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  • Welcome to Citizendium [r]: Add brief definition or description 652784
  • Developing Article Wikipedia [r]: An online encyclopedia in every major language, open to anonymous editing by anyone. [e] 9777
  • Approved Article Biology [r]: The science of life — of complex, self-organizing, information-processing systems living in the past, present or future. [e] 7417
  • Developing Article Astronomy [r]: The study of objects and processes in the observable universe, e.g. stars, planets, comets or asteroids. [e] 7384
  • External Article Mathematics [r]: The study of quantities, structures, their relations, and changes thereof. [e] 6082
  • Developing Article United States of America [r]: Constitutional republic in North America, has major land borders with Mexico and Canada. [e] 5676
  • Approved Article Life [r]: Living systems, of which biologists seek the commonalities distinguishing them from nonliving systems. [e] 5480
  • Developing Article Mitochondrion [r]: Structure, function, life cycle and evolutionary theories involving the origins and role of the mitochondrion. [e] 5056
  • Approved Article Wheat [r]: Grass crop grown worldwide and used in making flour and fermentation for alcohol production. [e] 4783
  • Developing Article History [r]: Study of past human events based on evidence such as written documents. [e] 4602
  • Approved Article Conventional coal-fired power plant [r]: An industrial plant which produces electricity by burning of coal and air in a steam generator that heats water to produce high pressure steam which then flows through a series of steam turbines that spin an electrical generator to generate electricity. [e] 4558
  • Developing Article Computer [r]: A machine that executes a sequence of instructions. [e] 4481
  • Stub Micrococcus luteus [r]: Gram positive, spherical, saprotrophic bacterium that belongs to the family Micrococcaceae, considered as an emerging nosocomial pathogen in immunocompromised patients. [e] 4330
  • Stub Bacillus megaterium [r]: One of the largest eubacteria; a rod shaped endospore-forming aerobic bacteria. [e] 4311
  • Developing Article Proteus mirabilis [r]: A Gram-negative, rod-shaped bacteria belonging to the enterobacteriaceae family; causes 90% of human infections with Proteus species, usually community-acquired [e] 4304
  • Periodic Table of Elements [r]: A tabular method of displaying the chemical elements. [e] 4098
  • Developing Article Ku Klux Klan [r]: Add brief definition or description 4087
  • Developed Article Steel industry, history [r]: The story of development of one of the core technologies of the Industrial Revolution. [e] 4084
  • Developing Article Adolf Hitler [r]: (1889–1945) Politician in Germany; became 1921 Nazi Party leader, 1933 Reichskanzler (Chancellor), then 1934 as der Führer dictator before and during World War II. [e] 4043
  • Developed Article New York City [r]: The largest city in the United States of America and a world center of finance, commerce, communications, and the arts. [e] 4036
  • Approved Article Petroleum refining processes [r]: The chemical engineering processes used in petroleum refining. [e] 3920
  • Approved Article Compressibility factor (gases) [r]: A thermodynamic property for modifying the ideal gas law to account for behavior of real gases. [e] 3910
  • Labor Unions, U.S., History [r]: Add brief definition or description 3877
  • Approved Article DNA [r]: A macromolecule — chemically, a nucleic acid — that stores genetic information. [e] 3864
  • Approved Article Chiropractic [r]: A complementary, alternative health-care profession that aims to heal using manual therapies on the spine and extremities. [e] 3863
  • Developing Article Amino acid [r]: Biochemical with an amino group, a carboxyl group, a hydrogen atom, and a side chain bonded to a central carbon. [e] 3787
  • Developing Article Music [r]: The art of structuring time by combining sound and silence into rhythm, harmonies and melodies. [e] 3696
  • Developed Article Linguistics [r]: The scientific study of language. [e] 3693
  • Developing Article World War I [r]: Massive international conflict involving the Allies and Central Powers between 1914-1918. [e] 3580
  • Developed Article Religion [r]: Belief in, and systems of, worshipful dedication to a superhuman power or belief in the ultimate nature of existence. [e] 3568
  • Approved Article Chemistry [r]: The science of matter, or of the electrical or electrostatical interactions of matter. [e] 3531
  • Developed Article Agriculture [r]: The process of producing food, feed, fiber and other goods by the systematic raising of plants and animals. [e] 3494
  • Approved Article Horizontal gene transfer [r]: Transfer of genetic material to a being other than one of the donor's offspring. [e] 3446
  • Developing Article Protein structure [r]: The structure of a protein, consisting of primary, secondary and tertiary structures. [e] 3398
  • Approved Article Steam generator [r]: A device that uses a heat source to boil liquid water and convert it into its vapor phase, referred to as steam. [e] 3396
  • Developing Article Proteus vulgaris [r]: Rod-shaped, Gram negative bacterium that inhabits the intestinal tracts of humans and animals, and known to cause urinary tract infections and wound infections. [e] 3366
  • Developing Article Physics [r]: The study of forces and energies in space and time. [e] 3351
  • Developing Article Citizendium [r]: On-line encyclopedia project: a wiki that allows registered, non-anonymous authors to edit any article, with the results approved by qualified editors. [e] 3264
  • Developing Article Philosophy [r]: The study of the meaning and justification of beliefs about the most general, or universal, aspects of things. [e] 3247
  • Developed Article Continuous distillation [r]: An ongoing separation process in which a liquid mixture of two or more miscible components is continuously fed into the process and physically separated into two or more products by preferentially boiling the more volatile (i.e., lower boiling point) components out of the mixture. [e] 3234
  • Approved Article History of economic thought [r]: the historical development of economic thinking. [e] 3217
  • Developing Article Woodrow Wilson [r]: 28th U.S. President (1913-1921); founded the Federal Reserve and brought his country to fight both the Mexicans in the Mexican Revolution and the Central Powers in World War One. [e] 3162
  • Developed Article Theodore Roosevelt [r]: (1858-1919), Twenty-sixth President of the United States, naturalist, historian, political reformer, and Progressive Era politician. [e] 3131
  • Developed Article Geography [r]: Study of the surface of the Earth and the activities of humanity upon it. [e] 3109
  • Approved Article Metabolism [r]: The modification of chemical substances by living organisms. [e] 2952
  • Developed Article Jesus [r]: Traveling preacher in first century CE, foundational figure in Christianity. [e] 2950
  • Approved Article Free statistical software [r]: This article briefly describes what free software is available for conducting statistical analysis of data. [e] 2886
  • Developed Article Vasco da Gama [r]: Portuguese explorer who established a sea route from Europe to India. [e] 2818
  • External Article Kingdom (biology) [r]: The second highest level taxon of organisms in scientific classification and biological taxonomy. [e] 2812
  • Approved Article Dog [r]: Domesticated canine often kept as a pet or as a working animal and known as 'man's best friend'. [e] 2763
  • Developing Article Infant growth and development [r]: Normal growth and development of infants measured within a set of height, weight, head circumference and other physical parameters, comparative to age. [e] 2757
  • French fries/Gallery [r]: Add brief definition or description 2605
  • Approved Article Gasoline [r]: A fuel for spark-ignited internal combustion engines derived from petroleum crude oil. [e] 2597
  • Stub Staphylococcus aureus [r]: Facultatively anaerobic, Gram-positive pathogenic coccus capable of producing suppurative lesions, furunculosis, pyemia, osteomyelitis, food poisoning, and may be resistant to commonly used antibiotics. [e] 2582
  • External Article Solar system [r]: The sun and the planets orbiting it. [e] 2558
  • Developed Article Engineering [r]: The profession in which a knowledge of the mathematical and natural sciences gained by study, experience and practice is applied with judgment to develop ways to economically use the materials and forces of nature for the benefit of mankind. [e] 2557
  • Developing Article Psychology [r]: The study of systemic properties of the brain and their relation to behaviour. [e] 2552
  • Approved Article Scientific method [r]: The concept of systematic inquiry based on hypotheses and their testing in light of empirical evidence. [e] 2533
  • Developing Article Cell membrane [r]: The outer surface of a cell which encloses its contents. [e] 2533
  • Developing Article Gas compressor [r]: A machine that increases the pressure of a gas by reducing its volume. [e] 2492
  • Country/Catalogs [r]: Add brief definition or description 2485
  • Developing Article Operating system [r]: The main software of a computer system; controls the execution of applications and provides various services to them. [e] 2448
  • M1 Abrams (tank) [r]: Heavily armed and armored but expensive and heavy, main battle tank, designed for the United States Army, and used by the United States Marine Corps and several allies; proven from the Gulf War onwards. [e] 2400
  • Developed Article Napoleon [r]: Noted military commander, world historic figure and dictator of France from 1799 to 1814 [e] 2377
  • Developed Article Vietnam War [r]: A post-colonial independence/Cold War conflict between communist North Vietnam against South Vietnam, assisted by the United States (1955-1975), to unify Vietnam; won by North Vietnam in 1975. [e] 2374
  • Developed Article Florence Nightingale [r]: British nursing pioneer (12 May 1820 – 13 August 1910). [e] 2367
  • External Article Law [r]: Body of rules of conduct of binding legal force and effect, prescribed, recognized, and enforced by a controlling authority. [e] 2360
  • Approved Article Vacuum distillation [r]: The laboratory or industrial-scale distillation of liquids performed at a pressure lower than atmospheric pressure. [e] 2339
  • Stub Income statement [r]: A document detailing the profit or loss of a business or person over a designated time period. [e] 2332
  • Approved Article Ancient Celtic music [r]: The music and instruments of the ancient Celts until late Antiquity. [e] 2331
  • Approved Article Vertebral subluxation [r]: Chiropractic concepts of health and wellness revolve around this model theory that makes the hypothesis that spinal function affects spinal nerves in such a fashion as to affect various aspects of health. [e] 2286
  • Approved Article Barbara McClintock [r]: (1902 – 1992) - American cytogeneticist who won a Nobel Prize in 1983 for the discovery of genetic transposition. [e] 2254
  • Approved Article Literature [r]: The profession of “letters” (from Latin litteras), and written texts considered as aesthetic and expressive objects. [e] 2252
  • Developed Article Franklin D. Roosevelt [r]: (January 30, 1882 – April 12, 1945), often called FDR, the President of the United States 1933 to 1945. [e] 2251
  • Approved Article Rottweiler [r]: A large breed of dog known for its great physical strength and strong protective instinct. [e] 2240
  • Developing Article Steam [r]: The vapor (or gaseous) phase of water (H2O). [e] 2230
  • Developed Article Progressive Era [r]: The period of political, administrative and social reform that began in the 1890s and ended after World War I. [e] 2225
  • Developing Article Articles of Confederation [r]: The first constitution of the United States of America. [e] 2209
  • Developing Article Hydrocarbons [r]: A class of molecules that contain only carbon and hydrogen atoms. [e] 2194
  • External Article Euro [r]: The official currency of the European Monetary Union. [e] 2128
  • Developing Article Plato [r]: (circa 427-347 BCE) Ancient Greek philosopher, whose dialogues, supposedly recording conversations with Socrates, contain many of the debates central to Western philosophy. [e] 2084
  • Developing Article Albert Einstein [r]: 20th-century physicist who formulated the theories of relativity. [e] 2083
  • Developing Article Refineries [r]: Industrial manufacturing facilities composed of a group of chemical engineering unit processes and unit operations used for the conversion certain raw materials such as petroleum crude oil, mined ores, sugar or salt into finished products of value or for the refining and purification of partially converted raw materials into finished products. [e] 2080
  • Developing Article Anthropology [r]: The holistic study of humankind; from the Greek words anthropos ("human") and logia ("study"). [e] 2068
  • External Article Greek alphabet [r]: Set of twenty-four letters that has been used to write the Greek language since the late 9th or early 8th century BC. [e] 2067
  • Developed Article Mashup [r]: An integrated application created by combining data and services of multiple applications. On the web, "mashup" typically refers to the combining of geographical location information with a service such as Google maps or Microsoft Virtual Earth. [e] 2066
  • External Article Printing press [r]: Device for making multiple paper copies of text, invented by Johannes Gutenberg in the 1440s. [e] 2061
  • Developing Article Cell (biology) [r]: The basic unit of life, consisting of biochemical networks enclosed by a membrane. [e] 2056
  • External Article HIV test [r]: Tests used to detect the presence of the human immunodeficiency virus in serum, saliva, or urine, to detect HIV antibodies, antigens, or RNA. [e] 2049
  • Developed Article American Civil War [r]: Major war 1861-65 fought over slavery in which the U.S. defeated the secessionist Confederate States of America. [e] 2041
  • Developing Article India [r]: Republic in South Asia; the world's largest democracy. Borders Bangladesh, Bhutan, Burma, China, Nepal, Pakistan [e] 2029
  • Developed Article Fossilization (palaeontology) [r]: The set of geological processes that convert organic remains into fossils. [e] 2014
  • Developing Article United Kingdom [r]: Constitutional monarchy which includes England, Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland. [e] 2009
  • Stub Henry Ford [r]: Founder of the Ford Motor Company. [e] 1995
  • Developing Article History of television technology [r]: Chronology of the development and history of television. [e] 1989
  • Developed Article Rectilinear angle (geometry) [r]: The 'steepness' between two straight lines. [e] 1989
  • Developed Article Petroleum crude oil [r]: A naturally occurring, flammable liquid found primarily in underground geological formations and consists of a complex mixture of hydrocarbons of various molecular weights plus other organic compounds. [e] 1986
  • Developing Article War of 1812 [r]: A sideshow, 1812-1815, of the Napoleonic Wars, between the United States and Great Britain; Britain ignored American demands to end the impressment (seizure) of American sailors, interference with American maritime rights, and support for hostile Indians in the American West; the war was essentially a draw [e] 1984
  • Developing Article Federal Emergency Relief Administration [r]: The new name given by the Roosevelt Administration to the "Emergency Relief Administration" set up by Herbert Hoover in 1932. [e] 1977
  • Approved Article Drugs banned from the Olympics [r]: Substances prohibited for use by athletes prior to, and during competing in the Olympics. [e] 1925
  • World War I, poison gas [r]: Any of various toxic gases sometimes used in warfare between 1914 - 1918 because of their poisonous or corrosive nature. [e] 1922
  • Developed Article China [r]: The most populous nation on Earth, third largest by area. [e] 1902
  • Developed Article Vinegar [r]: A dilute form of acetic acid used in the kitchen and elsewhere. [e] 1885
  • External Article Morphology (linguistics) [r]: The study of word structure; the study of such patterns of word-formation across and within languages, and attempts to explicate formal rules reflective of the knowledge of the speakers of those languages. [e] 1873
  • External Article Milky Way [r]: The Milky Way galaxy which contains our solar system. [e] 1869
  • Developing Article South Africa [r]: The southernmost African nation; population about 50,000,000. [e] 1864
  • Scientific method/Draft [r]: Add brief definition or description 1856
  • Approved Article Industrial Revolution [r]: A period of major economic transformation in Britain from the 1750s to the 1830s, characterized by the growth of a new system comprising factories, railroads, coal mining and business enterprises using new technologies. [e] 1854
  • Developing Article Synapse [r]: Contact point between neurons and other cells, crucial for nerve signalling [e] 1851
  • External Article Fermentation (biochemistry) [r]: The process of deriving energy from the oxidation of organic compounds, such as carbohydrates, using an endogenous electron acceptor, which is usually an organic compound. [e] 1841
  • Developing Article Pseudoscience [r]: Any theory, or system of theories, that is deceptively claimed to be scientific. [e] 1833
  • Developing Article Programming language [r]: A formal language specification, and programs for translating the formal language to machine code. [e] 1831
  • Developing Article Australia [r]: Continent in the Southern Hemisphere and the federal parliamentary nation that occupies it. [e] 1823
  • Developing Article Joseph Stalin [r]: (1878 - 1953) The head of Russia's Communist ("Bolshevik") party and dictator of the Soviet Union from 1924 until his death. [e] 1822
  • Developed Article Snake venom [r]: Highly modified toxic saliva containing hydrolithic enzymes, polypeptide complexs, nucleases, and peptidases, that is produced by special glands of certain species of snakes. [e] 1807
  • Developed Article Populist Party [r]: An American third party that flourished 1890-96 carrying several states in the 1892 election; in 1896 endorsed the Democratic party candidate, William Jennings Bryan. [e] 1805
  • Developing Article England [r]: The largest and southernmost country in the United Kingdom, and location of the largest city and seat of government, London; population about 51,000,000. [e] 1803
  • Tennis/Catalogs/Famous players [r]: Add brief definition or description 1782
  • Developing Article Health science [r]: The helping professions that use applied science to improve health and to treat disease. [e] 1778
  • Developed Article Critical views of chiropractic [r]: An indepth discussion of the aspects of chiropractic that define its position in the modern healthcare arena with special emphasis on those related to its role in alternative medicine. [e] 1774
  • Developing Article Communication [r]: The set of interactive processes that create shared meaning. [e] 1772
  • Developing Article George Washington [r]: First President of the United States (1789-1797) and commander in chief of the Continental Army. [e] 1764
  • Developed Article Union Blockade [r]: The closing of Confederate ports by the Union Navy 1861-1865, during the American Civil War. [e] 1754
  • Stub Microsporum canis [r]: Fungus that causes dermatophytosis (ringworm) in dogs and cats. [e] 1751
  • Developed Article Otto von Bismarck [r]: German statesman who led Prussia, was the architect of a unified Germany and served as its first chancellor. [e] 1749
  • Approved Article Ammonia production [r]: The processes for the manufacture of hydrogen (H2) and ammonia (NH3). [e] 1745
  • Developed Article Winston Churchill [r]: (1874 -1965) WWI Colonial Secretary and First Lord of the Admiralty; Prime Minister of the United Kingdom who led Britain to victory over Nazi Germany in World War II; Nobel Prize in Literature as a historian [e] 1718
  • U.S. foreign policy/Timelines [r]: Add brief definition or description 1718
  • Stub Taxon [r]: Any group or rank categorised in the classification of organisms, e.g., class, order, family. [e] 1717
  • Developing Article Spherical polar coordinates [r]: Angular coordinates on a sphere: longitude angle φ, colatitude angle θ [e] 1698
  • Developing Article Republicanism, U.S. [r]: The guiding political value system of the United States. [e] 1673
  • Developing Article BMW motorcycles [r]: Motorcycles produced by the German company BMW, part of its Corporate and Brand Development division called Motorrad, since 1923. [e] 1670
  • Developed Article Nuclear chemistry [r]: Subfield of chemistry dealing with radioactivity, nuclear processes and nuclear properties. [e] 1670
  • Developing Article Autism [r]: Developmental disability that results from a disorder of the human central nervous system. [e] 1668
  • U.S. Republican Party, history [r]: Add brief definition or description 1667
  • Developing Article Death [r]: State of thermodynamic equilibrium achieved after the end of life. [e] 1667
  • Developed Article Politics [r]: Activity that relates to the way in which society is governed, and the process by which human beings living in communities make decisions and establish obligatory values for its members. [e] 1666
  • Developed Article Democratic-Republican Party [r]: A United States political party during the First Party System, 1792-1820s, founded by Thomas Jefferson and James Madison. [e] 1660
  • Developing Article World War II [r]: War between the Allies (most notably the UK, US and Soviet Union) and the Axis (principally Germany and Japan) 1939–1945. [e] 1657
  • Developing Article Homeostasis (biology) [r]: The coordinated physiological reactions which maintain most of the steady states in an organism. [e] 1638
  • Developed Article Glycolysis [r]: A biochemical pathway by which a molecule of glucose is oxidized to two molecules of pyruvate. [e] 1637
  • Developed Article William Jennings Bryan [r]: (March 19, 1860 – July 26, 1925) American politician, Democratic presidential nominee and lawyer in the Scopes Trial. [e] 1636
  • Developed Article Cosmetic surgery [r]: Surgery in which the principal purpose is to improve the appearance, usually with the connotation of beautification. [e] 1634
  • Developing Article Antoine equation [r]: A mathematical expression (derived from the Clausius-Clapeyron equation) of the relation between the vapor pressure and the temperature of pure substances. [e] 1632
  • Developed Article Earth's atmosphere [r]: An envelope of gas that surrounds the Earth and extends from the Earth's surface out thousands of kilometres, becoming increasingly thinner (less dense) with distance but always held in place by Earth's gravitational pull. [e] 1630
  • Developing Article Child abuse [r]: The act of intentionally harming a child, or the results of that act. [e] 1627
  • Developing Article 9-11 Attack [r]: The largest terrorist attack on the continental United States, occurring on September 11, 2001, using hijacked airliners as suicide weapons against major buildings. [e] 1623
  • Developing Article Coal mining [r]: A term that encompasses the various methods used to extract the carbon-containing rock called coal from the ground. [e] 1616
  • Approved Article Led Zeppelin [r]: Famous and influential English hard rock and blues group formed in 1968, known for their albums Led Zeppelin IV and Physical Graffiti, and songs 'Stairway to Heaven' and 'Whole Lotta Love'. [e] 1601
  • Developed Article Bacteria [r]: A major group of single-celled microorganisms. [e] 1589
  • Developed Article Herpes [r]: Diseases caused by the herpes simplex virus. [e] 1586
  • Approved Article Complex number [r]: Numbers of the form a+bi, where a and b are real numbers and i denotes a number satisfying . [e] 1584
  • Developed Article William Shakespeare [r]: (1564- 1616) English poet and playwright. [e] 1578
  • External Article Classics [r]: A branch of the Humanities dealing with language, literature, history, art, and other aspects of the ancient Mediterranean world. [e] 1573
  • Developing Article Linux [r]: A free and open source operating system kernel designed by Linus Torvalds. The kernel is typically augmented by a plethora of other software, creating a Linux distribution. [e] 1566
  • Developing Article Oxidative stress [r]: An imbalance between the production of reactive oxygen and a biological system's ability to readily detoxify the reactive intermediates or easily repair the resulting damage. [e] 1565
  • Developing Article Hobby [r]: Pastime, avocation, para-profession or part time occupation. [e] 1559
  • Developed Article Tony Blair [r]: Former Labour Party politician and Prime Minister of the United Kingdom (1997-2007). [e] 1559
  • Developing Article Natural selection [r]: The differential survival and/or reproduction of classes of entities that differ in one or more characteristics [e] 1559
  • Developed Article Gamma function [r]: A mathematical function that extends the domain of factorials to non-integers. [e] 1558
  • External Article IUPAC nomenclature of organic chemistry [r]: A systematic way of naming organic chemical compounds as recommended by the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC). [e] 1553
  • Developed Article Mission San Juan Capistrano [r]: A former religious outpost established in 1776 on the west coast of North America in the present-day State of California by Roman Catholics of the Franciscan Order under the direction of the Spanish crown. [e] 1552
  • Stub Canada [r]: The world's second-largest country by total area, occupying most of northern North America; officially a bilingual nation, in English and French (population approx. 27 million). [e] 1550
  • Stub Spanish language [r]: A Romance language widely spoken in Spain, its current and former territories, and the United States of America. [e] 1540
  • Developing Article Potassium in nutrition and human health [r]: Role of dietary potassium and its associated bicarbonate-generating organic ions in human physiology and in preventive and therapeutic medicine. [e] 1539
  • Chiropractic/Draft [r]: Add brief definition or description 1538
  • Developed Article Baha'i Faith [r]: A monotheistic religion founded in the mid-19th century in Persia, which emphasizes the unity of all humans as one race and prior religions as all being legitimate revelations from God. [e] 1537
  • Developed Article WPA [r]: Add brief definition or description 1536
  • Developing Article BBC [r]: British state-owned radio and TV broadcasting organization founded in 1922 under Lord John Reith. [e] 1534
  • Developing Article Great Depression, Canada [r]: The Great Depression as it affected Canada in the years between 1929 and 1939. [e] 1534
  • Stub Unix directory structure [r]: A convention of the organization of the directory structure in Unix-like operating systems. [e] 1524
  • Developing Article Archaeology [r]: The scientific study of past human cultures by means of the recovery, documentation and analysis of material remains and environmental data. [e] 1523
  • Developing Article MediaWiki [r]: Wiki engine used to power Wikipedia and Citizendium; open source and written in PHP. [e] 1520
  • Developed Article Hypertension [r]: A multisystem disease whose hallmark is the elevation of blood pressure. [e] 1515
  • Developed Article Dwight D. Eisenhower [r]: (1890-1969) A career soldier who was the top Allied commander in Europe in World War II, and who later served as the 34th president of the United States (1953-1961). [e] 1510
  • Developed Article Neanderthal [r]: Extinct member of the Homo genus that is known from Pleistocene specimens found in Europe and parts of western and central Asia. [e] 1498
  • Developing Article Pedophilia [r]: Clinical diagnosis characterized by frequent and intense sexual urges directed towards prepubescent children. [e] 1497
  • Developed Article Souders-Brown equation [r]: An equation for obtaining the maximum allowable vapor velocity in vapor-liquid separation vessels, industrial distillation columns and other vapor-liquid contactors. [e] 1490
  • Developing Article Chester A. Arthur [r]: The 21st President of the United States. [e] 1489
  • Developed Article Cat colors [r]: The range of colors and patterns exhibited in the coats of cats. [e] 1479
  • Developing Article Venereal disease [r]: Infections spread through sexual contact. [e] 1476
  • Developing Article C (programming language) [r]: General-purpose procedural programming language developed in 1972. [e] 1475
  • National Socialism [r]: The totalitarian ideology espoused by Adolf Hitler and the German Nazi Party; its program was first stated formally in 1920, drafted by Hitler, Gottfried Feder and Anton Drexler [e] 1469
  • Developed Article Library science [r]: The study of issues related to libraries and the information fields. [e] 1463
  • Developed Article Great Depression [r]: the severe downturn in economic activity that started in 1929 in Germany and the United States and affected many other countries. [e] 1461
  • Developing Article Marxist Socialism [r]: Refers to a Marxian school of economics which emerged soon after Marx's death, led by his companions and co-writers, Friedrich Engels and Karl Kautsky. [e] 1459
  • Stub Roman Empire [r]: The period from the ascension of Augustus Caesar to the fall of the Empire. [e] 1458
  • Developed Article New Deal Coalition [r]: The alignment of interest groups and voting blocks who supported the New Deal and voted for Democratic presidential candidates from 1932 until approximately 1966. [e] 1457
  • Developing Article Stroke [r]: A sudden loss of brain function due to interrupted blood supply. [e] 1448
  • Approved Article Andrew Carnegie [r]: 1835-1919, Scottish-American steel maker, philanthropist and peace activist [e] 1445
  • Developing Article Nasal fracture [r]: Fracture of the bone or cartilage of the nose. [e] 1445
  • Pittsburgh, History since 1800 [r]: Add brief definition or description 1441
  • Developing Article French language [r]: A Romance language spoken in northwestern Europe (mainly in France, Belgium, Switzerland), in Canada and in many other countries. [e] 1437
  • Approved Article Cryptography [r]: A field at the intersection of mathematics and computer science that is concerned with the security of information, typically the confidentiality, integrity and authenticity of some message. [e] 1430
  • External Article Organic chemistry [r]: The scientific study of the structure, properties, composition, reactions, and preparation (by synthesis or by other means) of chemical compounds of carbon and hydrogen, which may contain any number of other elements. [e] 1429
  • Developed Article Human spine [r]: The part of the human body which is composed of the nerves of the spinal cord and its protective covering; the vertebral column or backbone. [e] 1427
  • Developing Article Guadalcanal campaign [r]: The first Allied offensive campaign of the Pacific theater in WWII, fought August 7, 1942 and February 9, 1943; Allied victory [e] 1427
  • Developing Article Deconfliction [r]: The process of avoiding mutual interference, or destruction, among resources under one's control [e] 1425
  • Developing Article Process flow diagram [r]: A diagram commonly used by chemical engineers in the process engineering of petroleum refineries, natural gas processing plants, petrochemical and chemical plants and other industrial facilities to indicate the general flow of plant process streams and equipment. [e] 1421
  • Developed Article Horizontal gene transfer in prokaryotes [r]: Horizontal gene transfer (HGT; also called lateral gene transfer, LGT) is defined as movement of genes between different species, or across broad taxonomic categories. Prokaryotes are cells, such as bacteria, that do not have a nucleus enclosed by a nuclear membrae. Their DNA is in a region of the cell called the nucleiod, or nucleus-like material. [e] 1419
  • Approved Article Joan of Arc [r]: A French peasant girl (ca. 1412 – 1431) who led her nation's armies during the Hundred Years' War and became a national heroine and saint. [e] 1410
  • Approved Article Jane Addams [r]: (1860-1935) A pioneer American settlement worker and founder of Hull House. [e] 1409
  • Developing Article Intelligent design [r]: Claim that fundamental features of the universe and living things are best explained by purposeful causation. [e] 1407
  • Developed Article Antitrust [r]: a policy to limit or prevent the creation of monopoly power and to preserve competition by regulating business conduct. [e] 1403
  • Developed Article Life expectancy [r]: A concept in demography that measures the mean number of years of life for babies born in a specified year. [e] 1392
  • Approved Article Petroleum naphtha [r]: An intermediate hydrocarbon liquid stream derived from the refining of petroleum crude oil and which may be further processed to obtain a gasoline blending component. [e] 1388
  • Developed Article Cat [r]: A feline, particularly the domesticated feline, Felis catus, a small carnivorous mammal. [e] 1385
  • Developing Article Transgenic plant [r]: Plants that have been genetically modified by inserting genes directly into a single plant cell, from a different species. [e] 1384
  • Developing Article Heat of vaporization [r]: The amount of thermal energy required to convert a quantity of liquid into a vapor. [e] 1379
  • Approved Article Industrial cooling tower [r]: Heat rejection systems used primarily to provide circulating cooling water in large industrial facilities. [e] 1379
  • Developing Article Theory of divine origin of the state [r]: Political and religious doctrine which asserts that the state is established by God, who rules the state directly or indirectly through someone regarded as an agent. [e] 1379
  • Approved Article Economics [r]: The analysis of the production, distribution, and consumption of goods and services. [e] 1378
  • Approved Article Prime number [r]: A number that can be evenly divided by exactly two positive whole numbers, namely one and itself. [e] 1378
  • Developing Article Critical period hypothesis [r]: Hypothesis which claims that there is an ideal 'window' of time to acquire language in a linguistically rich environment, after which this is no longer possible. [e] 1365
  • Approved Article RNA interference [r]: Process that inhibits the flow of genetic information to protein synthesis. [e] 1365
  • Developing Article Acetone [r]: An aprotic colorless solvent widely used in organic chemistry reactions and the main ingredient in many fingernail polish removers. [e] 1361
  • Developing Article Julius Caesar [r]: Roman general and politician who conquered Gaul, won a civil war, and was assassinated in 44BC. [e] 1361
  • Developing Article Brain [r]: The core unit of a central nervous system. [e] 1360
  • Developing Article Japan [r]: East Asian country of about 3,000 islands; one of the world's largest economies; population about 125,000,000. [e] 1359
  • Approved Article Crystal Palace [r]: A glass and iron structure built to house the Great Exhibition in Hyde Park, London, in 1851. It was moved and rebuilt on Sydenham Hill in 1854 but was destroyed by fire in 1936. [e] 1356
  • Developing Article Aristotle [r]: (384-322 BCE) Ancient Greek philosopher and scientist, and one of the most influential figures in the western world between 350 BCE and the sixteenth century. [e] 1356
  • Developing Article Human anatomy [r]: The study of shapes and structures of and within the human body. [e] 1356
  • Approved Article Michael Faraday [r]: (1791 – 1867) Was an English physicist and chemist whose best known work was on the closely connected phenomena of electricity and magnetism; his discoveries lead to the electrification of industrial societies. [e] 1353
  • Developing Article Edinburgh [r]: The capital of Scotland. [e] 1349
  • Developed Article Thomas Jefferson [r]: (1743-1826) Third President of the United States; author of the Declaration of Independence and the Virginia Statute for Religious Freedom; father of the University of Virginia [e] 1345
  • Developing Article Avogadro's number [r]: The number of atoms in 12 gram of carbon-12 atoms in their ground state at rest. [e] 1337
  • Developing Article Syllable [r]: Unit of organisation in phonology that divides speech sounds or sign language movements into groups to which phonological rules may apply. [e] 1334
  • French words in English/Catalogs [r]: Add brief definition or description 1332
  • Developing Article U.S. House of Representatives [r]: The lower house of the United States Congress. [e] 1330
  • Developing Article Harry S. Truman [r]: (1884-1972) President of the U.S. from 1945 to 1953. [e] 1324
  • Approved Article Augustin-Louis Cauchy [r]: (1789 – 1857) prominent French mathematician, one of the pioneers of rigor in mathematics and complex analysis. [e] 1322
  • Developing Article René Descartes [r]: French 17th-century philosopher, mathematician and scientist, author of the Discourse on Method. [e] 1322
  • Developing Article Pornography [r]: Visual, textual, or multimedia content intended to generate sexual interest [e] 1319
  • Developing Article Histone [r]: Proteins essential for packaging DNA into chromatin and a scaffold for methylation and acetylation modifications that are part of the chromatin code. [e] 1318
  • Developed Article Serratia marcescens [r]: Pathogenic Gram-negative, rod-shaped bacterium in the family Enterobacteriaceae, involved in nosocomial infections, particularly catheter-associated bacteremia, urinary tract infections and wound infections. [e] 1317
  • Developed Article Osama bin Laden [r]: Radical jihadist who, with Ayman al-Zawahiri, founded a group known as al-Qaeda, which is credited with a series of terrorist attacks. [e] 1317
  • Developed Article Crusades [r]: Medieval wars of religion fought by Christians, the most famous being in the Holy Land. [e] 1315
  • Developing Article Kernig's and Brudzinski's signs [r]: Techniques used, as a part of a physical examination, usually when the patient complains of a "stiff neck", to elicit specific signs suggestive of meningitis [e] 1315
  • Developing Article Reflux (distillation) [r]: A distillation technique involving the condensation of the distilled product vapors and the return of a portion of the condensate to the distillation system from which it originated. [e] 1314
  • Developing Article Hippocrates [r]: (c. 460 – 370 BCE) A physician, who revolutionized the practice of medicine by transforming it from its mythical, superstitious, magical and supernatural roots to a science based on observation and reason. [e] 1309
  • Developing Article New Deal [r]: The name President Franklin D. Roosevelt gave to the series of programs between 1933–1938 with the goal of relief, recovery and reform of the United States economy during the Great Depression. [e] 1307
  • Developing Article Asphalt (petroleum) [r]: A sticky, black and highly viscous liquid or semi-solid that is present in most petroleum crude oils and in some natural deposits. [e] 1300
  • Developing Article Central processing unit [r]: The component in an electronic computer that performs all the active processing of its programming directions, and manipulation of data; this includes performing calculations on numbers, and determining which particular steps to perform. [e] 1299
  • Developing Article Second language acquisition [r]: Process by which people learn a second language in addition to their native language(s), where the language to be learned is often referred to as the 'target language'. [e] 1293
  • Developed Article Plant breeding [r]: The purposeful manipulation of plant species in order to create desired genotypes and phenotypes for specific purposes, such as food production, forestry, and horticulture. [e] 1292
  • Stub First language acquisition [r]: Study of the processes through which humans acquire language, specifically first languages, which studies infants' acquisition of their native language. [e] 1291
  • External Article Herbert Hoover [r]: US President from 1929 to 1933. [e] 1289
  • Prohibition of alcohol, United States [r]: The period, from 1920 to 1933, in which the production, transportation, and distribution of alcohol was banned in the United States. [e] 1286
  • Developed Article Conservapedia [r]: Conservative wiki encyclopedia project founded by Andrew Schlafly as an alternative to Wikipedia and its "liberal bias", instead preferring conservative Christian and Republican Party viewpoints. [e] 1286
  • Developed Article Pilus [r]: Hairlike appendage found on the surface of many Gram-negative bacteria, shorter, thinner and straighter than flagella. [e] 1285