Thomson effect [r]: The increase or decrease in the temperature of a real gas (as differentiated from an ideal gas) when it is allowed to expand freely at constant enthalpy (meaning that no heat is transferred to or from the gas, and no external work is extracted from the gas). [e] 1264
  • Stub John Dalton [r]: English pioneer chemist and meteorologist (1766-1844), formulated the first quantitative atomic theory. [e] 1264
  • Developing Article Johannes Gutenberg [r]: German goldsmith and inventor of movable type printing. [e] 1258
  • Approved Article Demographic transition [r]: The theory that societies progress from a premodern regime of high fertility and high mortality to a postmodern regime of low fertility and low mortality. [e] 1258
  • Developing Article Confederate States of America [r]: Government formed by eleven southern states of the United States between 1861 and 1865, during the American Civil War. [e] 1255
  • Developing Article Genetics [r]: The study of the inheritance of characteristics, genes and DNA. [e] 1254
  • Developing Article Iraq War [r]: Invasion of Iraq by a coalition of countries, led by the United States, in 2003, and subsequent occupation [e] 1252
  • Developing Article Culture of Japan [r]: Set of traditions, pastimes, artistic expression, use of language, belief systems and so on that distinguishes Japan from other nations. [e] 1252
  • Developing Article Radar [r]: (acronym for "radio detection and ranging") A technique used for detecting and tracking targets, navigation, imagery, and special applications. [e] 1251
  • Developing Article Red blood cells [r]: Also called erythrocytes; a type of disc-shaped blood cell that contain hemoglobin, and the body's principal means of delivering oxygen to the body's cells via the blood, and the removal of carbon dioxide wastes that result from metabolism. [e] 1246
  • Developed Article Natural gas processing [r]: Industrial facilities that process raw natural gas to remove contaminants as well as to separate out and recover by product natural gas liquids. [e] 1246
  • Developing Article Racism in Australia [r]: The history of racism and restrictive immigration policies in the Commonwealth of Australia. [e] 1244
  • Developing Article Healing arts [r]: The health sciences, forms of complementary and alternative medicine, and traditional practices aimed at curing disease, healing injury and promoting wellness. [e] 1241
  • Developed Article Plymouth Colony [r]: English colony in North America, 1620-1691, until it was absorbed by Massachusetts. [e] 1235
  • Developed Article Organism [r]: An individual living individual: a complex, adaptive physical system that acts a integrated unit that sustains metabolism and reproduces progeny that resemble it. [e] 1232
  • Developing Article Latin America [r]: The region of the Americas that shares a common tradition and historical heritage of European colonization, mostly Iberian. [e] 1232
  • Approved Article Henry's law [r]: The relationship between the amount of gas dissolved in a liquid and the partial pressure of that gas above the liquid. [e] 1228
  • Choosing a cat [r]: Process of selecting a cat. [e] 1225
  • Developing Article Nazi military and SS ranks [r]: Ranks used in the military (Heer/Army, Navy, and Luftwaffe/Air Force) as well as the SS and other Nazi paramilitary formations [e] 1221
  • Developed Article Quakers [r]: Protestant denomination founded among English Puritans in the 17th century by George Fox and characterized by pacifism and the belief that Christ works directly in the soul of the believer; known formally as the Religious Society of Friends. [e] 1220
  • External Article Fungus [r]: A eukaryotic organism, classified into the kingdom Fungi, that is heterotrophic and digest their food externally, and may be a yeast, mold, or mushroom. [e] 1220
  • Developed Article Microorganism [r]: A 'germ', an organism that is too small to be seen individually with the naked eye. [e] 1219
  • Developing Article Influenza [r]: An acute viral infection in humans involving the respiratory tract; the viruses are discussed in separate articles [e] 1215
  • Developed Article Charles Dickens [r]: (1812-70) English novelist and social critic; wrote the semi-autobiographical David Copperfield. [e] 1213
  • Developed Article Animal [r]: A multicellular organism that feeds on other organisms, and is distinguished from plants, fungi, and unicellular organisms. [e] 1213
  • Developed Article Biotechnology and plant breeding [r]: The use of microorganisms, such as bacteria or yeasts, or biological substances, such as enzymes, to improve plants and prevent plant diseases. [e] 1212
  • Developed Article Microbiology [r]: The study of microorganisms (overlapping with areas of virology, bacteriology, mycology, and parasitology). [e] 1212
  • Developing Article Electromagnetic wave [r]: A change, periodic in space and time, of an electric field E(r,t) and a magnetic field B(r,t); a stream of electromagnetic waves, referred to as electromagnetic radiation, can be seen as a stream of massless elementary particles, named photons. [e] 1210
  • Developed Article Spherical harmonics [r]: A series of harmonic basis functions that can be used to describe the boundary of objects with spherical topology. [e] 1210
  • Developed Article Geoffrey Chaucer [r]: (1345-1400) English poet, author of The Canterbury Tales. [e] 1208
  • Developing Article Hydrocracking [r]: A catalytic chemical process used in petroleum refineries for converting the high-boiling constituent hydrocarbons in petroleum crude oils to more valuable lower-boiling products such as gasoline, kerosene, jet fuel and diesel oil. [e] 1204
  • Developing Article Science [r]: The organized body of knowledge based on non–trivial refutable concepts that can be verified or rejected on the base of observation and experimentation [e] 1203
  • Developing Article Evolution [r]: A change over time in the proportions of individual organisms differing genetically. [e] 1202
  • Developed Article Alexander Hamilton [r]: (1757-1804) American politician, financier and political theorist who authored the Federalist Papers. [e] 1202
  • Stub Sociology [r]: Social science that studies human social behavior or social relations, social institutions and structures, demography, public opinion, social welfare, social psychology and some forms of political behavior, as well as the history of sociology. [e] 1198
  • Developing Article MEDLINE [r]: The U.S. National Library of Medicine's® (NLM) premier bibliographic database that contains over 16 million references to journal articles in life sciences with a concentration on biomedicine. [e] 1197
  • U.S. Democratic Party, history [r]: Add brief definition or description 1195
  • Developed Article Tennis [r]: A sport played on a hard-surfaced rectangular court, between either two players or two teams of two players each, in which the players attempt to strike a hollow rubber ball, using a stringed raquet, over a net into the opponent's half of the court. [e] 1186
  • Developing Article Charles Darwin [r]: (1809 – 1882) English natural scientist, most famous for proposing the theory of natural selection. [e] 1186
  • Developing Article Roman Catholic Church [r]: The largest of several Christian churches that holds communion with the Pope in Rome, claiming direct succession from Saint Peter. [e] 1185
  • Approved Article Vapor pressure [r]: The pressure of a vapor in equilibrium with its liquid or solid phase. [e] 1184
  • Developed Article Systems biology [r]: The study of biological systems as a whole. [e] 1184
  • Developing Article Egypt [r]: A country in the northeastern corner of Africa, bordering Sudan, Libya, the Mediterranean Sea and the Red Sea [e] 1184
  • Developing Article Water [r]: A chemical compound with one oxygen and two hydrogen atoms (H20). It is often in a liquid form and makes up the bulk of the oceans, lakes, rivers and living organisms. [e] 1175
  • Developing Article Mac OS X [r]: BSD-based, POSIX-compatible graphical Unix operating system made by Apple for use on Macintosh computers. [e] 1175
  • Developing Article Neptune (planet) [r]: The eighth planet from the Sun in our solar system; named after the Roman god of the sea. [e] 1175
  • Developed Article Richard Nixon [r]: American politician (1913–1994); President of the United States 1969–1974. Known for ending the Vietnam War and for the Watergate scandal. [e] 1173
  • Stub Declaration of Independence [r]: Document formally declaring the independence of the thirteen American colonies from Great Britain, July 4, 1776. [e] 1173
  • Developing Article Human Immunodeficiency Virus [r]: An infectious human retrovirus, transmitted by bodily fluids, that causes AIDS. [e] 1170
  • Stub President of the United States of America [r]: Head of state and government of the United States of America; elected through an electoral college and responsible for appointing Federal judges and senior officials of the executive branch, subject to Senate confirmation [e] 1164
  • Approved Article Block cipher [r]: A symmetric cipher that operates on fixed-size blocks of plaintext, giving a block of ciphertext for each [e] 1160
  • Developing Article Endosymbiotic theory [r]: Theory on the origins of mitochondria and plastids (e.g. chloroplasts), which are organelles of eukaryotic cells. [e] 1160
  • Developed Article Vapor-compression refrigeration [r]: One of the many available refrigeration systems and very probably the most widely used system. [e] 1160
  • Developed Article Booker T. Washington [r]: (1856-1915) Born into slavery, he became the most prominent leader of the African American community in the early 20th century; wrote Up From Slavery. [e] 1159
  • Developing Article Real number [r]: A limit of the Cauchy sequence of rational numbers. [e] 1158
  • Stub Hudson River [r]: The most important river in New York State. [e] 1157
  • Stub Order (relation) [r]: An irreflexive antisymmetric transitive binary relation on a set. [e] 1155
  • Developed Article Replication of a circular bacterial chromosome [r]: Bi-directional replication in bacteria, which occurs when two replication forks on one chromosome proceeds from an origin point of replication, to the chromosome terminus in the opposite direction. [e] 1153
  • Developed Article Meridian (Chinese medicine) [r]: Add brief definition or description 1152
  • Developing Article Density (chemistry) [r]: A measure of the mass per unit volume of a gas, liquid or solid. [e] 1150
  • Developed Article Architecture [r]: The art and technique of designing and constructing buildings to fulfill both practical and aesthetic purposes. [e] 1150
  • Developing Article Uranus (planet) [r]: The seventh planet from the Sun in our solar system; name after the Greek god of the sky. [e] 1149
  • Approved Article Randomized controlled trial [r]: Method used to ensure objectivity when testing medical treatments. [e] 1148
  • Developing Article Bread [r]: A kind of food made from heated dough. [e] 1144
  • Developed Article Claus process [r]: A catalytic chemical process for converting gaseous hydrogen sulfide into elemental sulfur. [e] 1139
  • Developing Article Socrates [r]: (ca. 470–399 BCE) Greek philosopher who is credited with laying the foundations of western philosophy; sentenced to death in Athens for heresy. [e] 1138
  • Developing Article Ronald Reagan [r]: (1911–2004) 40th President of the United States, Republican. [e] 1135
  • Developed Article Scotland Yard [r]: The traditional name of the headquarters of the London Metropolitan Police. [e] 1135
  • Developing Article French Revolution [r]: The revolutionary episode in France that deposed the king and the aristocracy, created a republic, and included a period of terror, in which thousands were killed or driven into exile. [e] 1135
  • Developing Article Energy (science) [r]: A measurable physical quantity of a system which can be expressed in joules (the metric unit for a quantity of energy) or other measurement units such as ergs, calories, watt-hours or Btu. [e] 1130
  • Developing Article Air preheater [r]: A general term to describe any device designed to preheat the combustion air used in a fuel-burning furnace for the purpose of increasing the thermal efficiency of the furnace. [e] 1125
  • Developing Article IS-LM model [r]: Model of simultaneous equilibrium in the product and money markets - shown graphically as two intersecting interest rate/spending graphs, one depicting the investment/savings (I/S) relation and the other the liquidity/money (L/M) supply relation (also known as the Hicks-Hansen model). [e] 1124
  • Developed Article Naval guns and gunnery [r]: Artillery weapons on ships, and techniques and devices for aiming them. [e] 1124
  • Approved Article Catalytic reforming [r]: A catalytic chemical process that converts petroleum naphthas into high-octane gasoline components. [e] 1122
  • Stub Motivation [r]: The stimulus, incentive, or inducement to act or react in a certain way. [e] 1117
  • Developed Article Medicine [r]: The study of health and disease of the human body. [e] 1115
  • External Article John Steinbeck [r]: (1902–1968) One of the best known and most widely read American writers of the 20th century; wrote Grapes of Wrath. [e] 1114
  • External Article American Revolution, naval history [r]: Operations by the Royal Navy, French Navy and fledgling United States Navy during the American Revolution, along with minor participation by other naval forces [e] 1113
  • Approved Article Terrorism [r]: An act, with targets including civilians or civilian infrastructure, intended to create an atmosphere of fear in order to obtain a political objective. [e] 1113
  • Developing Article Reconstruction [r]: The attempt from 1865 to 1877 in American history to resolve the issues of the American Civil War. [e] 1111
  • Developing Article Panic of 1893 [r]: A massive contraction in the American economy (a depression) that began in 1893 and ended in 1897. [e] 1111
  • Developing Article Gold [r]: Chemical element 79, symbol Au, a lustrous corrosion-resistant precious metal used for money, electronics and jewelry. [e] 1108
  • Developing Article World Wide Web [r]: A global collection of information presented in the form of documents hosted on networked computers and available to the public. [e] 1102
  • Vietnam War military technology [r]: Military technology in support of ground operations, including helicopters and air assault, either associated with or introduced in Vietnam, between 1962 and 1975 [e] 1102
  • Developing Article Assault Breacher Vehicle [r]: U.S. Marine Corps vehicle remanufactured from M1 Abrams tanks for combat engineers to use in penetrating obstacles, standard minefields, and areas with improvised explosive devices [e] 1100
  • Developing Article Metaphor [r]: Expression directing the mind to understand and experience one kind of thing in terms of another. [e] 1093
  • Developing Article Heat of combustion [r]: The energy released as heat when a substance undergoes complete combustion with oxygen. [e] 1091
  • Developed Article Scotland [r]: A country that forms the northernmost part of the United Kingdom; population about 5,200,000. [e] 1091
  • Developing Article Complexity of algorithms [r]: How fast the execution time (or memory usage) increases as the data set to be processed grows. [e] 1087
  • Approved Article Phosphorus [r]: Chemical element (Z=15) vital to life and widely used in fertilizers, detergents and pesticides. [e] 1082
  • Developing Article Creole (language) [r]: Native language, such as Haitian Creole, which under most definitions originated as a pidgin (a rudimentary language without native speakers, created by at least two groups of speakers as a contact language. i.e. to allow immediate communication) but became as complex as any other language through being acquired by children as a first language. [e] 1081
  • Developing Article John D. Rockefeller [r]: American industrialist (1839-1937), financier and philanthropist who revolutionized the oil industry and philanthropy. [e] 1079
  • Developed Article Islam [r]: Religion founded by Muhammad whose sacred book is the Qur'an (Koran). [e] 1078
  • Developing Article Korean War [r]: A modern conflict (1950-1953) fought on the Korean peninsula between the US-led UN forces, and the Communist coalition of North Korea and China. [e] 1077
  • Developing Article Unix [r]: A computer operating system originally conceived and developed by a group of researchers as an unofficial project while they were working at AT&T's Bell Laboratories. [e] 1076
  • Approved Article Ideal gas law [r]: Relates pressure, volume and temperature for hypothetical gases of atoms or molecules with negligible intermolecular forces. [e] 1076
  • Developing Article Thermodynamics [r]: The statistical description of the properties of molecular systems [e] 1074
  • External Article Normal distribution [r]: a symmetrical bell-shaped probability distribution representing the frequency of random variations of a quantity from its mean. [e] 1072
  • Developed Article The Canterbury Tales [r]: Collection of stories in verse and prose by Geoffrey Chaucer. [e] 1068
  • Developed Article Archaea [r]: A major group of numerous microorganisms fundamentally different from the bacteria and including many chemolithotrophs and extremophiles. [e] 1064
  • Developing Article History of scientific method [r]: Development and elaboration of rules for scientific reasoning and investigation. [e] 1060
  • Approved Article Butler [r]: Manages all affairs of a household and servicing of principals and guests, providing the service themselves and/or hiring and supervising outside contractors, vendors, housekeeping staff, chef, chauffeur, valet, or personal assistant or secretary. [e] 1059
  • Developing Article Stack frame [r]: A memory management strategy used to create and destroy temporary (automatic) variables in some programming languages. [e] 1058
  • Developed Article Marcia Angell [r]: An American physician at Harvard, author, and first female editor-in-chief of the New England Journal of Medicine. [e] 1056
  • Developing Article Lactobacillus casei [r]: Rod-shaped, Gram-positive, anaerobic bacteria of genus Lactobacillus, found in the human intestine and mouth. [e] 1054
  • Developing Article Child sexual abuse [r]: A subtype of child abuse that occurs when an adult or older child forces or coerces a child into sexual activity. [e] 1054
  • Developed Article Antonie van Leeuwenhoek [r]: (1632 - 1723) Dutch scientist who discovered single-celled organisms. [e] 1053
  • Approved Article Orchid [r]: Any plant classified under Orchidaceae, one of the largest plant families and the largest among Monocotyledons. [e] 1041
  • Developed Article Lebanon [r]: a country in the Middle East. It borders Syria to the north and east, Israel to the south, and the Mediterranean Sea to the west. Its official language is Arabic, although French is widely spoken. The capital and largest city of Lebanon is Beirut. [e] 1039
  • Developing Article Fossilization (language acquisition) [r]: loss of progress in second language acquisition, where learners no longer move towards native-like ability in the second language, often despite constant exposure to it. [e] 1039
  • Stub World War I, Homefront [r]: Add brief definition or description 1036
  • Developed Article Mercer Beasley [r]: American tennis coach of the first half of the 20th century who discovered Ellsworth Vines and was the mentor of Frank Parker. [e] 1035
  • Developing Article Television [r]: Electronic transmission of moving pictures. [e] 1030
  • Developing Article Barack Obama [r]: 44th President of the United States of America (2009–2017) and a former Senator from Illinois (born 1961). [e] 1029
  • Developing Article Computer architecture [r]: Add brief definition or description 1029
  • Developing Article Cold War [r]: Geostrategic, economic and ideological struggle from about 1947 to 1991 between the Soviet Union and the United States and their allies. [e] 1028
  • Developing Article Sensitivity and specificity [r]: measures for assessing the results of diagnostic and screening tests. [e] 1027
  • Developing Article Clostridium tetani [r]: Gram-positive, rod-shaped, anaerobic bacterium of the genus Clostridium, that produces a powerful toxin, tetanospasmin, that blocks inhibitory synapses in the central nervous system and thus causes the severe muscle spasms characteristic of tetanus. [e] 1026
  • Developed Article Adrenergic beta-antagonist [r]: Drugs that bind to but do not activate beta-adrenergic receptors thereby blocking the actions of beta-adrenergic agonists. Adrenergic beta-antagonists are used for treatment of hypertension, cardiac arrhythmias, angina pectoris, glaucoma, migraine headaches, and anxiety. [e] 1025
  • Developing Article World War I, American Entry [r]: Add brief definition or description 1023
  • Developing Article Black history [r]: A movement that developed out of the same forces that shaped the Civil Rights Movement. [e] 1020
  • Developing Article Compellence [r]: A set of decisions, policies and actions intended to force an opponent to take some action, as opposed to deterring the adversary not to take a different action. [e] 1020
  • Developed Article U.S. Electoral College [r]: The indirect election mechanism used to select the president and vice president of the United States [e] 1019
  • Developing Article American Revolution [r]: The political and military action of the American colonists who overthrew British control between 1763-1789. [e] 1018
  • Developing Article Chinese characters [r]: (simplified Chinese 汉字; traditional Chinese: 漢字) are symbols used to write varieties of Chinese and - in modified form - other languages; world's oldest writing system in continuous use. [e] 1013
  • Developing Article Textile industry, history [r]: The story of the movement from handcraft production of cloth in every country to the industrial revolution in Britain, which featured the organization of cotton and wool yarn and cloth factories, and the subsequent spread of the industry to every country in the world. [e] 1011
  • Developed Article SR-71 Blackbird [r]: An advanced, long-range, Mach 3 strategic reconnaissance aircraft developed from the Lockheed YF-12A and A-12 aircraft by the Lockheed Skunk Works. [e] 1010
  • Developing Article Wiki [r]: A website that allows anyone (with registration required or not) to edit any page and to add new pages. [e] 1010
  • Developing Article Horse colors [r]: Coat colors and distinctive markings on horses caused by melanin appearing in two forms, eumelanin (black) and phaeomelanin (orange-red), and variations of those two. [e] 1010
  • Approved Article Tux [r]: The name of the penguin, official logo and cartoon mascot for the Linux computer operating system. [e] 1005
  • Stub Computer science [r]: The study of how computers work, and the algorithms, data structures and design principles used in their operation and programming. [e] 1003
  • External Article Venus (planet) [r]: The second planet from the Sun in our solar system; named after the Roman goddess of love. [e] 1001
  • Developing Article Parts-per notation [r]: Notation used in science and engineering, to denote dimensionless proportionalities in measured quantities such as proportions at the parts-per-million (ppm), parts-per-billion (ppb), and parts-per-trillion (ppt) level. [e] 1001
  • Developed Article Large-scale trickle filters [r]: One of the processes by which biodegradable substances in wastewaters are biochemically oxidized. [e] 1000
  • Stub Israel [r]: Country in the Middle East. [e] 997
  • Developing Article Ontological argument for the existence of God [r]: A proof of the existence of the God through abstract reasoning. [e] 997
  • Stub Church of Scientology [r]: Controversial religion based on the teachings of American author L. Ron Hubbard. [e] 996
  • Developing Article Martin Luther [r]: German theologian and monk (1483-1546); led the Reformation; believed that salvation is granted on the basis of faith rather than deeds. [e] 995
  • Approved Article Shirley Chisholm [r]: The first African-American congresswoman, serving from 1969-1983, representing New York's 12th Congressional District. [e] 991
  • Developing Article Buddhism [r]: Spiritual tradition founded on the teachings of the Buddha. [e] 990
  • Developing Article Race [r]: A categorization of people according to specific physical attributes: most commonly, these are skin colour, facial characteristics and sometimes hair type. [e] 990
  • Developing Article Bolognese sauce [r]: A well-known meat sauce for pasta that originated in Bologna, Italy. [e] 990
  • Developing Article Great Wall of China [r]: Add brief definition or description 987
  • Developing Article Personal computer [r]: A computer whose price, size, and features make it suitable for personal use. [e] 985
  • Penguin/Catalogs/Penguins in the northern hemisphere [r]: Add brief definition or description 985
  • Japan/Gallery [r]: Add brief definition or description 985
  • Developing Article God [r]: Supreme, supernatural entity, often credited with omnipotence, omniscience and rulership of the universe. [e] 983
  • Biology/Draft [r]: Add brief definition or description 983
  • External Article Linguistic variation [r]: The range of differences between varieties of language. [e] 982
  • Developed Article Cloud computing [r]: Use of computer networks, especially the Internet, to access computer resources, operated by a third party; access is on-demand and dynamically assigned — cloud computing differs from managed hosting with resources dedicated to users [e] 981
  • Developed Article Resistor [r]: One of the basic components in electrical circuits. [e] 980
  • Developing Article Chemical elements [r]: In one sense, refers to species or types of atoms, each species/type distinguished by the number of protons in the nuclei of the atoms belonging to the species/type, each species/type having a unique number of nuclear protons; in another sense, refers to substances, or pieces of matter, each composed of multiple atoms solely of a single species/type. [e] 979
  • Approved Article Gross Domestic Product [r]: Gross Domestic Product (GDP) is a total of the outputs recorded in a country’s national income accounts. [e] 978
  • Stub Point (geometry) [r]: An object that has a position but no length, breadth or depth. [e] 977
  • Stub Anglicanism [r]: the religious tradition of the Church of England and the other autonomous members of the Anglican Communion. [e] 972
  • Developing Article Pi (mathematical constant) [r]: Greek letter π and mathematical constant that is approximately equal to 3.14159. [e] 971
  • Developed Article Abraham Lincoln [r]: (1809-65) Born in Illinois, President of the United States during the American Civil War. [e] 971
  • Developed Article Intermolecular forces [r]: Non-covalent forces between atoms and molecules; often synonymous with Van der Waals forces. [e] 970
  • Approved Article Air pollution dispersion modeling [r]: Describes the basic mathematical simulation (i.e., modeling) of how buoyant air pollutants disperse in the atmosphere. [e] 968
  • Developing Article Brain evolution [r]: The process by which the central nervous system changed over many generations. [e] 967
  • External Article Kerala [r]: A State of south-western India. [e] 967
  • Developing Article Eastern Orthodox Church [r]: Those Christians who are in communion with the Ecumenical Patriarchate of Constantinople. [e] 966
  • Developing Article Newton's method [r]: Technique to approximate the roots of an equation by the methods of the calculus. [e] 965
  • Stub Porphyromonas gingivalis [r]: Gram-negative, anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria which produces a cell-bound, oxygen-sensitive collagenase and is isolated from the human mouth. [e] 962
  • Developing Article Primate [r]: A member of the biological order Primates, which includes prosimians (galagos, lorises, lemurs and tarsiers), monkeys, apes, and humans. [e] 960
  • Developing Article Video game [r]: A game played using an electronic controller to manipulate images on a display screen. [e] 960
  • Developing Article American Revolution, military history [r]: military history of the American Revolution from 1775 to 1781 [e] 959
  • Developing Article English language [r]: A West Germanic language widely spoken in the United Kingdom, its territories and dependencies, Commonwealth countries and former colonial outposts of the British Empire; has developed the status of a global language. [e] 958
  • Approved Article Specific heat ratio [r]: The ratio of the specific heat of a gas at constant pressure, , to the specific heat at constant volume, , also sometimes called the adiabatic index or the heat capacity ratio or the isentropic expansion factor. [e] 957
  • Developed Article William Harvey [r]: (1579–1657) English physician who discovered the true nature of blood circulation and the function of the heart as a pump. [e] 957
  • Stub Larry Sanger [r]: American former philosophy professor who co-founded Wikipedia and founded Citizendium as an alternative (born 1968). [e] 949
  • Developed Article Doctor Who [r]: British science-fiction television series depicting the adventures of a mysterious time-traveller known as 'the Doctor'; original series ran from 1963 to 1989 on the BBC, followed by a 1996 television movie; relaunched in 2005. [e] 946
  • Developing Article Lumbalgia [r]: Common musculoskeletal disorder caused by a variety of diseases and trauma that affect the lumbar spine. [e] 946
  • Approved Article Natural gas [r]: A gas consisting primarily of methane (CH4) which is found as raw natural gas in underground reservoirs, as gas associated with underground reservoirs of petroleum crude oil, as undersea methane hydrates and as coalbed methane in underground coal mines. [e] 946
  • Developing Article Pseudomonas putida [r]: Gram-negative,rod-shaped, saprotrophic soil bacterium which demonstrates a very diverse metabolism, including the ability to degrade organic solvents such as toluene, and is used in bioremediation. [e] 946
  • Developing Article Earth science [r]: The study of the components and processes of the planet Earth. [e] 944
  • Developed Article Lyndon B. Johnson [r]: American politician (1908-1973); president 1963–1969; known for his civil rights bills and "The Great Society". [e] 942
  • Developing Article Logarithm [r]: Inverse of exponentiation, as subtraction is the inverse of addition and division is the inverse of multiplication. [e] 941
  • Developing Article Panthera tigris (Tiger) [r]: Large carnivorous feline mammal of Asia, having a tawny coat with transverse black stripes, a member of the Felidae family, and the largest of the four 'big cats' in the genus Panthera. [e] 941
  • Developing Article Mexican-American War [r]: (1846-1848) war between Mexico and the United States over Mexican territories between the Gila and Rio Grande Rivers in the south and the 42d parallel north (Texas and the Mexican Cession) [e] 941
  • Stub Music and emotion [r]: An overview of the intricate relationships between music and emotion. [e] 940
  • Developing Article Geta [r]: A kind of Japanese shoe with a flat wooden sole raised by one or more 'teeth'. [e] 940
  • Developing Article Zimmerman Telegram [r]: A 1917 proposal from Germany to Mexico to make war against the United States. [e] 938
  • Approved Article John Franklin [r]: (April 15, 1786 - June 11, 1847) British sea captain and Arctic explorer. [e] 936
  • Developed Article Transposon [r]: Blocks of conserved DNA that can occasionally move to different positions within the chromosomes of a cell. [e] 931
  • Developed Article BMW R60-2 [r]: 600cc boxer twin BMW motorcycles manufactured from 1956 to 1969. [e] 929
  • External Article Atmospheric reentry [r]: The movement of human-made or natural objects as they enter the atmosphere of a planet from outer space, in the case of Earth from an altitude above the 'edge of space.' [e] 928
  • Developing Article Logic [r]: The study of the standards and practices of correct argumentation. [e] 928
  • Developing Article Bacillus subtilis [r]: A Gram-positive, rod-shaped, endospore-forming bacteria, originally called Vibrio subtilis. [e] 927
  • Developed Article Milpa agriculture [r]: A form of swidden agriculture that is practiced in Mesoamerica. Traditionally, a "milpa" plot is planted with maize, beans, and squash. [e] 927
  • Approved Article Boiling point [r]: The temperature at which the vapor pressure of the liquid equals the external environmental pressure surrounding the liquid and the liquid initiates boiling. [e] 923
  • Developing Article Matrix [r]: A mathematical construct generally represented as a rectangular array of elements. [e] 921
  • Developing Article Hemispheric lateralization [r]: The (primary) localization of a brain function on either the right or left sides of the brain. [e] 921
  • Developing Article Law of diminishing returns [r]: A concept in economic theory which states that the output per input (productivity) declines if the input of a production factor is increased over a certain limit. [e] 919
  • Developing Article Heavy metal (music) [r]: Heavy metal (often referred to simply as metal) is a popular genre of rock music that evolved in the late 1960s and early 1970s, from heavy blues and psychedelic rock. [e] 918
  • External Article Exothermic reaction [r]: A chemical reaction that releases energy in the form of heat. [e] 915
  • Developing Article Circulatory system [r]: Organ system that passes nutrients, gases, hormones, blood cells, nitrogen waste products, etc. to and from cells in the body. [e] 914
  • Developing Article Jacques Derrida [r]: (July 15 1930–October 8 2004) An Algerian-born French philosopher. [e] 911
  • Developed Article Colonial America [r]: The eastern United States and parts of Canada from the time of European settlement to the time of the American Revolution. [e] 910
  • Approved Article Frederick Jackson Turner [r]: (1861–1932) Influential early 20th century American historian. Formulated the Turner Thesis (Also known as the Frontier Theory) [e] 909
  • Developing Article Asphalt (paving) [r]: A mix of bitumen (petroleum tar), aggregate and additives. A typical paving asphalt consists to 90 to 95 percent by weight of aggregate and 5 to 10 % of bitumen. [e] 908
  • Developing Article Second Great Awakening [r]: (1800–1830s): the second great religious revival in American history and consisted of renewed personal salvation experienced in revival meetings combined with dramatically increased interest in philanthropic projects. [e] 905
  • Developing Article Haber process [r]: A chemical process used to produce ammonia — a compound important in many branches of organic chemistry — from the elements nitrogen and hydrogen. [e] 905
  • Developed Article Antibiotic [r]: Drugs that reduce the growth or reproduction of bacteria. [e] 905
  • Developing Article Drug toxicity [r]: Manifestations of the adverse effects of drugs administered therapeutically or in the course of diagnostic techniques. [e] 905
  • Developing Article Korean War of 1592-1598 [r]: Fought on the Korean peninsula from 1592 to 1598 between Japan and the Chinese tributary alliance (Korea, China, Ryukyus, Java, etc.), and resulted in Japanese retreat. [e] 903
  • Developing Article Taj Mahal [r]: 17th century mausoleum complex, located on the south bank of the River Yamuna in Agra, India. [e] 901
  • Developed Article Bowling [r]: An indoor sport in which a large, heavy ball is rolled down a lane to hit a cluster of pins. [e] 897
  • Developed Article Vasopressin [r]: A hormone also called (arginine vasopressin, (AVP); formerly known as antidiuretic hormone, ADH), produced in the hypothalamus secreted from the posterior pituitary that causes kidneys to concentrate urine to conserve water, also causes vasoconstriction. [e] 896
  • Quantum mechanics/Advanced [r]: Add brief definition or description 895
  • Developing Article Jacksonian Democracy [r]: The political philosophy of the Second Party System in the United States in the 1820s to 1840s, especially the positions of President Andrew Jackson and his followers in the new Democratic Party. [e] 895
  • Approved Article Homeopathy [r]: System of alternative medicine involving administration of highly diluted substances with the intention to stimulate the body's natural healing processes, not considered proven by mainstream science. [e] 893
  • Developing Article Oxygen [r]: A chemical element with the symbol O and atomic number 8. [e] 893
  • Developing Article John F. Kennedy [r]: American politician (1917-1963); president 1961-1963; assassinated in Dallas. [e] 892
  • Developing Article German dialects [r]: Dialect dominated by the geographical spread of the High German consonant shift, and the dialect continuum that connects the German with the Dutch language. [e] 891
  • Approved Article Flash evaporation [r]: The partial vaporization that occurs when a saturated liquid stream undergoes a reduction in pressure by passing through a throttling valve or other throttling device. [e] 890
  • Stub Syntax (linguistics) [r]: The study of the rules, or 'patterned relations', that govern the way words combine to form phrases and phrases to form sentences. [e] 888
  • Developing Article Software engineering [r]: The process by which requirements are translated to software design and testing specifications, and reliable and timely computer code is produced, so as to fit the needs of potential users and to be maintainable for future demands [e] 886
  • Developed Article Quorum sensing [r]: Ability of populations of bacteria to communicate and coordinate their behavior via inter-cellular and inter-species signaling molecules. [e] 886
  • Developing Article Discount rate [r]: (i) The percentage by which current value exceeds value in a year's time. (ii) The rate at which banks may borrow at their central bank's discount window. [e] 883
  • Developed Article Grover Cleveland [r]: The 22nd and 24th President of the United States, and the only one to serve two non-consecutive terms. [e] 882
  • Developing Article Japanese language [r]: (日本語 Nihongo), Japonic language spoken mostly in Japan; Japonic family's linguistic relationship to other tongues yet to be established, though Japanese may be related to Korean; written in a combination of Chinese-derived characters (漢字 kanji) and native hiragana (ひらがな) and katakana (カタカナ) scripts; about 125,000,000 native speakers worldwide. [e] 880
  • Developed Article Steroid [r]: Hormone group that controls metabolism, catabolism, growth, electrolyte balance and sexual characteristics. [e] 879
  • Stub Middle Ages [r]: Period in European history, lasting from the fall of the Roman Empire in 476 AD to the fall of Constantinople (1453) or the beginning of the Renaissance around 1500 AD. [e] 876
  • Developing Article Sigmund Freud [r]: (1856 – 1939) Pioneering psychiatrist who developed psychoanalysis. [e] 874
  • External Article Citric acid cycle [r]: A series of enzyme-catalysed chemical reactions of central importance in all living cells that use oxygen as part of cellular respiration. [e] 874
  • Approved Article Amine gas treating [r]: A process using aqueous solutions of amines to remove hydrogen sulfide (H2S) and carbon dioxide (CO2) from gases [e] 874
  • Developing Article Origin of music [r]: The evolutionary background of the human capacity for music. [e] 873
  • Developed Article International System of Units [r]: Metric unit system based on the metre, kilogram, second, ampere, kelvin, mole and candela. [e] 871
  • Developing Article Battle of Okinawa [r]: The longest, bloodiest U.S. World War II battle in which the Japanese island of Okinawa was captured in the spring of 1945. [e] 869
  • Approved Article Plane (geometry) [r]: In elementary geometry, a flat surface that entirely contains all straight lines passing through two of its points. [e] 868
  • Developed Article Jimmy Page [r]: (b. 9 January 1944) English session guitarist and founder of influential group Led Zeppelin, known for his production techniques and blues influenced lead guitar soloing. [e] 867
  • Developed Article James Madison [r]: (March 16, 1751 – June 28, 1836), An American politician, political theorist, Secretary of State, fourth President of the United States of America (1809–1817) and one of the most influential Founding Fathers of the United States. [e] 867
  • Developed Article First Punic War [r]: War between Carthage and the Roman Republic, from 264 to 241 BCE. [e] 867
  • Developing Article The Beatles [r]: English rock band of the 1960's. [e] 866
  • Developed Article Reboiler [r]: Typically a heat exchanger or a fired heater used to provide heat to the bottom of an industrial distillation column (also referred to as a distillation tower). [e] 866
  • Approved Article Air pollution dispersion terminology [r]: Describes and explains the words and technical terms that have a special meaning to workers in the field of air pollution dispersion modeling. [e] 865
  • Developing Article Gyrification [r]: The folding process during brain development, or the extent of folding. [e] 865
  • Approved Article Coal [r]: A carbon-containing rock formed by the effect of bacteria, heat and pressure on the debris from the decay of ferns, vines, trees and other plants which flourished in swamps millions of years ago. [e] 864
  • Approved Article Benjamin Franklin [r]: 1706-1790, American statesman and scientist, based in Philadelphia. [e] 864
  • Developing Article Spoken language [r]: An example of language produced using some of the articulatory organs, e.g. the mouth, vocal folds or lungs, or intended for production by these organs; alternatively, the entire act of communicating verbally - what people mean or intend, the words they use, their accent, intonation and so on. [e] 863