NOTICE: Citizendium is still being set up on its newer server, treat as a beta for now; please see here for more.
Citizendium - a community developing a quality comprehensive compendium of knowledge, online and free. Click here to join and contribute—free
CZ thanks our previous donors. Donate here. Treasurer's Financial Report -- Thanks to our content contributors. --

User:Anthony.Sebastian/Sandbox-3

From Citizendium, the Citizens' Compendium
Jump to: navigation, search

Contents

SS

In the health sciences, the term 'salt-sensitivity' refers to the relationship between

  1. the amount consumed in the diet of sodium ions (Na+) with chloride ions (Cl), i.e., sodium chloride (NaCl), often just called ‘salt’, and,
  2. the pressure of the blood circulating in the central arterial system, i.e., systemic arterial blood pressure, or as commonly abbreviated, simply, blood pressure (BP)

—a greater degree of salt-sensitivity manifesting as abnormally greater blood pressure increases for given increases in the amount of NaCl consumed.

Interest in salt-sensitivity mechanisms, demographics, susceptibility and health consequences stems in part from clinical observations that suggest abnormally high blood pressure substantially increases a person’s risk for developing cardiovascular (coronary artery) disease and cerebrovascular (stroke) disease.

In their 2006 review article on “Salt Sensitivity, a Determinant of Blood Pressure, Cardiovascular Disease and Survival”, physician scientists Veronica Franco, MD, and Suzanne Oparil, MD, summarize in the Abstract of their article:

—High dietary sodium has been adduced as a cause of hypertension and its target organ damage for millennia; yet careful observations using sophisticated techniques have revealed only a weak relationship between sodium intake/excretion and blood pressure in the general population.

—Further, studies of the effects of dietary sodium reduction on blood pressure have revealed minimal achieved reductions in blood pressure, no relationship between the magnitude of reduction in sodium intake/excretion and the blood pressure effect, and no evidence of an effect of sodium reduction on death or cardiovascular events.

—While blood pressure in the population as a whole is only modestly responsive to alterations in sodium intake, some individuals manifest large blood pressure changes in response to acute or chronic salt depletion or repletion, and are termed “salt sensitive”.

—Salt sensitivity and resistance have a large variety of determinants, including genetic factors, race/ethnicity, age, body mass and diet (overall diet quality, macro- and micronutrient content), as well as associated disease states, e.g. hypertension, diabetes and renal dysfunction.

—Salt sensitivity can be modulated by improving the quality of the diet, e.g. the DASH diet reduced salt sensitivity by increasing the slope of the pressure-natriuresis curve.

—Mechanisms that appear to contribute to salt sensitivity include blunted activity of the renin-angiotensinaldosterone system, deficiency in atrial natriuretic peptide expression, and blunted arterial baroreflex sensitivity.

—Salt sensitivity in both normotensive and hypertensive persons has been associated with increased cardiovascular disease events and reduced survival.

—Increased attention to strategies that reduce salt sensitivity, i.e. improvement in diet quality and weight loss, particularly in high risk persons, is urgently needed.

Poision

Alle Ding sind Gift, und nichts ohn Gift; allein die Dosis macht, dafβ ein Ding kein Gift ist.
All things are poison and nothing is without poison, only the dose permits something not to be poisonous.)
  —Paracelsus (Philip von Hohenheim (1493-1541) [1]

refs

  1. Chadwick W, Maudsley S. (2010) The Devil Is in the Dose: Complexity of Receptor Systems and Responses. In: Mark P. Mattson and Edward J. Calabrese, editors. Hormesis: A Revolution in Biology, Toxicology and Medicine. Springer. ISBN 978-1-60761-494-4.

Texbox-01

Sample text: Finally, therefore, living processes are radically indeterminate; like all other living organisms, but to an even greater degree, we make our own future, though in circumstances not of our own choosing.

Metaphysics: In its main entry for ‘metaphysics’, the Oxford English Dictionary (2nd ed.) gives four ways in which the word has been used:[1]
a. The branch of philosophy that deals with the first principles of things or reality, including questions about being, substance, time and space, causation, change, and identity (which are presupposed in the special sciences but do not belong to any one of them); theoretical philosophy as the ultimate science of being and knowing.
a1620 M. Fotherby: The Metaphysickes, considering the pure essence of things. | 1739 D. Hume: So far from being able by our senses merely to determine this question, we must have recourse to the most profound metaphysics to give a satisfactory answer to it.
b. The study of phenomena beyond the scope of scientific inquiry.
c. Questions of metaphysics as they relate to a specified subject or phenomenon; the underlying concepts or first principles on which a particular branch of knowledge is based. Usu. with of.
1790 E. Burke: I have nothing to say to the clumsy subtilty of their political metaphysics. | 1958 W. Stark: A metasociology which would be, not a metaphysics, in so far as metaphysics is divorced from the empirical, but a study of man as he appears in all societies.
d. Philos. Used by logical positivists and some other linguistic philosophers for: any proposition or set of propositions of a speculative nature, considered to be meaningless because not empirically verifiable.
1937 A. Smeaton tr. R. Carnap: The sentences of metaphysics are pseudo-sentences which on logical analysis are proved to be either empty phrases or phrases which violate the rules of syntax. | 1956 J. O. Urmson: The view of Wittgenstein that metaphysics was not merely outdated as the old positivism had it, but was a logically impossible enterprise, being excluded by the essential nature of language.
NB: See the entry in the Oxford English Dictionary for sources of the examples and for additional examples.[1]



References

  1. 1.0 1.1 "metaphysics". Oxford English Dictionary. 3rd Online Edition. Oxford University Press. | Online access requires subscription.

Various codes

special textbox

TITLE
Text-1,
Text-2.
Text-3,
Text-4,
Text-5.
— By Person's_Name



Wordles

http://www.wordle.net/show/wrdl/2576041/Citizendium



Word Table

See this:

(PD) Image: Anthony.Sebastian
Add image caption here.

More text...

Edited Version:

(PD) Image: Anthony.Sebastian
Add image caption here.


DIM_CHRON

DATE
ABOUT MENDELEEV
COMMENT
RUSSIAN EVENTS
WORLD EVENTS
1834
Birthdate, Dmitri Ivanovich Mendeleev
February 8 (N.S.)
Tsar Nicholas I, 1825-1855,
autocratic rule.
Increasing ferment
in path to revolution.
U.S. President, Andrew Jackson
1829-1837.
advances presidential power.
1841-49
Primary school student, Tobolsk.
Ages 7-14 years.....
1850-55
Attends Main Pedagogical Institute
St. Petersburg.
Graduates, diploma 'Senior Teacher'
Table Cell Table Cell Table
Reformist-minded
Tsar Alexander II
assumes power.
U.S. President, Franklin Pierce.
Gladsen Purchase establishes
U.S. southwestern boundary line.
1855-56
Teaches, Odessa middle school.
Cell
Cell
Cell
1857-1890
University of St. Petersberg:
Receives degree,
Magister of Chemistry (1856)
Teaches as Private Docent (1857-59)
Docent (1864)
Professor (1865-1890)
Table Cell
Serfs freed, 1861
Charles Dickens publishes
A Tale of Two Cities.
Charles Darwin publishes
On the Origin of Species by Means
of Natural Selection....
1859-61
Postgraduate research,
Heidelberg, Germany.
cell
cell
1861-1864
Teaches, Institute for
Railroad Engineering
Table Cell
Table Cell
U.S. Civil War, 1861-1865
1863-1872
St. Petersberg
Technological Institute
Table Cell
Table Cell
Table Cell
1865
Professorship,
University of St. Petersberg
Cell
Cell
Cell
1868
Helps found
Russian Chemical Society
Cell
Cell
Cell
Cell
Cell
Cell
Cell
Cell
Cell
Cell
Cell
Cell
Cell
Cell
Cell
Cell
Cell
Cell
Cell
Cell
Cell
Cell
Cell
Cell
Cell
Cell
Cell
Cell

Russian Events: HISTORY OF RUSSIA. From: History World.

PhilBiol

Elliott Sober speaks to the definition of the philosophy of biology:

Biologists study living things, but what do philosophers of biology study? A cynic might say "their own navels," but I am no cynic. A better answer is that philosophers of biology, and philosophers of science generally, study science. Ours is a second-order, not a first-order, subject. In this respect, philosophy of science is similar to history and sociology of science. A difference may be found in the fact that historians and sociologists study science as it is, whereas philosophers of science study science as it ought to be….its goal being to distinguish good science from bad, better scientific practices from worse. [1]

refs

  1. Sober E. (2008) Evidence and Evolution: The Logic Behind the Science. New York: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-87188-4. | Google Books preview.

ply

Bear with me, 0 mystery of existence, as I pluck the occasional thread from your train.
—Wislawa Szymborska, from her poem, "Under One Small Star" (see Works|Poems|Exception Over the Rule)


This is a paragraph with some text in it. This is a paragraph with some text in it. This is a paragraph with some text in it. This is a paragraph with some text in it.


Autopoiesis ref

The ref.[1]



references

  1. Luisi PL. (2003) Autopoiesis: a review and a reappraisal. Naturwissenschaften 90:49-59 PMID 12590297.
    • Note: The concept of autopoiesis incorporates many of the fundamental characteristics of all living systems.
    • From the Abstract: The paper begins with a few historical notes to highlight the cultural background from which the notion of autopoiesis arose. The basic principles of autopoiesis as a theory of cellular life are then described, emphasizing also what autopoiesis is not: not an abstract theory, not a concept of artificial life, not a theory about the origin of life--but rather a pragmatic blueprint of life based on cellular life. [Emphasis added] It shows how this view leads to a conceptually clear definition of minimal life and to a logical link with related notions, such as self-organization, emergence, biological autonomy, auto-referentiality, and interactions with the environment. The perturbations brought about by the environment are seen as changes selected and triggered by the inner organization of the living. These selective coupling interactions impart meaning to the minimal life and are thus defined by Maturana and Varela with the arguable term of "cognition". This particular view on the mutual interactions between living organism and environment leads these authors to the notion of "enaction", and to the surprising view that autopoiesis and cognition are two complementary, and in a way equivalent, aspects of life. It is then shown how cognition, so defined, permits us to build a bridge between biology and cognitive science.

UTC time

To get UTC time now, edit this section (click edit), follow instructions, then save page.

00:37, 18 November 2010 (UTC)

Table Constructed in Microsoft Word 2007a Name of Object Mass (kg) Color Location Number of Objects at Location A Fabulous Object in Every Respect 43.7 Blue-Red-Orange Titan 62 Teddy 6.8 Serene Polar Station #6789 7 Universal Tiger 5689 Striped Green Here 0.65 Object-4 333 Forty Shades of Bright Yellow Green-Gray There 222 Lost in Space-Time Continuum 0 Dark Lost 8 Reality ¬-98 Spectral Everywhere ∞ a Quickly made.

Re lemma

  • Food and human evolution [r]: This is a draft in User space, not yet ready to go to Citizendium's main space, and not meant to be cited. The {{subpages}} template is designed to be used within article clusters and their related pages.
    It will not function on User pages.

Survival of the fittest in relation to the environment has importantly influenced the evolved structure and function of Homo sapiens, and given the absolute requirement for food consumption for survival, food as environment played a fundamental role in the determination of human structure and function as the species evolved from its most ancient ancestors. [e]


Saved citations

Incognito[1]

refs

  1. Eagleman D. (2011) Incognito: The Secret Lives of Brains. New York: Pantheon Books. ISBN 9780307377333 (hardback). | Google Books extract.


Adiponectin

Adiponectin, a hormone (a.k.a., adipokine, adipocytokine) produced by adipose tissue cells — adipocytes — and secreted into the bloodstream, induces beneficial effects in medical conditions related to obesity, including type 2 diabetes mellitus, atherosclerosis, chronic inflammation, and cancer.[1] [2] [3] [4]

DMITRI IVANOVITCH MENDELEYEV was a boy who came out of Siberia, traveled westward to Moscow and St. Petersburg to become one of Russia's greatest scientists. It was he who thought so deeply about the universe that he was able to predict the existence of substances which had never

—Daniel Q. Posin[5]


DMITRI IVANOVITCH MENDELEYEV was a boy who came out of Siberia, traveled westward to Moscow and St. Petersburg to become one of Russia's greatest scientists. It was he who thought so deeply about the universe that he was able to predict the existence of substances which had never before been seen by man. It was he also who taught his country how to win iron from the Urals, coal from the Donetz Basin, oil from the regions of the Caspian Sea. It was he who exalted the realm of pure science and fervently wished that "many could enter its portals." The Russians finally listened to him, and the country grew industrially, scientifically, and moreover, spiritually, for it was Mendeleyev also who championed the rights of human freedom and protected students from the abuses of the Tsar's regime.

Mendeleyev's chart, evolved into the modern form through the work of Moseley, now hangs in almost every chemistry and physics laboratory in the world. Often, through my years of study I have thought of the Russian scientist, but actually I knew little of him. I halfway expected to probe into his life some day, to uncover the facts behind this obscure genius. One day I read of a contest for books on scientific subjects written for the layman. This was the stimulus I had been waiting for. I entered the contest, I read everything I could get hold of on Mendeleyev and by him--there is no full-length biography in English. Most of this I read in Russian, for I was born in Russia, near the Caspian Sea. And I have lived in Siberia also, and come out of there, it almost seems to me, to tell about the bearded prophet of the snows, the champion of the people.

—Daniel Q. Posin[5]

Adiponectin, a hormone (a.k.a., adipokine, adipocytokine) produced by adipose tissue cells — adipocytes — and secreted into the bloodstream, induces beneficial effects in medical conditions related to obesity, including type 2 diabetes mellitus, atherosclerosis, chronic inflammation, and cancer.[1] [2] [3] [4]

Adiponectin alters insulin receptor function, diminishes the action of insulin in the liver, alters the metabolism of free fatty acids by liver cells, and protects against inflammation. Adults and children (humans) who have non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) show decreased plasma concentrations of adiponectin. Inasmuch as insulin resistance in the liver, and hyperinsulinemia, feature in NAFLD, those finding suggest a link between fatty liver and insulin resistance perhaps in part to reduced adiponectin. NAFLD also features elevated levels of leptin, an adipokine that reduces appetite but also interferes with insulin action in the brain.[6] [7] [8] [9] [10] [11]

Adiponectin exhibits the following actions:[12] [13] [14] [15] [16] [17] [18] [19]

  • Perhaps by increasing fatty acid oxidation, a smaller increase in plasma FFA occurs after a high fat meal;
  • By enhancing lipid metabolism, insulin sensitivity improves;
  • Reduced glucose production by the liver;
  • Plasma concentrations associate inversely with endogenous glucose production.

In patients who have had an acute myocardial infarction, the risk of subsequent major adverse cardiovascular events is lowest in patients with the highest plasma concentrations of adiponectin. [20] Some researchers note that in postmenopausal women serum adiponectin concentrations correlate inversely with bone mineral density.[21]

Book review of Language Evolution

This section is an adaptation of a review of the book, Christiansen MH, Kirby S. (editors/authors) (2003) Language evolution. Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0199244847. | 21 authors, 17 chapters, 395 pages. | Google Books preview., entitled:
Language Evolution
originally published by Szabolcs Számadó and Eörs Szathmáry (2004) in PLoS Biol 2(10): e346..[22]
"... markets are part of advancing the public interest and the left are wrong to say they are not;
...markets are not always in the public interest and the right is wrong to automatically equate the imposition of markets with the public interest."

"The challenge for New Labour is, while remaining true to our values and goals, to have the courage to affirm that markets are a means of advancing the public interest; to strengthen markets when they work and to tackle market failures to enable markets to work better."

(Gordon Brown's speech to the Social Market Foundation on 3 February, 2003).

A ban in the 1866s by the French Academy of Sciences on publications about the origin of human language must have been one of the strangest bans in the history of sciences. Yet it was highly effective. After the ban, scientists and interested laymen had to wait for more than a century to hold a textbook on language evolution in their hands.

Editors Chritiansen and Kirby present, in Language Evolution, a compilation of essays by a diverse group of respected researchers, is amongst the first books that try to tackle what is arguably one of the hardest scientific problems. The editors set themselves the ambitious target of creating an up-to-date book about this emerging field, and they have to be congratulated for their efforts. Linguists, cognitive scientists, behavioural ecologists, and theoretical biologists all offer their view on the origin of human language and, refreshingly, do not shy from pointing out the real or assumed weaknesses of the other approaches.

One of the main themes of the book is the evolutionary approach and the importance of biological structures and properties that were co-opted in the development of language (pre-adaptations). In one essay, Michael Studdert-Kenedy and Louis Goldstein propose that speech, as a motor function, draws on phylogenetically ancient mammalian oral capacities for sucking, licking, swallowing, and chewing. Thus, our hominid ancestors adopted an apparatus already divided neuroanatomically into discrete components. Complementing this evidence, Marc Hauser and Tecumseh Fitch compare human speech production and perception with that of nonhuman species. They conclude that many traits that were formerly thought to have evolved specifically for speech (such as having a descended larynx or categorical perception) are also present in other species.

But perhaps the most interesting idea about pre-adaptation comes from the work of neuroscientist Michael Arbib on ‘mirror’ neurons in monkeys. These neurons are a subset of the grasp-related premotor neurons that discharge not only, as other premotor neurons do, when the monkey executes a certain class of actions, but also when the monkey observes more or less similarly meaningful hand movements made by the experimenter (or by another monkey). The area in which these grasp-related neurons are found is analogous with the Broca's area in human brains, which is involved in assessing the syntax of words. This observation serves as the basis for the mirror-system hypothesis, which postulates that Broca's area in humans evolved from a basic mechanism not originally related to communication but rather from the mirror system for grasping in the common ancestor of monkey and human. As a result, the mirror system provides a possible ‘neural link’ in the evolution of human language.

There is still much debate about the selection pressures that led to the evolution of language. Observing the overabundance of potential selective scenarios for why language evolved, the linguist Derek Bickerton voices his scepticism: ‘The fact that these and similar explanations flourish side by side tells one immediately not enough constraints are being used to limit possible explanations.’ One frequent source of confusion, he notes, is equating language with speech by not distinguishing between modality, lexicon, and structure. Hauser and Fitch share Bickerton's scepticism and urge scientists to rely more on the traditional comparative approach, which was always the strength of Darwinian evolutionary theory.

Primatologist Robin Dunbar, who originally proposed that grooming (group bonding) could have provided the stimulus for language, dismisses two other possible scenarios—hunting and tool-making—as potential ecological contexts for the evolution of human language. Gestural origins are also dismissed in his theory, because gestural languages do not seem to develop spontaneously and also require a line-of-sight contact making them useless at night.

Interestingly, Steven Pinker rules out both Dunbar's theory of grooming and Geoffrey Miller's theory of sexual selection, whereas Bickerton rules out grooming, gossip, mating contract, and Machiavellian intelligence as likely contexts for the origin of human language.

Also under fire in the book is the idea that the human brain is somehow equipped at birth with a ‘universal grammar’ out of which all human languages later develop. Several authors try to provide alternatives to innate predispositions, such as the importance of function to categorization (Michael Tomasello) and the importance of cultural transmission to the structure of language (Simon Kirby and Morton Christiansen). Arbib explicitly questions the traditional Chomskyan theory of innate linguistic predispositions and argues that what humans have and had in the past is ‘language readiness’ rather than a fixed universal grammar.

Neuroscientist Terrence Deacon also puts an alternative theory forward. According to Deacon, many of the language universals reflect semiotic constraints inherent in the requirements for producing symbolic reference rather than innate predispositions. Thus, neither evolved innate predispositions nor culturally evolved and transmitted regularities can be considered as the ultimate source of language universals. He draws a parallel with mathematical operations (addition, subtraction, etc.) and with prime numbers. Symbolic reference, he argues, is constrained by the structure it refers to.

The editors claim, in the light of this diversity, that ‘this book is intended to bring together, for the first time, all the major perspectives on language evolution’. We have two concerns with this aim. First, two books of the same organization and scope have been published in the past six years based on the material from language evolution conferences (Hurford et al. 1998; Knight et al. 2000). Although this first concern might be just splitting hairs, the second is more substantial: several crucial aspects of language evolution are not represented at all or are just touched superficially.

One of these missing themes is the selective advantage of early language. As discussed, many of the contributors express their scepticism towards the selective scenarios found in the literature—and indeed towards such constructions in general—but there is no review and no balanced evaluation of these selective scenarios. Since one of the key questions of language evolution is the selective advantage of early language, the lack of such a review is a major weakness. A balanced account could have been presented even if the editors and most of the contributors are frustrated by the plethora of selective scenarios.

Related to the possible selective advantage of language is the issue of genetic background. Although there is mention of the so-called FOX genes—some mutations of which are associated with language disorders—there is no detailed discussion of our current knowledge of genetics related to language.

Another lightly treated theme is the neural basis of language and language evolution. Understandably it is one of the most difficult issues concerning human language, and no one expects the editors or any of the contributors to come up with an answer to all the questions. What is missing again is a good survey outlining the problems and the current findings of the field.

The weaknesses of the book come from its structure and organization. The editors, instead of outlining a structure and asking specialists to contribute to that structure, appear to have let every contributor write freely about their current ideas and current research without regard to the bigger picture. This definitely shows the interests of the contributors and outlines the current state of the art; it leaves gaps, however, in the coverage of crucial topics related to the evolution of human language.

References:

Hurford JR, Studdert-Kennedy M, Knight C (1998) Approaches to the evolution of language: Social and cognitive bases. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 452 p.

Knight C, Studdert-Kennedy M, Hurford JR (2000) The evolutionary emergence of language: Social function and the origins of linguistic form. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 438 p.

refs

  1. 1.0 1.1 Wang Y, Lam KS, Yau MH, Xu A. (2008) Post-translational modifications of adiponectin: mechanisms and functional implications. Biochem J 409: 623–633.
  2. 2.0 2.1 Trujillo ME, Scherer PE. (2005) 10.1111/j.1365-2796.2004.01426.x Adiponectin–journey from an adipocyte secretory protein to biomarker of the metabolic syndrome. J Intern Med 257: 167–175.
  3. 3.0 3.1 Barb D, Williams CJ, Neuwirth AK, Mantzoros CS. (2007) Adiponectin in relation to malignancies: a review of existing basic research and clinical evidence. Am J Clin Nutr 86: s858–866.
  4. 4.0 4.1 Schaffler A, Scholmerich J, Buechler C. (2007) Mechanisms of disease: adipokines and breast cancer - endocrine and paracrine mechanisms that connect adiposity and breast cancer. Nat Clin Pract Endocrinol Metab 3: 345–354.
  5. 5.0 5.1 Posin DQ. (1948) Mendeleyev, the Story of a Great Scientist. New York: Whittlesey House.
  6. Roberts EA. (2007) Pediatric nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD): a "growing" problem?" J Hepatol 46:1133-42.
  7. Stefan N, Hennige AM, Staiger H, Machann J, Schick F, Krobe SM, et al. (2006) a2-Heremans-Schmid Glycoprotein/Fetuin-A is associated with insulin resistance and fat accumulation in the liver in humans. Diabetes Care 29:853–857.
  8. Bugianesi E, Pagotto U, Manini R, Vanni E, Gastaldelli A, de Iasio R, et al.(2005) Plasma adiponectin in nonalcoholic fatty liver is related to hepatic insulin resistance and hepatic fat content, not to liver disease severity. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 90:3498–3504.
  9. Pagano C, Soardo G, Esposito W, Fallo F, Basan L, Donnini D, et al. (2005) Plasma adiponectin is decreased in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. Eur J Endocrinol 152:113–118.
  10. Louthan MV, Barve S, McClain CJ, Joshi-Barve S. (2005) Decreased serum adiponectin: an early event in pediatric nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. J Pediatr 147:835–838.
  11. Gil-Campos M, Canete RR, Gil A. Adiponectin, the missing link in insulin resistance and obesity. Clin Nutr 23:963–974.
  12. Guerre-Millo M. (2007) Adiponectin: An update. Ddiabetes & Metaboism 34:12-18.
  13. Fruebis J., Tsao T.S., Javorschi S., Ebbets-Reed D., Erickson M.R., Yen F.T., et al. (2001) Proteolytic cleavage product of 30-kDa adipocyte complement-related protein increases fatty acid oxidation in muscle and causes weight loss in mice Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 98:2005-2010
  14. Yamauchi T., Kamon J., Waki H., Terauchi Y., Kubota N., Hara K., et al. (2001) The fat-derived hormone adiponectin reverses insulin resistance associated with both lipoatrophy and obesity. Nat Med 7:941-946.
  15. Berg A.H., Combs T.P., Du X., Brownlee M., Scherer P.E. (2001) The adipocyte-secreted protein Acrp30 enhances hepatic insulin action. Nat Med 7:947-953.
  16. Combs T.P., Berg A.H., Obici S., Scherer P.E., Rossetti L. (2001) Endogenous glucose production is inhibited by the adipose-derived protein Acrp30. J Clin Invest 108:1875-1881.
  17. Bajaj M., Suraamornkul S., Piper P., Hardies L.J., Glass L., Cersosimo E., et al. (2004) Decreased plasma adiponectin concentrations are closely related to hepatic fat content and hepatic insulin resistance in pioglitazone-treated type 2 diabetic patients. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 89:200-206.
  18. Miyazaki Y., Mahankali A., Wajcberg E., Bajaj M., Mandarino L.J., DeFronzo R.A. (2004) Effect of pioglitazone on circulating adipocytokine levels and insulin sensitivity in type 2 diabetic patients. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 89:4312-4319.
  19. Bugianesi E., Pagotto U., Manini R., Vanni E., Gastaldelli A., de Iasio R., et al. (2005) Plasma adiponectin in nonalcoholic fatty liver is related to hepatic insulin resistance and hepatic fat content, not to liver disease severity. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 90:3498-3504.
  20. Huang,S.S.; Huang,P.H.; Chen,Y.H.; Chiang,K.H.; Chen,J.W.; Lin,S.J. (2010) Association of Adiponectin with Future Cardiovascular Events in Patients After Acute Myocardial Infarction. J Atheroscler.Thromb. Advance Publication Online Feb. 2010.
  21. Wu N, et al. (2010) Relationships between serum adiponectin, leptin concentrations and bone mineral density, and bone biochemical markers in Chinese women. Clin Chim Acta In Press. doi = 10.1016/j.cca.2010.02.064
  22. This section represents a permissible (Creative Commons Attribution License) adaption and modification of an article by Számadó S and Szathmáry E published in the open access journal, PLoS Biol 2(10): e346.
    Copyright: © 2004 Szabolcs Számadó and Eörs Szathmáry. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
    Correspondence should be addressed. E-mail: szathmary@colbud.hu
    Szabolcs Számadó and Eörs Szathmáry are at the Collegium Budapest (Institute for Advanced Study), Budapest, Hungary.
    Citizendium makes no claim that the originators of the open-access article, Szabolcs Számadó and Eörs Szathmáry, endorse Citizendium's modification of the original article, cited above.

consider for user page

A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z
Use in English
Alphabetical word list
Retroalphabetical list  
Common misspellings  


Articles I started

Biographies: Alcmaeon; Stub John Dalton; Developing Article Vesalius [Andreas Vesalius]; Developing Article Alfred Russel Wallace;

Biology: Approved Article Life.....

epigraph code

Our entire body operates by electricity. Gnarled living electrical
cables extend into the depths of our brains; intense electric and
magnetic force fields stretch into our cells, flinging food or neuro-
transmitters across microscopic barrier membranes; even our DNA
is controlled by potent electrical forces.
      — David Bodanis[1]



block

<blockquote> <p style="margin-left:2.0%; margin-right:6%;font-size:0.95em;"><font face="Comic Sans MS, Trebuchet MS, Consolas"> Text </font> <ref>xx</ref></p> </blockquote>


ps

3CO2 + 6H2O +343 kcal light energy → C3H6O3 [triose] + 302 +3H2O


Test E&B

In the science of biology the concept of energy occupies a central and critical position, inasmuch as living systems could not exist without an ultimate source of energy from the external non-biological world,[2] [3] and could not have emerged from the abiotic world in the first place.[4]

refs

Many citations to the journal articles listed below include abstracts of the articles; they often amplify the information contained in the Citizendium article. Some book citations will have attached excerpts that further amplify the information contained in the Citizendium article.


Most citations to articles listed here include links to full-text, access to which may require personal or institutional subscription. Nevertheless, usually the links will show the abstracts of the articles, free without subscription. Links to books variously may open to full-text, or to the publishers' description of the book with or without downloadable selected chapters, reviews, and table of contents. Books with links to Google Books often offer extensive previews of the books' text.


  1. Bodanis D. (2005) Electric Universe: How Electricity Switched On the Modern World. Random House. ISBN 9780307335982. | Google Books Limited Preview.Excerpt.
  2. Wrigglesworth JM. (1997) Energy and life. London: Taylor & Francis. ISBN 0748404333. | Google Books preview.
  3. Brown GC. (1999) The energy of life : the science of what makes our minds and bodies work. Originally published in the UK in 1999 by HarperCollins Publishers. 1st Free Press ed. ISBN 0-684-86257-3
  4. Baltscheffsky H. (1996) Origin and Evolution of Biological Energy Conversion. Wiley-VCH. ISBN 0471185817, ISBN 9780471185819. Google Books Preview | Publisher´s Description

Alcmaeon's extant fragments

Health is the equality of rights of the functions.


J.B. Wilbur lists the English translation of the extant fragments of Alcmaeon's book:[1]

  • Alcmaeon of Croton, son of Peirithous, said the following to Brotinus and Leon and Bathyllus: concerning things unseen, (as) concerning things mortal, the gods have certainty, whereas to us as men conjecture (only is possible).
  • Men perish because they cannot join the beginning to the end.
  • (In mules, the males are sterile because of the fineness and coldness of the seed, and the females because their wombs do not open).
  • Health is the equality of rights of the functions, wet-dry, cold-hot, bitter-sweet and the rest; but single rule among them causes disease; the single rule of either pair is deleterious. Disease occurs sometimes from an internal cause such as excess of heat or cold, sometimes from an external cause such as excess or deficiency of food, sometimes in a certain part, such as blood, marrow or brain; but these parts also are sometimes affected by external causes, such as certain waters or a particular site or fatigue or constraint or similar reasons. But health is the harmonious mixture of the qualities.
  • It is easier to guard against an enemy than against a friend.

Notes from SEP re Alcmaeon

lcmaeon from SEP

Book written between 500-450 BC. 1st to identify brain as seat of understanding Distinguished unerstandin rom perception Sense organs connected to brain by hannels Developed argument for soul immortality Physiology: sleep, death, embryonic development Influenced later greek philosopher

Aristotle wrote a treatise responding to him, Plato adopted his argument for the immortality of the soul, and both Plato and Philolaus accepted his view that the brain is the seat of intelligence.

Pasted from <http://plato.stanford.edu/archives/win2008/entries/alcmaeon/>

Boxed epigraphs

A deterministic emergence of life would reflect an essential continuity between physics, chemistry, and biology. It would show that a part of the order we recognize as living is thermodynamic order inherent in the geosphere, and that some aspects of Darwinian selection are expressions of the likely simpler statistical mechanics of physical and chemical self-organization.
—Harold Morowitz and Eric Smith[2]


We propose that the only absolute requirements [for life] are a thermodynamic disequilibrium and temperatures consistent with chemical bonding.

—S. A. Benner et al.[3]

Organisms do not maintain their complexity, and become more complex, in a vacuum. Their high organization and low entropy is made up for by pollution, heat, and entropic export to their surroundings.

—Eric D. Schneider and Dorion Sagan


A deterministic emergence of life would reflect an essential continuity between physics, chemistry, and biology. It would show that a part of the order we recognize as living is thermodynamic order inherent in the geosphere, and that some aspects of Darwinian selection are expressions of the likely simpler statistical mechanics of physical and chemical self-organization.
  —Harold Morowitz and Eric Smith[2]

We propose that the only absolute requirements [for life] are a thermodynamic disequilibrium and temperatures consistent with chemical bonding.
  —S. A. Benner et al.[3]

Organisms do not maintain their complexity, and become more complex, in a vacuum. Their high organization and low entropy is made up for by pollution, heat, and entropic export to their surroundings.
  —Eric D. Schneider and Dorion Sagan


Bionets

Biological networks resemble many types of man-made networks, types of systems of diverse structure and function, each a collection of parts, the parts themselves differing in type, with multiple copies of each type, parts capable of interconnecting, the interconnections tying all the parts together into a whole structure made up of subtructures and modules of subtructures, the interconnected parts capable of interacting, the interactions capable of producing particular changes in the structure of each other or in the structures' properties, enabling intercommunication with signals that convey information, the whole structure a functional unit designed for a purpose.

Biological networks differ from such man-made networks, however, in having no human designer, having emerged from nature by organic evolutionary processes, its foundational system a biological cell, a biocomputer, designed basically to live and reproduce itelf, autonomous, capable of cooperating with other cells to generate multicellular structures that can intelligently design networks, inorganic as well as organic ones.

tbl

Table Cell Table Cell Table Cell Table Cell
Table Cell Table Cell Table Cell Table Cell
Table Cell Table Cell Table Cell Table Cell
Table Cell Table Cell Table Cell Table Cell
Table Cell Table Cell Table Cell Table Cell
Table Cell Table Cell Table Cell Table Cell

<a href="http://www.quackit.com/html/html_table_tutorial.cfm" target="_top">HTML Tables</a>

CC_2013_001 The Council requests Constable Matt Innis to grant sysop privileges for the test wiki to John Stephenson.
CC-2013-002 The Council requests Constable Matt Innis to grant sysop privileges for both the main and test wiki to Pat Palmer.
CC-2013-003 The Council requests Bureaucrat Matt Innis to add to sysop rights the rights of the Editorial Personnel Administrators, consisting of two rights: View requester’s and IP addresses while processing requested accounts (requestips), and View the queue with requested accounts (confirmaccount).
CC-2013-004 The Council authorizes the technical staff to implement Darren Duncan's hosting proposal as described here.
CC-2013-005 Whereas the duties of the constables are many, including daily checks, and whereas at the present time (September-October 2013) Citizendium has only one Constable on active duty, namely Chief Constable, Matt Innis, and whereas sysop John Stephenson has been active and performing some of the duties of the Constabulary and has indicated his willingness to serve as a Constable, the Citizendium Council hereby appoints John Stephenson to the Constabulary and requests the Chief Constable to invest John Stephenson with the rights of a Constable and the means to exercise those rights.

Refs

  1. Wilbur JB, Allen HJ. (1979) The Worlds of the Early Greek Philosophers. Prometheus Books: Buffalo, NY.
  2. 2.0 2.1 Morowitz H, Smith E (2006) Energy flow and the organization of life Working Paper, Santa Fe Institue
    • "Energy flow embeds life within the geosphere not just mechanistically but conceptually as an inevitable form of driven geochemical order."
  3. 3.0 3.1 Benner SA, Ricardo A, Carrigan MA (2004) Is there a common chemical model for life in the universe? Curr Opin Chem Biol 8:672-89. PMID 15556414

epigraph code

Our entire body operates by electricity. Gnarled living electrical
cables extend into the depths of our brains; intense electric and
magnetic force fields stretch into our cells, flinging food or neuro-
transmitters across microscopic barrier membranes; even our DNA
is controlled by potent electrical forces.
      — David Bodanis[1]



block

<blockquote> <p style="margin-left:2.0%; margin-right:6%;font-size:0.95em;"><font face="Comic Sans MS, Trebuchet MS, Consolas"> Text </font> <ref>xx</ref></p> </blockquote>


ps

3CO2 + 6H2O +343 kcal light energy → C3H6O3 [triose] + 302 +3H2O




Alcmaeon's extant fragments

Health is the equality of rights of the functions.


J.B. Wilbur lists the English translation of the extant fragments of Alcmaeon's book:[2]

  • Alcmaeon of Croton, son of Peirithous, said the following to Brotinus and Leon and Bathyllus: concerning things unseen, (as) concerning things mortal, the gods have certainty, whereas to us as men conjecture (only is possible).
  • Men perish because they cannot join the beginning to the end.
  • (In mules, the males are sterile because of the fineness and coldness of the seed, and the females because their wombs do not open).
  • Health is the equality of rights of the functions, wet-dry, cold-hot, bitter-sweet and the rest; but single rule among them causes disease; the single rule of either pair is deleterious. Disease occurs sometimes from an internal cause such as excess of heat or cold, sometimes from an external cause such as excess or deficiency of food, sometimes in a certain part, such as blood, marrow or brain; but these parts also are sometimes affected by external causes, such as certain waters or a particular site or fatigue or constraint or similar reasons. But health is the harmonious mixture of the qualities.
  • It is easier to guard against an enemy than against a friend.

Notes from SEP re Alcmaeon

lcmaeon from SEP

Book written between 500-450 BC. 1st to identify brain as seat of understanding Distinguished unerstandin rom perception Sense organs connected to brain by hannels Developed argument for soul immortality Physiology: sleep, death, embryonic development Influenced later greek philosopher

Aristotle wrote a treatise responding to him, Plato adopted his argument for the immortality of the soul, and both Plato and Philolaus accepted his view that the brain is the seat of intelligence.

Pasted from <http://plato.stanford.edu/archives/win2008/entries/alcmaeon/>

Liven in croton, so italy Physician-pilosopher Strong medical tradition developed in crotonj

Pythagorean or not? Aristotle wrote a separate book on Alcmaeon

The overwhelming majority of scholars since 1950 have accordingly regarded Alcmaeon as a figure independent of the Pythagoreans (e.g., Guthrie 1962 and Lloyd 1991, 167; Zhmud 1997, 70-71, is one of the few exceptions), although, as a fellow citizen of Croton, he will have been familiar with their thought.

Pasted from <http://plato.stanford.edu/archives/win2008/entries/alcmaeon/>

One group of scholars dates the publication of Alcmaeon's book to around 500 (Burkert 1972, 292; Kirk, Raven, Schofield 1983, 339 [early 5th]) so that he would have been born around 540. Another group has him born around 510 so that his book would have been published in 470 or later (Guthrie 1962, 358 [480-440 BC]; Lloyd 1991, 168 [490-430 BC]). In either case Alcmaeon probably wrote before Empedocles, Anaxagoras and Philolaus. He is either the contemporary or the predecessor of Parmenides.

Pasted from <http://plato.stanford.edu/archives/win2008/entries/alcmaeon/>

He thus takes the stance of the scientist who draws inferences from what can be perceived, and he implicitly rejects the claims of those who base their account of the world on the certainty of a divine revelation (e.g., Pythagoras, Parmenides B1).

Pasted from <http://plato.stanford.edu/archives/win2008/entries/alcmaeon/>

Socrates connects this view of the brain with an empiricist epistemology, which Aristotle will later adopt (Posterior Analytics 100a3 ff.). This epistemology involves three steps: first, the brain provides the sensations of hearing, sight and smell, then, memory and opinion arise from these, and finally, when memory and opinion achieve fixity, knowledge arises. Some scholars suppose that this entire epistemology is Alcmaeon's (e.g., Barnes 1982, 149 ff.), while others more cautiously note that we only have explicit evidence that Alcmaeon took the first step (e.g., Vlastos 1970, 47, n.8).

Pasted from <http://plato.stanford.edu/archives/win2008/entries/alcmaeon/>

he only conclusions we can reasonably draw about Alcmaeon from the passage are that he excised the eyeball of an animal and observed poroi (channels, i.e. the optic nerve) leading from the eye in the direction of the brain (Lloyd 1975). Theophrastus' account of Alcmaeon's theory of sensation implies that he thought that there were such channels leading from each of the senses to the brain: All the senses are connected in some way with the brain. As a result, they are incapacitated when it is disturbed or changes its place, for it then stops the channels, through which the senses operate. (DK, A5)

Pasted from <http://plato.stanford.edu/archives/win2008/entries/alcmaeon/>

It would be a serious mistake then to say that Alcmaeon discovered dissection or that he was the father of anatomy, since there is no evidence that he used dissection systematically or even that he did more than excise a single eyeball.

Pasted from <http://plato.stanford.edu/archives/win2008/entries/alcmaeon/>

The idea that health depends on a balance of opposed factors in the body is a commonplace in Greek medical writers. Although Alcmaeon is the earliest figure to whom such a conception of health is attributed, it may well be that he is not presenting an original thesis but rather drawing on the earlier medical tradition in Croton. Perhaps what is distinctive to Alcmaeon is the use of the specific political metaphor and terminology (isonomia, monarchia). Just as Anaximander explained the order of the cosmos in terms of justice in the city-state, so Alcmaeon used a political metaphor to explain the order of the human body.

Pasted from <http://plato.stanford.edu/archives/win2008/entries/alcmaeon/>

Contrary to a popular Greek view, which regarded the father alone as providing seed, a view that would be followed by Aristotle (Lloyd 1983, 86 ff.), Alcmaeon argued that both parents contribute seed (DK, A13) and that the child takes the sex of the parent who contributes the most seed (DK, A14).

Pasted from <http://plato.stanford.edu/archives/win2008/entries/alcmaeon/>


More significantly, he used analogies with animals and plants in developing his accounts of human physiology. Thus, the pubic hair that develops when human males are about to produce seed for the first time at age fourteen is analogous to the flowering of plants before they produce seed (DK, A15); milk in mammals is analogous to egg white in birds (DK, A16).

Pasted from <http://plato.stanford.edu/archives/win2008/entries/alcmaeon/> Alcmaeon agrees with these Pythagoreans in regarding the opposites as principles of things. Aristotle complains, however, that Alcmaeon did not arrive at a definite set of opposites but spoke haphazardly of white, black, sweet, bitter, good, bad, large and small, and only threw in vague comments about the remaining opposites. It may well be that Alcmaeon's primary discussion of opposites was in relation to his account of the human body (DK, B4; see the discussion of his medical theories above). Aristotle's language supports this suggestion to some extent, when he summarizes Alcmaeon's view as that "the majority of human things (tôn anthrôpinôn) are in pairs" (Metaph. 986a31). Isocrates (DK, A3) says that Alcmaeon, in contrast to Empedocles, who postulated four elements, said that there were only two, and, according to a heterodox view, Alcmaeon posited fire and earth as basic elements (Lebedev 1993).

Pasted from <http://plato.stanford.edu/archives/win2008/entries/alcmaeon/>

• Long, A. A., (ed.), 1999, The Cambridge Companion to Early Greek Philosophy, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press

Pasted from <http://plato.stanford.edu/archives/win2008/entries/alcmaeon/>

• Taylor, C. C. W., (ed.), 1997, Routledge History of Philosophy, Volume 1: From the Beginning to Plato, London: Routledge

Pasted from <http://plato.stanford.edu/archives/win2008/entries/alcmaeon/>


Sep au Carl Huffman

Pasted from <http://plato.stanford.edu/archives/win2008/entries/alcmaeon/>


Bionets

Biological networks resemble many types of man-made networks, types of systems of diverse structure and function, each a collection of parts, the parts themselves differing in type, with multiple copies of each type, parts capable of interconnecting, the interconnections tying all the parts together into a whole structure made up of subtructures and modules of subtructures, the interconnected parts capable of interacting, the interactions capable of producing particular changes in the structure of each other or in the structures' properties, enabling intercommunication with signals that convey information, the whole structure a functional unit designed for a purpose.

Biological networks differ from such man-made networks, however, in having no human designer, having emerged from nature by organic evolutionary processes, its foundational system a biological cell, a biocomputer, designed basically to live and reproduce itelf, autonomous, capable of cooperating with other cells to generate multicellular structures that can intelligently design networks, inorganic as well as organic ones.

tbl

Table Cell Table Cell Table Cell Table Cell
Table Cell Table Cell Table Cell Table Cell
Table Cell Table Cell Table Cell Table Cell
Table Cell Table Cell Table Cell Table Cell
Table Cell Table Cell Table Cell Table Cell
Table Cell Table Cell Table Cell Table Cell

<a href="http://www.quackit.com/html/html_table_tutorial.cfm" target="_top">HTML Tables</a>


Refs

  1. Bodanis D. (2005) Electric Universe: How Electricity Switched On the Modern World. Random House. ISBN 9780307335982. | Google Books Limited Preview.Excerpt.
  2. Wilbur JB, Allen HJ. (1979) The Worlds of the Early Greek Philosophers. Prometheus Books: Buffalo, NY.

Re lemma

  • Calorie restriction [r]: Long-term reduction of food energy intake to, or nearly to, the minimum consistent with the absence of malnutrition, a procedure that robustly and reproducibly improves health and extends lifespan across animal species. [e]


adipo

Adiponectin

Adiponectin, a hormone (a.k.a., adipokine, adipocytokine) produced by adipose tissue cells — adipocytes — and secreted into the bloodstream, induces beneficial effects in medical conditions related to obesity, including type 2 diabetes mellitus, atherosclerosis, chronic inflammation, and cancer.[1] [2] [3] [4]

Adiponectin alters insulin receptor function, diminishes the action of insulin in the liver, alters the metabolism of free fatty acids by liver cells, and protects against inflammation. Adults and children (humans) who have non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) show decreased plasma concentrations of adiponectin. Inasmuch as insulin resistance in the liver, and hyperinsulinemia, feature in NAFLD, those finding suggest a link between fatty liver and insulin resistance perhaps in part to reduced adiponectin. NAFLD also features elevated levels of leptin, an adipokine that reduces appetite but also interferes with insulin action in the brain.[5] [6] [7] [8] [9] [10]

Adiponectin exhibits the following actions:[11] [12] [13] [14] [15] [16] [17] [18]

  • Perhaps by increasing fatty acid oxidation, a smaller increase in plasma FFA occurs after a high fat meal;
  • By enhancing lipid metabolism, insulin sensitivity improves;
  • Reduced glucose production by the liver;
  • Plasma concentrations associate inversely with endogenous glucose production.

In patients who have had an acute myocardial infarction, the risk of subsequent major adverse cardiovascular events is lowest in patients with the highest plasma concentrations of adiponectin. [19] Some researchers note that in postmenopausal women serum adiponectin concentrations correlate inversely with bone mineral density.[20]

Book review of Language Evolution

This section is an adaptation of a review of the book, Christiansen MH, Kirby S. (editors/authors) (2003) Language evolution. Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0199244847. | 21 authors, 17 chapters, 395 pages. | Google Books preview., entitled:
Language Evolution
originally published by Szabolcs Számadó and Eörs Szathmáry (2004) in PLoS Biol 2(10): e346..[21]

A ban in the 1866s by the French Academy of Sciences on publications about the origin of human language must have been one of the strangest bans in the history of sciences. Yet it was highly effective. After the ban, scientists and interested laymen had to wait for more than a century to hold a textbook on language evolution in their hands.

Editors Chritiansen and Kirby present, in Language Evolution, a compilation of essays by a diverse group of respected researchers, is amongst the first books that try to tackle what is arguably one of the hardest scientific problems. The editors set themselves the ambitious target of creating an up-to-date book about this emerging field, and they have to be congratulated for their efforts. Linguists, cognitive scientists, behavioural ecologists, and theoretical biologists all offer their view on the origin of human language and, refreshingly, do not shy from pointing out the real or assumed weaknesses of the other approaches.

One of the main themes of the book is the evolutionary approach and the importance of biological structures and properties that were co-opted in the development of language (pre-adaptations). In one essay, Michael Studdert-Kenedy and Louis Goldstein propose that speech, as a motor function, draws on phylogenetically ancient mammalian oral capacities for sucking, licking, swallowing, and chewing. Thus, our hominid ancestors adopted an apparatus already divided neuroanatomically into discrete components. Complementing this evidence, Marc Hauser and Tecumseh Fitch compare human speech production and perception with that of nonhuman species. They conclude that many traits that were formerly thought to have evolved specifically for speech (such as having a descended larynx or categorical perception) are also present in other species.

But perhaps the most interesting idea about pre-adaptation comes from the work of neuroscientist Michael Arbib on ‘mirror’ neurons in monkeys. These neurons are a subset of the grasp-related premotor neurons that discharge not only, as other premotor neurons do, when the monkey executes a certain class of actions, but also when the monkey observes more or less similarly meaningful hand movements made by the experimenter (or by another monkey). The area in which these grasp-related neurons are found is analogous with the Broca's area in human brains, which is involved in assessing the syntax of words. This observation serves as the basis for the mirror-system hypothesis, which postulates that Broca's area in humans evolved from a basic mechanism not originally related to communication but rather from the mirror system for grasping in the common ancestor of monkey and human. As a result, the mirror system provides a possible ‘neural link’ in the evolution of human language.

There is still much debate about the selection pressures that led to the evolution of language. Observing the overabundance of potential selective scenarios for why language evolved, the linguist Derek Bickerton voices his scepticism: ‘The fact that these and similar explanations flourish side by side tells one immediately not enough constraints are being used to limit possible explanations.’ One frequent source of confusion, he notes, is equating language with speech by not distinguishing between modality, lexicon, and structure. Hauser and Fitch share Bickerton's scepticism and urge scientists to rely more on the traditional comparative approach, which was always the strength of Darwinian evolutionary theory.

Primatologist Robin Dunbar, who originally proposed that grooming (group bonding) could have provided the stimulus for language, dismisses two other possible scenarios—hunting and tool-making—as potential ecological contexts for the evolution of human language. Gestural origins are also dismissed in his theory, because gestural languages do not seem to develop spontaneously and also require a line-of-sight contact making them useless at night.

Interestingly, Steven Pinker rules out both Dunbar's theory of grooming and Geoffrey Miller's theory of sexual selection, whereas Bickerton rules out grooming, gossip, mating contract, and Machiavellian intelligence as likely contexts for the origin of human language.

Also under fire in the book is the idea that the human brain is somehow equipped at birth with a ‘universal grammar’ out of which all human languages later develop. Several authors try to provide alternatives to innate predispositions, such as the importance of function to categorization (Michael Tomasello) and the importance of cultural transmission to the structure of language (Simon Kirby and Morton Christiansen). Arbib explicitly questions the traditional Chomskyan theory of innate linguistic predispositions and argues that what humans have and had in the past is ‘language readiness’ rather than a fixed universal grammar.

Neuroscientist Terrence Deacon also puts an alternative theory forward. According to Deacon, many of the language universals reflect semiotic constraints inherent in the requirements for producing symbolic reference rather than innate predispositions. Thus, neither evolved innate predispositions nor culturally evolved and transmitted regularities can be considered as the ultimate source of language universals. He draws a parallel with mathematical operations (addition, subtraction, etc.) and with prime numbers. Symbolic reference, he argues, is constrained by the structure it refers to.

The editors claim, in the light of this diversity, that ‘this book is intended to bring together, for the first time, all the major perspectives on language evolution’. We have two concerns with this aim. First, two books of the same organization and scope have been published in the past six years based on the material from language evolution conferences (Hurford et al. 1998; Knight et al. 2000). Although this first concern might be just splitting hairs, the second is more substantial: several crucial aspects of language evolution are not represented at all or are just touched superficially.

One of these missing themes is the selective advantage of early language. As discussed, many of the contributors express their scepticism towards the selective scenarios found in the literature—and indeed towards such constructions in general—but there is no review and no balanced evaluation of these selective scenarios. Since one of the key questions of language evolution is the selective advantage of early language, the lack of such a review is a major weakness. A balanced account could have been presented even if the editors and most of the contributors are frustrated by the plethora of selective scenarios.

Related to the possible selective advantage of language is the issue of genetic background. Although there is mention of the so-called FOX genes—some mutations of which are associated with language disorders—there is no detailed discussion of our current knowledge of genetics related to language.

Another lightly treated theme is the neural basis of language and language evolution. Understandably it is one of the most difficult issues concerning human language, and no one expects the editors or any of the contributors to come up with an answer to all the questions. What is missing again is a good survey outlining the problems and the current findings of the field.

The weaknesses of the book come from its structure and organization. The editors, instead of outlining a structure and asking specialists to contribute to that structure, appear to have let every contributor write freely about their current ideas and current research without regard to the bigger picture. This definitely shows the interests of the contributors and outlines the current state of the art; it leaves gaps, however, in the coverage of crucial topics related to the evolution of human language.

References:

Hurford JR, Studdert-Kennedy M, Knight C (1998) Approaches to the evolution of language: Social and cognitive bases. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 452 p.

Knight C, Studdert-Kennedy M, Hurford JR (2000) The evolutionary emergence of language: Social function and the origins of linguistic form. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 438 p.

refs

  1. Wang Y, Lam KS, Yau MH, Xu A. (2008) Post-translational modifications of adiponectin: mechanisms and functional implications. Biochem J 409: 623–633.
  2. Trujillo ME, Scherer PE. (2005) 10.1111/j.1365-2796.2004.01426.x Adiponectin–journey from an adipocyte secretory protein to biomarker of the metabolic syndrome. J Intern Med 257: 167–175.
  3. Barb D, Williams CJ, Neuwirth AK, Mantzoros CS. (2007) Adiponectin in relation to malignancies: a review of existing basic research and clinical evidence. Am J Clin Nutr 86: s858–866.
  4. Schaffler A, Scholmerich J, Buechler C. (2007) Mechanisms of disease: adipokines and breast cancer - endocrine and paracrine mechanisms that connect adiposity and breast cancer. Nat Clin Pract Endocrinol Metab 3: 345–354.
  5. Roberts EA. (2007) Pediatric nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD): a "growing" problem?" J Hepatol 46:1133-42.
  6. Stefan N, Hennige AM, Staiger H, Machann J, Schick F, Krobe SM, et al. (2006) a2-Heremans-Schmid Glycoprotein/Fetuin-A is associated with insulin resistance and fat accumulation in the liver in humans. Diabetes Care 29:853–857.
  7. Bugianesi E, Pagotto U, Manini R, Vanni E, Gastaldelli A, de Iasio R, et al.(2005) Plasma adiponectin in nonalcoholic fatty liver is related to hepatic insulin resistance and hepatic fat content, not to liver disease severity. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 90:3498–3504.
  8. Pagano C, Soardo G, Esposito W, Fallo F, Basan L, Donnini D, et al. (2005) Plasma adiponectin is decreased in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. Eur J Endocrinol 152:113–118.
  9. Louthan MV, Barve S, McClain CJ, Joshi-Barve S. (2005) Decreased serum adiponectin: an early event in pediatric nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. J Pediatr 147:835–838.
  10. Gil-Campos M, Canete RR, Gil A. Adiponectin, the missing link in insulin resistance and obesity. Clin Nutr 23:963–974.
  11. Guerre-Millo M. (2007) Adiponectin: An update. Ddiabetes & Metaboism 34:12-18.
  12. Fruebis J., Tsao T.S., Javorschi S., Ebbets-Reed D., Erickson M.R., Yen F.T., et al. (2001) Proteolytic cleavage product of 30-kDa adipocyte complement-related protein increases fatty acid oxidation in muscle and causes weight loss in mice Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 98:2005-2010
  13. Yamauchi T., Kamon J., Waki H., Terauchi Y., Kubota N., Hara K., et al. (2001) The fat-derived hormone adiponectin reverses insulin resistance associated with both lipoatrophy and obesity. Nat Med 7:941-946.
  14. Berg A.H., Combs T.P., Du X., Brownlee M., Scherer P.E. (2001) The adipocyte-secreted protein Acrp30 enhances hepatic insulin action. Nat Med 7:947-953.
  15. Combs T.P., Berg A.H., Obici S., Scherer P.E., Rossetti L. (2001) Endogenous glucose production is inhibited by the adipose-derived protein Acrp30. J Clin Invest 108:1875-1881.
  16. Bajaj M., Suraamornkul S., Piper P., Hardies L.J., Glass L., Cersosimo E., et al. (2004) Decreased plasma adiponectin concentrations are closely related to hepatic fat content and hepatic insulin resistance in pioglitazone-treated type 2 diabetic patients. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 89:200-206.
  17. Miyazaki Y., Mahankali A., Wajcberg E., Bajaj M., Mandarino L.J., DeFronzo R.A. (2004) Effect of pioglitazone on circulating adipocytokine levels and insulin sensitivity in type 2 diabetic patients. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 89:4312-4319.
  18. Bugianesi E., Pagotto U., Manini R., Vanni E., Gastaldelli A., de Iasio R., et al. (2005) Plasma adiponectin in nonalcoholic fatty liver is related to hepatic insulin resistance and hepatic fat content, not to liver disease severity. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 90:3498-3504.
  19. Huang,S.S.; Huang,P.H.; Chen,Y.H.; Chiang,K.H.; Chen,J.W.; Lin,S.J. (2010) Association of Adiponectin with Future Cardiovascular Events in Patients After Acute Myocardial Infarction. J Atheroscler.Thromb. Advance Publication Online Feb. 2010.
  20. Wu N, et al. (2010) Relationships between serum adiponectin, leptin concentrations and bone mineral density, and bone biochemical markers in Chinese women. Clin Chim Acta In Press. doi = 10.1016/j.cca.2010.02.064
  21. This section represents a permissible (Creative Commons Attribution License) adaption and modification of an article by Számadó S and Szathmáry E published in the open access journal, PLoS Biol 2(10): e346.
    Copyright: © 2004 Szabolcs Számadó and Eörs Szathmáry. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
    Correspondence should be addressed. E-mail: szathmary@colbud.hu
    Szabolcs Számadó and Eörs Szathmáry are at the Collegium Budapest (Institute for Advanced Study), Budapest, Hungary.
    Citizendium makes no claim that the originators of the open-access article, Szabolcs Számadó and Eörs Szathmáry, endorse Citizendium's modification of the original article, cited above.


consider for user page

A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z
Use in English
Alphabetical word list
Retroalphabetical list  
Common misspellings  


Articles I started

Biographies: Alcmaeon; Stub John Dalton; Developing Article Vesalius [Andreas Vesalius]; Developing Article Alfred Russel Wallace;

Biology: Approved Article Life.....

epigraph code

Our entire body operates by electricity. Gnarled living electrical
cables extend into the depths of our brains; intense electric and
magnetic force fields stretch into our cells, flinging food or neuro-
transmitters across microscopic barrier membranes; even our DNA
is controlled by potent electrical forces.
      — David Bodanis[1]



block

<blockquote> <p style="margin-left:2.0%; margin-right:6%;font-size:0.95em;"><font face="Comic Sans MS, Trebuchet MS, Consolas"> Text </font> <ref>xx</ref></p> </blockquote>


ps

3CO2 + 6H2O +343 kcal light energy → C3H6O3 [triose] + 302 +3H2O


Test E&B

In the science of biology the concept of energy occupies a central and critical position, inasmuch as living systems could not exist without an ultimate source of energy from the external non-biological world,[2] [3] and could not have emerged from the abiotic world in the first place.[4]

Alcmaeon's extant fragments

Health is the equality of rights of the functions.


J.B. Wilbur lists the English translation of the extant fragments of Alcmaeon's book:[5]

  • Alcmaeon of Croton, son of Peirithous, said the following to Brotinus and Leon and Bathyllus: concerning things unseen, (as) concerning things mortal, the gods have certainty, whereas to us as men conjecture (only is possible).
  • Men perish because they cannot join the beginning to the end.
  • (In mules, the males are sterile because of the fineness and coldness of the seed, and the females because their wombs do not open).
  • Health is the equality of rights of the functions, wet-dry, cold-hot, bitter-sweet and the rest; but single rule among them causes disease; the single rule of either pair is deleterious. Disease occurs sometimes from an internal cause such as excess of heat or cold, sometimes from an external cause such as excess or deficiency of food, sometimes in a certain part, such as blood, marrow or brain; but these parts also are sometimes affected by external causes, such as certain waters or a particular site or fatigue or constraint or similar reasons. But health is the harmonious mixture of the qualities.
  • It is easier to guard against an enemy than against a friend.

Notes from SEP re Alcmaeon

lcmaeon from SEP

Book written between 500-450 BC. 1st to identify brain as seat of understanding Distinguished unerstandin rom perception Sense organs connected to brain by hannels Developed argument for soul immortality Physiology: sleep, death, embryonic development Influenced later greek philosopher

Aristotle wrote a treatise responding to him, Plato adopted his argument for the immortality of the soul, and both Plato and Philolaus accepted his view that the brain is the seat of intelligence.

Pasted from <http://plato.stanford.edu/archives/win2008/entries/alcmaeon/>

Bionets

Biological networks resemble many types of man-made networks, types of systems of diverse structure and function, each a collection of parts, the parts themselves differing in type, with multiple copies of each type, parts capable of interconnecting, the interconnections tying all the parts together into a whole structure made up of subtructures and modules of subtructures, the interconnected parts capable of interacting, the interactions capable of producing particular changes in the structure of each other or in the structures' properties, enabling intercommunication with signals that convey information, the whole structure a functional unit designed for a purpose.

Biological networks differ from such man-made networks, however, in having no human designer, having emerged from nature by organic evolutionary processes, its foundational system a biological cell, a biocomputer, designed basically to live and reproduce itelf, autonomous, capable of cooperating with other cells to generate multicellular structures that can intelligently design networks, inorganic as well as organic ones.

tbl

Table Cell Table Cell Table Cell Table Cell
Table Cell Table Cell Table Cell Table Cell
Table Cell Table Cell Table Cell Table Cell
Table Cell Table Cell Table Cell Table Cell
Table Cell Table Cell Table Cell Table Cell
Table Cell Table Cell Table Cell Table Cell

<a href="http://www.quackit.com/html/html_table_tutorial.cfm" target="_top">HTML Tables</a>


Refs

  1. Bodanis D. (2005) Electric Universe: How Electricity Switched On the Modern World. Random House. ISBN 9780307335982. | Google Books Limited Preview.Excerpt.
  2. Wrigglesworth JM. (1997) Energy and life. London: Taylor & Francis. ISBN 0748404333. | Google Books preview.
  3. Brown GC. (1999) The energy of life : the science of what makes our minds and bodies work. Originally published in the UK in 1999 by HarperCollins Publishers. 1st Free Press ed. ISBN 0-684-86257-3
  4. Baltscheffsky H. (1996) Origin and Evolution of Biological Energy Conversion. Wiley-VCH. ISBN 0471185817, ISBN 9780471185819. Google Books Preview | Publisher´s Description
  5. Wilbur JB, Allen HJ. (1979) The Worlds of the Early Greek Philosophers. Prometheus Books: Buffalo, NY.

epigraph code

Our entire body operates by electricity. Gnarled living electrical
cables extend into the depths of our brains; intense electric and
magnetic force fields stretch into our cells, flinging food or neuro-
transmitters across microscopic barrier membranes; even our DNA
is controlled by potent electrical forces.
      — David Bodanis[1]



block

<blockquote> <p style="margin-left:2.0%; margin-right:6%;font-size:0.95em;"><font face="Comic Sans MS, Trebuchet MS, Consolas"> Text </font> <ref>xx</ref></p> </blockquote>


ps

3CO2 + 6H2O +343 kcal light energy → C3H6O3 [triose] + 302 +3H2O




Alcmaeon's extant fragments

Health is the equality of rights of the functions.


J.B. Wilbur lists the English translation of the extant fragments of Alcmaeon's book:[2]

  • Alcmaeon of Croton, son of Peirithous, said the following to Brotinus and Leon and Bathyllus: concerning things unseen, (as) concerning things mortal, the gods have certainty, whereas to us as men conjecture (only is possible).
  • Men perish because they cannot join the beginning to the end.
  • (In mules, the males are sterile because of the fineness and coldness of the seed, and the females because their wombs do not open).
  • Health is the equality of rights of the functions, wet-dry, cold-hot, bitter-sweet and the rest; but single rule among them causes disease; the single rule of either pair is deleterious. Disease occurs sometimes from an internal cause such as excess of heat or cold, sometimes from an external cause such as excess or deficiency of food, sometimes in a certain part, such as blood, marrow or brain; but these parts also are sometimes affected by external causes, such as certain waters or a particular site or fatigue or constraint or similar reasons. But health is the harmonious mixture of the qualities.
  • It is easier to guard against an enemy than against a friend.

Notes from SEP re Alcmaeon

lcmaeon from SEP

Book written between 500-450 BC. 1st to identify brain as seat of understanding Distinguished unerstandin rom perception Sense organs connected to brain by hannels Developed argument for soul immortality Physiology: sleep, death, embryonic development Influenced later greek philosopher

Aristotle wrote a treatise responding to him, Plato adopted his argument for the immortality of the soul, and both Plato and Philolaus accepted his view that the brain is the seat of intelligence.

Pasted from <http://plato.stanford.edu/archives/win2008/entries/alcmaeon/>

Liven in croton, so italy Physician-pilosopher Strong medical tradition developed in crotonj

Pythagorean or not? Aristotle wrote a separate book on Alcmaeon

The overwhelming majority of scholars since 1950 have accordingly regarded Alcmaeon as a figure independent of the Pythagoreans (e.g., Guthrie 1962 and Lloyd 1991, 167; Zhmud 1997, 70-71, is one of the few exceptions), although, as a fellow citizen of Croton, he will have been familiar with their thought.

Pasted from <http://plato.stanford.edu/archives/win2008/entries/alcmaeon/>

One group of scholars dates the publication of Alcmaeon's book to around 500 (Burkert 1972, 292; Kirk, Raven, Schofield 1983, 339 [early 5th]) so that he would have been born around 540. Another group has him born around 510 so that his book would have been published in 470 or later (Guthrie 1962, 358 [480-440 BC]; Lloyd 1991, 168 [490-430 BC]). In either case Alcmaeon probably wrote before Empedocles, Anaxagoras and Philolaus. He is either the contemporary or the predecessor of Parmenides.

Pasted from <http://plato.stanford.edu/archives/win2008/entries/alcmaeon/>

He thus takes the stance of the scientist who draws inferences from what can be perceived, and he implicitly rejects the claims of those who base their account of the world on the certainty of a divine revelation (e.g., Pythagoras, Parmenides B1).

Pasted from <http://plato.stanford.edu/archives/win2008/entries/alcmaeon/>

Socrates connects this view of the brain with an empiricist epistemology, which Aristotle will later adopt (Posterior Analytics 100a3 ff.). This epistemology involves three steps: first, the brain provides the sensations of hearing, sight and smell, then, memory and opinion arise from these, and finally, when memory and opinion achieve fixity, knowledge arises. Some scholars suppose that this entire epistemology is Alcmaeon's (e.g., Barnes 1982, 149 ff.), while others more cautiously note that we only have explicit evidence that Alcmaeon took the first step (e.g., Vlastos 1970, 47, n.8).

Pasted from <http://plato.stanford.edu/archives/win2008/entries/alcmaeon/>

he only conclusions we can reasonably draw about Alcmaeon from the passage are that he excised the eyeball of an animal and observed poroi (channels, i.e. the optic nerve) leading from the eye in the direction of the brain (Lloyd 1975). Theophrastus' account of Alcmaeon's theory of sensation implies that he thought that there were such channels leading from each of the senses to the brain: All the senses are connected in some way with the brain. As a result, they are incapacitated when it is disturbed or changes its place, for it then stops the channels, through which the senses operate. (DK, A5)

Pasted from <http://plato.stanford.edu/archives/win2008/entries/alcmaeon/>

It would be a serious mistake then to say that Alcmaeon discovered dissection or that he was the father of anatomy, since there is no evidence that he used dissection systematically or even that he did more than excise a single eyeball.

Pasted from <http://plato.stanford.edu/archives/win2008/entries/alcmaeon/>

The idea that health depends on a balance of opposed factors in the body is a commonplace in Greek medical writers. Although Alcmaeon is the earliest figure to whom such a conception of health is attributed, it may well be that he is not presenting an original thesis but rather drawing on the earlier medical tradition in Croton. Perhaps what is distinctive to Alcmaeon is the use of the specific political metaphor and terminology (isonomia, monarchia). Just as Anaximander explained the order of the cosmos in terms of justice in the city-state, so Alcmaeon used a political metaphor to explain the order of the human body.

Pasted from <http://plato.stanford.edu/archives/win2008/entries/alcmaeon/>

Contrary to a popular Greek view, which regarded the father alone as providing seed, a view that would be followed by Aristotle (Lloyd 1983, 86 ff.), Alcmaeon argued that both parents contribute seed (DK, A13) and that the child takes the sex of the parent who contributes the most seed (DK, A14).

Pasted from <http://plato.stanford.edu/archives/win2008/entries/alcmaeon/>


More significantly, he used analogies with animals and plants in developing his accounts of human physiology. Thus, the pubic hair that develops when human males are about to produce seed for the first time at age fourteen is analogous to the flowering of plants before they produce seed (DK, A15); milk in mammals is analogous to egg white in birds (DK, A16).

Pasted from <http://plato.stanford.edu/archives/win2008/entries/alcmaeon/> Alcmaeon agrees with these Pythagoreans in regarding the opposites as principles of things. Aristotle complains, however, that Alcmaeon did not arrive at a definite set of opposites but spoke haphazardly of white, black, sweet, bitter, good, bad, large and small, and only threw in vague comments about the remaining opposites. It may well be that Alcmaeon's primary discussion of opposites was in relation to his account of the human body (DK, B4; see the discussion of his medical theories above). Aristotle's language supports this suggestion to some extent, when he summarizes Alcmaeon's view as that "the majority of human things (tôn anthrôpinôn) are in pairs" (Metaph. 986a31). Isocrates (DK, A3) says that Alcmaeon, in contrast to Empedocles, who postulated four elements, said that there were only two, and, according to a heterodox view, Alcmaeon posited fire and earth as basic elements (Lebedev 1993).

Pasted from <http://plato.stanford.edu/archives/win2008/entries/alcmaeon/>

• Long, A. A., (ed.), 1999, The Cambridge Companion to Early Greek Philosophy, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press

Pasted from <http://plato.stanford.edu/archives/win2008/entries/alcmaeon/>

• Taylor, C. C. W., (ed.), 1997, Routledge History of Philosophy, Volume 1: From the Beginning to Plato, London: Routledge

Pasted from <http://plato.stanford.edu/archives/win2008/entries/alcmaeon/>


Sep au Carl Huffman

Pasted from <http://plato.stanford.edu/archives/win2008/entries/alcmaeon/>


Bionets

Biological networks resemble many types of man-made networks, types of systems of diverse structure and function, each a collection of parts, the parts themselves differing in type, with multiple copies of each type, parts capable of interconnecting, the interconnections tying all the parts together into a whole structure made up of subtructures and modules of subtructures, the interconnected parts capable of interacting, the interactions capable of producing particular changes in the structure of each other or in the structures' properties, enabling intercommunication with signals that convey information, the whole structure a functional unit designed for a purpose.

Biological networks differ from such man-made networks, however, in having no human designer, having emerged from nature by organic evolutionary processes, its foundational system a biological cell, a biocomputer, designed basically to live and reproduce itelf, autonomous, capable of cooperating with other cells to generate multicellular structures that can intelligently design networks, inorganic as well as organic ones.

tbl

Table Cell Table Cell Table Cell Table Cell
Table Cell Table Cell Table Cell Table Cell
Table Cell Table Cell Table Cell Table Cell
Table Cell Table Cell Table Cell Table Cell
Table Cell Table Cell Table Cell Table Cell
Table Cell Table Cell Table Cell Table Cell

<a href="http://www.quackit.com/html/html_table_tutorial.cfm" target="_top">HTML Tables</a>


Refs

  1. Bodanis D. (2005) Electric Universe: How Electricity Switched On the Modern World. Random House. ISBN 9780307335982. | Google Books Limited Preview.Excerpt.
  2. Wilbur JB, Allen HJ. (1979) The Worlds of the Early Greek Philosophers. Prometheus Books: Buffalo, NY.

ply

Bear with me, 0 mystery of existence, as I pluck the occasional thread from your train.
—Wislawa Szymborska, from her poem, "Under One Small Star" (see Works|Poems|Exception Over the Rule)


This is a paragraph with some text in it. This is a paragraph with some text in it. This is a paragraph with some text in it. This is a paragraph with some text in it.


[1]



references

  1. Luisi PL. (2003) Autopoiesis: a review and a reappraisal. Naturwissenschaften 90:49-59 PMID 12590297.
    • Note: The concept of autopoiesis incorporates many of the fundamental characteristics of all living systems.
    • From the Abstract: The paper begins with a few historical notes to highlight the cultural background from which the notion of autopoiesis arose. The basic principles of autopoiesis as a theory of cellular life are then described, emphasizing also what autopoiesis is not: not an abstract theory, not a concept of artificial life, not a theory about the origin of life--but rather a pragmatic blueprint of life based on cellular life. [Emphasis added] It shows how this view leads to a conceptually clear definition of minimal life and to a logical link with related notions, such as self-organization, emergence, biological autonomy, auto-referentiality, and interactions with the environment. The perturbations brought about by the environment are seen as changes selected and triggered by the inner organization of the living. These selective coupling interactions impart meaning to the minimal life and are thus defined by Maturana and Varela with the arguable term of "cognition". This particular view on the mutual interactions between living organism and environment leads these authors to the notion of "enaction", and to the surprising view that autopoiesis and cognition are two complementary, and in a way equivalent, aspects of life. It is then shown how cognition, so defined, permits us to build a bridge between biology and cognitive science.

UTC time

To get UTC time now, edit this section (click edit), follow instructions, then save page.

00:12, 8 April 2010 (UTC)

Re lemma

  • Food and human evolution [r]: This is a draft in User space, not yet ready to go to Citizendium's main space, and not meant to be cited. The {{subpages}} template is designed to be used within article clusters and their related pages.
    It will not function on User pages.

Survival of the fittest in relation to the environment has importantly influenced the evolved structure and function of Homo sapiens, and given the absolute requirement for food consumption for survival, food as environment played a fundamental role in the determination of human structure and function as the species evolved from its most ancient ancestors. [e]


adipo

Adiponectin

DMITRI IVANOVITCH MENDELEYEV was a boy who came out of Siberia, traveled westward to Moscow and St. Petersburg to become one of Russia's greatest scientists. It was he who thought so deeply about the universe that he was able to predict the existence of substances which had never before been seen by man. It was he also who taught his country how to win iron from the Urals, coal from the Donetz Basin, oil from the regions of the Caspian Sea. It was he who exalted the realm of pure science and fervently wished that "many could enter its portals." The Russians finally listened to him, and the country grew industrially, scientifically, and moreover, spiritually, for it was Mendeleyev also who championed the rights of human freedom and protected students from the abuses of the Tsar's regime.

Mendeleyev's chart, evolved into the modern form through the work of Moseley, now hangs in almost every chemistry and physics laboratory in the world. Often, through my years of study I have thought of the Russian scientist, but actually I knew little of him. I halfway expected to probe into his life some day, to uncover the facts behind this obscure genius. One day I read of a contest for books on scientific subjects written for the layman. This was the stimulus I had been waiting for. I entered the contest, I read everything I could get hold of on Mendeleyev and by him--there is no full-length biography in English. Most of this I read in Russian, for I was born in Russia, near the Caspian Sea. And I have lived in Siberia also, and come out of there, it almost seems to me, to tell about the bearded prophet of the snows, the champion of the people.

—Daniel Q. Posin[1]

Adiponectin, a hormone (a.k.a., adipokine, adipocytokine) produced by adipose tissue cells — adipocytes — and secreted into the bloodstream, induces beneficial effects in medical conditions related to obesity, including type 2 diabetes mellitus, atherosclerosis, chronic inflammation, and cancer.[2] [3] [4] [5]

Adiponectin alters insulin receptor function, diminishes the action of insulin in the liver, alters the metabolism of free fatty acids by liver cells, and protects against inflammation. Adults and children (humans) who have non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) show decreased plasma concentrations of adiponectin. Inasmuch as insulin resistance in the liver, and hyperinsulinemia, feature in NAFLD, those finding suggest a link between fatty liver and insulin resistance perhaps in part to reduced adiponectin. NAFLD also features elevated levels of leptin, an adipokine that reduces appetite but also interferes with insulin action in the brain.[6] [7] [8] [9] [10] [11]

Adiponectin exhibits the following actions:[12] [13] [14] [15] [16] [17] [18] [19]

  • Perhaps by increasing fatty acid oxidation, a smaller increase in plasma FFA occurs after a high fat meal;
  • By enhancing lipid metabolism, insulin sensitivity improves;
  • Reduced glucose production by the liver;
  • Plasma concentrations associate inversely with endogenous glucose production.

In patients who have had an acute myocardial infarction, the risk of subsequent major adverse cardiovascular events is lowest in patients with the highest plasma concentrations of adiponectin. [20] Some researchers note that in postmenopausal women serum adiponectin concentrations correlate inversely with bone mineral density.[21]

Book review of Language Evolution

This section is an adaptation of a review of the book, Christiansen MH, Kirby S. (editors/authors) (2003) Language evolution. Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0199244847. | 21 authors, 17 chapters, 395 pages. | Google Books preview., entitled:
Language Evolution
originally published by Szabolcs Számadó and Eörs Szathmáry (2004) in PLoS Biol 2(10): e346..[22]

A ban in the 1866s by the French Academy of Sciences on publications about the origin of human language must have been one of the strangest bans in the history of sciences. Yet it was highly effective. After the ban, scientists and interested laymen had to wait for more than a century to hold a textbook on language evolution in their hands.

Editors Chritiansen and Kirby present, in Language Evolution, a compilation of essays by a diverse group of respected researchers, is amongst the first books that try to tackle what is arguably one of the hardest scientific problems. The editors set themselves the ambitious target of creating an up-to-date book about this emerging field, and they have to be congratulated for their efforts. Linguists, cognitive scientists, behavioural ecologists, and theoretical biologists all offer their view on the origin of human language and, refreshingly, do not shy from pointing out the real or assumed weaknesses of the other approaches.

One of the main themes of the book is the evolutionary approach and the importance of biological structures and properties that were co-opted in the development of language (pre-adaptations). In one essay, Michael Studdert-Kenedy and Louis Goldstein propose that speech, as a motor function, draws on phylogenetically ancient mammalian oral capacities for sucking, licking, swallowing, and chewing. Thus, our hominid ancestors adopted an apparatus already divided neuroanatomically into discrete components. Complementing this evidence, Marc Hauser and Tecumseh Fitch compare human speech production and perception with that of nonhuman species. They conclude that many traits that were formerly thought to have evolved specifically for speech (such as having a descended larynx or categorical perception) are also present in other species.

But perhaps the most interesting idea about pre-adaptation comes from the work of neuroscientist Michael Arbib on ‘mirror’ neurons in monkeys. These neurons are a subset of the grasp-related premotor neurons that discharge not only, as other premotor neurons do, when the monkey executes a certain class of actions, but also when the monkey observes more or less similarly meaningful hand movements made by the experimenter (or by another monkey). The area in which these grasp-related neurons are found is analogous with the Broca's area in human brains, which is involved in assessing the syntax of words. This observation serves as the basis for the mirror-system hypothesis, which postulates that Broca's area in humans evolved from a basic mechanism not originally related to communication but rather from the mirror system for grasping in the common ancestor of monkey and human. As a result, the mirror system provides a possible ‘neural link’ in the evolution of human language.

There is still much debate about the selection pressures that led to the evolution of language. Observing the overabundance of potential selective scenarios for why language evolved, the linguist Derek Bickerton voices his scepticism: ‘The fact that these and similar explanations flourish side by side tells one immediately not enough constraints are being used to limit possible explanations.’ One frequent source of confusion, he notes, is equating language with speech by not distinguishing between modality, lexicon, and structure. Hauser and Fitch share Bickerton's scepticism and urge scientists to rely more on the traditional comparative approach, which was always the strength of Darwinian evolutionary theory.

Primatologist Robin Dunbar, who originally proposed that grooming (group bonding) could have provided the stimulus for language, dismisses two other possible scenarios—hunting and tool-making—as potential ecological contexts for the evolution of human language. Gestural origins are also dismissed in his theory, because gestural languages do not seem to develop spontaneously and also require a line-of-sight contact making them useless at night.

Interestingly, Steven Pinker rules out both Dunbar's theory of grooming and Geoffrey Miller's theory of sexual selection, whereas Bickerton rules out grooming, gossip, mating contract, and Machiavellian intelligence as likely contexts for the origin of human language.

Also under fire in the book is the idea that the human brain is somehow equipped at birth with a ‘universal grammar’ out of which all human languages later develop. Several authors try to provide alternatives to innate predispositions, such as the importance of function to categorization (Michael Tomasello) and the importance of cultural transmission to the structure of language (Simon Kirby and Morton Christiansen). Arbib explicitly questions the traditional Chomskyan theory of innate linguistic predispositions and argues that what humans have and had in the past is ‘language readiness’ rather than a fixed universal grammar.

Neuroscientist Terrence Deacon also puts an alternative theory forward. According to Deacon, many of the language universals reflect semiotic constraints inherent in the requirements for producing symbolic reference rather than innate predispositions. Thus, neither evolved innate predispositions nor culturally evolved and transmitted regularities can be considered as the ultimate source of language universals. He draws a parallel with mathematical operations (addition, subtraction, etc.) and with prime numbers. Symbolic reference, he argues, is constrained by the structure it refers to.

The editors claim, in the light of this diversity, that ‘this book is intended to bring together, for the first time, all the major perspectives on language evolution’. We have two concerns with this aim. First, two books of the same organization and scope have been published in the past six years based on the material from language evolution conferences (Hurford et al. 1998; Knight et al. 2000). Although this first concern might be just splitting hairs, the second is more substantial: several crucial aspects of language evolution are not represented at all or are just touched superficially.

One of these missing themes is the selective advantage of early language. As discussed, many of the contributors express their scepticism towards the selective scenarios found in the literature—and indeed towards such constructions in general—but there is no review and no balanced evaluation of these selective scenarios. Since one of the key questions of language evolution is the selective advantage of early language, the lack of such a review is a major weakness. A balanced account could have been presented even if the editors and most of the contributors are frustrated by the plethora of selective scenarios.

Related to the possible selective advantage of language is the issue of genetic background. Although there is mention of the so-called FOX genes—some mutations of which are associated with language disorders—there is no detailed discussion of our current knowledge of genetics related to language.

Another lightly treated theme is the neural basis of language and language evolution. Understandably it is one of the most difficult issues concerning human language, and no one expects the editors or any of the contributors to come up with an answer to all the questions. What is missing again is a good survey outlining the problems and the current findings of the field.

The weaknesses of the book come from its structure and organization. The editors, instead of outlining a structure and asking specialists to contribute to that structure, appear to have let every contributor write freely about their current ideas and current research without regard to the bigger picture. This definitely shows the interests of the contributors and outlines the current state of the art; it leaves gaps, however, in the coverage of crucial topics related to the evolution of human language.

References:

Hurford JR, Studdert-Kennedy M, Knight C (1998) Approaches to the evolution of language: Social and cognitive bases. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 452 p.

Knight C, Studdert-Kennedy M, Hurford JR (2000) The evolutionary emergence of language: Social function and the origins of linguistic form. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 438 p.

refs

  1. Posin DQ. (1948) Mendeleyev, the Story of a Great Scientist. New York: Whittlesey House.
  2. Wang Y, Lam KS, Yau MH, Xu A. (2008) Post-translational modifications of adiponectin: mechanisms and functional implications. Biochem J 409: 623–633.
  3. Trujillo ME, Scherer PE. (2005) 10.1111/j.1365-2796.2004.01426.x Adiponectin–journey from an adipocyte secretory protein to biomarker of the metabolic syndrome. J Intern Med 257: 167–175.
  4. Barb D, Williams CJ, Neuwirth AK, Mantzoros CS. (2007) Adiponectin in relation to malignancies: a review of existing basic research and clinical evidence. Am J Clin Nutr 86: s858–866.
  5. Schaffler A, Scholmerich J, Buechler C. (2007) Mechanisms of disease: adipokines and breast cancer - endocrine and paracrine mechanisms that connect adiposity and breast cancer. Nat Clin Pract Endocrinol Metab 3: 345–354.
  6. Roberts EA. (2007) Pediatric nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD): a "growing" problem?" J Hepatol 46:1133-42.
  7. Stefan N, Hennige AM, Staiger H, Machann J, Schick F, Krobe SM, et al. (2006) a2-Heremans-Schmid Glycoprotein/Fetuin-A is associated with insulin resistance and fat accumulation in the liver in humans. Diabetes Care 29:853–857.
  8. Bugianesi E, Pagotto U, Manini R, Vanni E, Gastaldelli A, de Iasio R, et al.(2005) Plasma adiponectin in nonalcoholic fatty liver is related to hepatic insulin resistance and hepatic fat content, not to liver disease severity. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 90:3498–3504.
  9. Pagano C, Soardo G, Esposito W, Fallo F, Basan L, Donnini D, et al. (2005) Plasma adiponectin is decreased in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. Eur J Endocrinol 152:113–118.
  10. Louthan MV, Barve S, McClain CJ, Joshi-Barve S. (2005) Decreased serum adiponectin: an early event in pediatric nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. J Pediatr 147:835–838.
  11. Gil-Campos M, Canete RR, Gil A. Adiponectin, the missing link in insulin resistance and obesity. Clin Nutr 23:963–974.
  12. Guerre-Millo M. (2007) Adiponectin: An update. Ddiabetes & Metaboism 34:12-18.
  13. Fruebis J., Tsao T.S., Javorschi S., Ebbets-Reed D., Erickson M.R., Yen F.T., et al. (2001) Proteolytic cleavage product of 30-kDa adipocyte complement-related protein increases fatty acid oxidation in muscle and causes weight loss in mice Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 98:2005-2010
  14. Yamauchi T., Kamon J., Waki H., Terauchi Y., Kubota N., Hara K., et al. (2001) The fat-derived hormone adiponectin reverses insulin resistance associated with both lipoatrophy and obesity. Nat Med 7:941-946.
  15. Berg A.H., Combs T.P., Du X., Brownlee M., Scherer P.E. (2001) The adipocyte-secreted protein Acrp30 enhances hepatic insulin action. Nat Med 7:947-953.
  16. Combs T.P., Berg A.H., Obici S., Scherer P.E., Rossetti L. (2001) Endogenous glucose production is inhibited by the adipose-derived protein Acrp30. J Clin Invest 108:1875-1881.
  17. Bajaj M., Suraamornkul S., Piper P., Hardies L.J., Glass L., Cersosimo E., et al. (2004) Decreased plasma adiponectin concentrations are closely related to hepatic fat content and hepatic insulin resistance in pioglitazone-treated type 2 diabetic patients. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 89:200-206.
  18. Miyazaki Y., Mahankali A., Wajcberg E., Bajaj M., Mandarino L.J., DeFronzo R.A. (2004) Effect of pioglitazone on circulating adipocytokine levels and insulin sensitivity in type 2 diabetic patients. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 89:4312-4319.
  19. Bugianesi E., Pagotto U., Manini R., Vanni E., Gastaldelli A., de Iasio R., et al. (2005) Plasma adiponectin in nonalcoholic fatty liver is related to hepatic insulin resistance and hepatic fat content, not to liver disease severity. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 90:3498-3504.
  20. Huang,S.S.; Huang,P.H.; Chen,Y.H.; Chiang,K.H.; Chen,J.W.; Lin,S.J. (2010) Association of Adiponectin with Future Cardiovascular Events in Patients After Acute Myocardial Infarction. J Atheroscler.Thromb. Advance Publication Online Feb. 2010.
  21. Wu N, et al. (2010) Relationships between serum adiponectin, leptin concentrations and bone mineral density, and bone biochemical markers in Chinese women. Clin Chim Acta In Press. doi = 10.1016/j.cca.2010.02.064
  22. This section represents a permissible (Creative Commons Attribution License) adaption and modification of an article by Számadó S and Szathmáry E published in the open access journal, PLoS Biol 2(10): e346.
    Copyright: © 2004 Szabolcs Számadó and Eörs Szathmáry. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
    Correspondence should be addressed. E-mail: szathmary@colbud.hu
    Szabolcs Számadó and Eörs Szathmáry are at the Collegium Budapest (Institute for Advanced Study), Budapest, Hungary.
    Citizendium makes no claim that the originators of the open-access article, Szabolcs Számadó and Eörs Szathmáry, endorse Citizendium's modification of the original article, cited above.


consider for user page

A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z
Use in English
Alphabetical word list
Retroalphabetical list  
Common misspellings  


Articles I started

Biographies: Alcmaeon; Stub John Dalton; Developing Article Vesalius [Andreas Vesalius]; Developing Article Alfred Russel Wallace;

Biology: Approved Article Life.....

epigraph code

Our entire body operates by electricity. Gnarled living electrical
cables extend into the depths of our brains; intense electric and
magnetic force fields stretch into our cells, flinging food or neuro-
transmitters across microscopic barrier membranes; even our DNA
is controlled by potent electrical forces.
      — David Bodanis[1]



block

<blockquote> <p style="margin-left:2.0%; margin-right:6%;font-size:0.95em;"><font face="Comic Sans MS, Trebuchet MS, Consolas"> Text </font> <ref>xx</ref></p> </blockquote>


ps

3CO2 + 6H2O +343 kcal light energy → C3H6O3 [triose] + 302 +3H2O


Test E&B

In the science of biology the concept of energy occupies a central and critical position, inasmuch as living systems could not exist without an ultimate source of energy from the external non-biological world,[2] [3] and could not have emerged from the abiotic world in the first place.[4]

Alcmaeon's extant fragments

Health is the equality of rights of the functions.


J.B. Wilbur lists the English translation of the extant fragments of Alcmaeon's book:[5]

  • Alcmaeon of Croton, son of Peirithous, said the following to Brotinus and Leon and Bathyllus: concerning things unseen, (as) concerning things mortal, the gods have certainty, whereas to us as men conjecture (only is possible).
  • Men perish because they cannot join the beginning to the end.
  • (In mules, the males are sterile because of the fineness and coldness of the seed, and the females because their wombs do not open).
  • Health is the equality of rights of the functions, wet-dry, cold-hot, bitter-sweet and the rest; but single rule among them causes disease; the single rule of either pair is deleterious. Disease occurs sometimes from an internal cause such as excess of heat or cold, sometimes from an external cause such as excess or deficiency of food, sometimes in a certain part, such as blood, marrow or brain; but these parts also are sometimes affected by external causes, such as certain waters or a particular site or fatigue or constraint or similar reasons. But health is the harmonious mixture of the qualities.
  • It is easier to guard against an enemy than against a friend.

Notes from SEP re Alcmaeon

lcmaeon from SEP

Book written between 500-450 BC. 1st to identify brain as seat of understanding Distinguished unerstandin rom perception Sense organs connected to brain by hannels Developed argument for soul immortality Physiology: sleep, death, embryonic development Influenced later greek philosopher

Aristotle wrote a treatise responding to him, Plato adopted his argument for the immortality of the soul, and both Plato and Philolaus accepted his view that the brain is the seat of intelligence.

Pasted from <http://plato.stanford.edu/archives/win2008/entries/alcmaeon/>

Bionets

Biological networks resemble many types of man-made networks, types of systems of diverse structure and function, each a collection of parts, the parts themselves differing in type, with multiple copies of each type, parts capable of interconnecting, the interconnections tying all the parts together into a whole structure made up of subtructures and modules of subtructures, the interconnected parts capable of interacting, the interactions capable of producing particular changes in the structure of each other or in the structures' properties, enabling intercommunication with signals that convey information, the whole structure a functional unit designed for a purpose.

Biological networks differ from such man-made networks, however, in having no human designer, having emerged from nature by organic evolutionary processes, its foundational system a biological cell, a biocomputer, designed basically to live and reproduce itelf, autonomous, capable of cooperating with other cells to generate multicellular structures that can intelligently design networks, inorganic as well as organic ones.

tbl

Table Cell Table Cell Table Cell Table Cell
Table Cell Table Cell Table Cell Table Cell
Table Cell Table Cell Table Cell Table Cell
Table Cell Table Cell Table Cell Table Cell
Table Cell Table Cell Table Cell Table Cell
Table Cell Table Cell Table Cell Table Cell

<a href="http://www.quackit.com/html/html_table_tutorial.cfm" target="_top">HTML Tables</a>

Refs

  1. Bodanis D. (2005) Electric Universe: How Electricity Switched On the Modern World. Random House. ISBN 9780307335982. | Google Books Limited Preview.Excerpt.
  2. Wrigglesworth JM. (1997) Energy and life. London: Taylor & Francis. ISBN 0748404333. | Google Books preview.
  3. Brown GC. (1999) The energy of life : the science of what makes our minds and bodies work. Originally published in the UK in 1999 by HarperCollins Publishers. 1st Free Press ed. ISBN 0-684-86257-3
  4. Baltscheffsky H. (1996) Origin and Evolution of Biological Energy Conversion. Wiley-VCH. ISBN 0471185817, ISBN 9780471185819. Google Books Preview | Publisher´s Description
  5. Wilbur JB, Allen HJ. (1979) The Worlds of the Early Greek Philosophers. Prometheus Books: Buffalo, NY.

epigraph code

Our entire body operates by electricity. Gnarled living electrical
cables extend into the depths of our brains; intense electric and
magnetic force fields stretch into our cells, flinging food or neuro-
transmitters across microscopic barrier membranes; even our DNA
is controlled by potent electrical forces.
      — David Bodanis[1]



block

<blockquote> <p style="margin-left:2.0%; margin-right:6%;font-size:0.95em;"><font face="Comic Sans MS, Trebuchet MS, Consolas"> Text </font> <ref>xx</ref></p> </blockquote>


ps

3CO2 + 6H2O +343 kcal light energy → C3H6O3 [triose] + 302 +3H2O




Alcmaeon's extant fragments

Health is the equality of rights of the functions.


J.B. Wilbur lists the English translation of the extant fragments of Alcmaeon's book:[2]

  • Alcmaeon of Croton, son of Peirithous, said the following to Brotinus and Leon and Bathyllus: concerning things unseen, (as) concerning things mortal, the gods have certainty, whereas to us as men conjecture (only is possible).
  • Men perish because they cannot join the beginning to the end.
  • (In mules, the males are sterile because of the fineness and coldness of the seed, and the females because their wombs do not open).
  • Health is the equality of rights of the functions, wet-dry, cold-hot, bitter-sweet and the rest; but single rule among them causes disease; the single rule of either pair is deleterious. Disease occurs sometimes from an internal cause such as excess of heat or cold, sometimes from an external cause such as excess or deficiency of food, sometimes in a certain part, such as blood, marrow or brain; but these parts also are sometimes affected by external causes, such as certain waters or a particular site or fatigue or constraint or similar reasons. But health is the harmonious mixture of the qualities.
  • It is easier to guard against an enemy than against a friend.

Notes from SEP re Alcmaeon

lcmaeon from SEP

Book written between 500-450 BC. 1st to identify brain as seat of understanding Distinguished unerstandin rom perception Sense organs connected to brain by hannels Developed argument for soul immortality Physiology: sleep, death, embryonic development Influenced later greek philosopher

Aristotle wrote a treatise responding to him, Plato adopted his argument for the immortality of the soul, and both Plato and Philolaus accepted his view that the brain is the seat of intelligence.

Pasted from <http://plato.stanford.edu/archives/win2008/entries/alcmaeon/>

Liven in croton, so italy Physician-pilosopher Strong medical tradition developed in crotonj

Pythagorean or not? Aristotle wrote a separate book on Alcmaeon

The overwhelming majority of scholars since 1950 have accordingly regarded Alcmaeon as a figure independent of the Pythagoreans (e.g., Guthrie 1962 and Lloyd 1991, 167; Zhmud 1997, 70-71, is one of the few exceptions), although, as a fellow citizen of Croton, he will have been familiar with their thought.

Pasted from <http://plato.stanford.edu/archives/win2008/entries/alcmaeon/>

One group of scholars dates the publication of Alcmaeon's book to around 500 (Burkert 1972, 292; Kirk, Raven, Schofield 1983, 339 [early 5th]) so that he would have been born around 540. Another group has him born around 510 so that his book would have been published in 470 or later (Guthrie 1962, 358 [480-440 BC]; Lloyd 1991, 168 [490-430 BC]). In either case Alcmaeon probably wrote before Empedocles, Anaxagoras and Philolaus. He is either the contemporary or the predecessor of Parmenides.

Pasted from <http://plato.stanford.edu/archives/win2008/entries/alcmaeon/>

He thus takes the stance of the scientist who draws inferences from what can be perceived, and he implicitly rejects the claims of those who base their account of the world on the certainty of a divine revelation (e.g., Pythagoras, Parmenides B1).

Pasted from <http://plato.stanford.edu/archives/win2008/entries/alcmaeon/>

Socrates connects this view of the brain with an empiricist epistemology, which Aristotle will later adopt (Posterior Analytics 100a3 ff.). This epistemology involves three steps: first, the brain provides the sensations of hearing, sight and smell, then, memory and opinion arise from these, and finally, when memory and opinion achieve fixity, knowledge arises. Some scholars suppose that this entire epistemology is Alcmaeon's (e.g., Barnes 1982, 149 ff.), while others more cautiously note that we only have explicit evidence that Alcmaeon took the first step (e.g., Vlastos 1970, 47, n.8).

Pasted from <http://plato.stanford.edu/archives/win2008/entries/alcmaeon/>

he only conclusions we can reasonably draw about Alcmaeon from the passage are that he excised the eyeball of an animal and observed poroi (channels, i.e. the optic nerve) leading from the eye in the direction of the brain (Lloyd 1975). Theophrastus' account of Alcmaeon's theory of sensation implies that he thought that there were such channels leading from each of the senses to the brain: All the senses are connected in some way with the brain. As a result, they are incapacitated when it is disturbed or changes its place, for it then stops the channels, through which the senses operate. (DK, A5)

Pasted from <http://plato.stanford.edu/archives/win2008/entries/alcmaeon/>

It would be a serious mistake then to say that Alcmaeon discovered dissection or that he was the father of anatomy, since there is no evidence that he used dissection systematically or even that he did more than excise a single eyeball.

Pasted from <http://plato.stanford.edu/archives/win2008/entries/alcmaeon/>

The idea that health depends on a balance of opposed factors in the body is a commonplace in Greek medical writers. Although Alcmaeon is the earliest figure to whom such a conception of health is attributed, it may well be that he is not presenting an original thesis but rather drawing on the earlier medical tradition in Croton. Perhaps what is distinctive to Alcmaeon is the use of the specific political metaphor and terminology (isonomia, monarchia). Just as Anaximander explained the order of the cosmos in terms of justice in the city-state, so Alcmaeon used a political metaphor to explain the order of the human body.

Pasted from <http://plato.stanford.edu/archives/win2008/entries/alcmaeon/>

Contrary to a popular Greek view, which regarded the father alone as providing seed, a view that would be followed by Aristotle (Lloyd 1983, 86 ff.), Alcmaeon argued that both parents contribute seed (DK, A13) and that the child takes the sex of the parent who contributes the most seed (DK, A14).

Pasted from <http://plato.stanford.edu/archives/win2008/entries/alcmaeon/>


More significantly, he used analogies with animals and plants in developing his accounts of human physiology. Thus, the pubic hair that develops when human males are about to produce seed for the first time at age fourteen is analogous to the flowering of plants before they produce seed (DK, A15); milk in mammals is analogous to egg white in birds (DK, A16).

Pasted from <http://plato.stanford.edu/archives/win2008/entries/alcmaeon/> Alcmaeon agrees with these Pythagoreans in regarding the opposites as principles of things. Aristotle complains, however, that Alcmaeon did not arrive at a definite set of opposites but spoke haphazardly of white, black, sweet, bitter, good, bad, large and small, and only threw in vague comments about the remaining opposites. It may well be that Alcmaeon's primary discussion of opposites was in relation to his account of the human body (DK, B4; see the discussion of his medical theories above). Aristotle's language supports this suggestion to some extent, when he summarizes Alcmaeon's view as that "the majority of human things (tôn anthrôpinôn) are in pairs" (Metaph. 986a31). Isocrates (DK, A3) says that Alcmaeon, in contrast to Empedocles, who postulated four elements, said that there were only two, and, according to a heterodox view, Alcmaeon posited fire and earth as basic elements (Lebedev 1993).

Pasted from <http://plato.stanford.edu/archives/win2008/entries/alcmaeon/>

• Long, A. A., (ed.), 1999, The Cambridge Companion to Early Greek Philosophy, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press

Pasted from <http://plato.stanford.edu/archives/win2008/entries/alcmaeon/>

• Taylor, C. C. W., (ed.), 1997, Routledge History of Philosophy, Volume 1: From the Beginning to Plato, London: Routledge

Pasted from <http://plato.stanford.edu/archives/win2008/entries/alcmaeon/>


Sep au Carl Huffman

Pasted from <http://plato.stanford.edu/archives/win2008/entries/alcmaeon/>


Bionets

Biological networks resemble many types of man-made networks, types of systems of diverse structure and function, each a collection of parts, the parts themselves differing in type, with multiple copies of each type, parts capable of interconnecting, the interconnections tying all the parts together into a whole structure made up of subtructures and modules of subtructures, the interconnected parts capable of interacting, the interactions capable of producing particular changes in the structure of each other or in the structures' properties, enabling intercommunication with signals that convey information, the whole structure a functional unit designed for a purpose.

Biological networks differ from such man-made networks, however, in having no human designer, having emerged from nature by organic evolutionary processes, its foundational system a biological cell, a biocomputer, designed basically to live and reproduce itelf, autonomous, capable of cooperating with other cells to generate multicellular structures that can intelligently design networks, inorganic as well as organic ones.

tbl

Table Cell Table Cell Table Cell Table Cell
Table Cell Table Cell Table Cell Table Cell
Table Cell Table Cell Table Cell Table Cell
Table Cell Table Cell Table Cell Table Cell
Table Cell Table Cell Table Cell Table Cell
Table Cell Table Cell Table Cell Table Cell

<a href="http://www.quackit.com/html/html_table_tutorial.cfm" target="_top">HTML Tables</a>


Refs

  1. Bodanis D. (2005) Electric Universe: How Electricity Switched On the Modern World. Random House. ISBN 9780307335982. | Google Books Limited Preview.Excerpt.
  2. Wilbur JB, Allen HJ. (1979) The Worlds of the Early Greek Philosophers. Prometheus Books: Buffalo, NY.

Re lemma

  • Calorie restriction [r]: Long-term reduction of food energy intake to, or nearly to, the minimum consistent with the absence of malnutrition, a procedure that robustly and reproducibly improves health and extends lifespan across animal species. [e]


adipo

Adiponectin

Adiponectin, a hormone (a.k.a., adipokine, adipocytokine) produced by adipose tissue cells — adipocytes — and secreted into the bloodstream, induces beneficial effects in medical conditions related to obesity, including type 2 diabetes mellitus, atherosclerosis, chronic inflammation, and cancer.[1] [2] [3] [4]

Adiponectin alters insulin receptor function, diminishes the action of insulin in the liver, alters the metabolism of free fatty acids by liver cells, and protects against inflammation. Adults and children (humans) who have non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) show decreased plasma concentrations of adiponectin. Inasmuch as insulin resistance in the liver, and hyperinsulinemia, feature in NAFLD, those finding suggest a link between fatty liver and insulin resistance perhaps in part to reduced adiponectin. NAFLD also features elevated levels of leptin, an adipokine that reduces appetite but also interferes with insulin action in the brain.[5] [6] [7] [8] [9] [10]

Adiponectin exhibits the following actions:[11] [12] [13] [14] [15] [16] [17] [18]

  • Perhaps by increasing fatty acid oxidation, a smaller increase in plasma FFA occurs after a high fat meal;
  • By enhancing lipid metabolism, insulin sensitivity improves;
  • Reduced glucose production by the liver;
  • Plasma concentrations associate inversely with endogenous glucose production.

In patients who have had an acute myocardial infarction, the risk of subsequent major adverse cardiovascular events is lowest in patients with the highest plasma concentrations of adiponectin. [19] Some researchers note that in postmenopausal women serum adiponectin concentrations correlate inversely with bone mineral density.[20]

Book review of Language Evolution

This section is an adaptation of a review of the book, Christiansen MH, Kirby S. (editors/authors) (2003) Language evolution. Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0199244847. | 21 authors, 17 chapters, 395 pages. | Google Books preview., entitled:
Language Evolution
originally published by Szabolcs Számadó and Eörs Szathmáry (2004) in PLoS Biol 2(10): e346..[21]

A ban in the 1866s by the French Academy of Sciences on publications about the origin of human language must have been one of the strangest bans in the history of sciences. Yet it was highly effective. After the ban, scientists and interested laymen had to wait for more than a century to hold a textbook on language evolution in their hands.

Editors Chritiansen and Kirby present, in Language Evolution, a compilation of essays by a diverse group of respected researchers, is amongst the first books that try to tackle what is arguably one of the hardest scientific problems. The editors set themselves the ambitious target of creating an up-to-date book about this emerging field, and they have to be congratulated for their efforts. Linguists, cognitive scientists, behavioural ecologists, and theoretical biologists all offer their view on the origin of human language and, refreshingly, do not shy from pointing out the real or assumed weaknesses of the other approaches.

One of the main themes of the book is the evolutionary approach and the importance of biological structures and properties that were co-opted in the development of language (pre-adaptations). In one essay, Michael Studdert-Kenedy and Louis Goldstein propose that speech, as a motor function, draws on phylogenetically ancient mammalian oral capacities for sucking, licking, swallowing, and chewing. Thus, our hominid ancestors adopted an apparatus already divided neuroanatomically into discrete components. Complementing this evidence, Marc Hauser and Tecumseh Fitch compare human speech production and perception with that of nonhuman species. They conclude that many traits that were formerly thought to have evolved specifically for speech (such as having a descended larynx or categorical perception) are also present in other species.

But perhaps the most interesting idea about pre-adaptation comes from the work of neuroscientist Michael Arbib on ‘mirror’ neurons in monkeys. These neurons are a subset of the grasp-related premotor neurons that discharge not only, as other premotor neurons do, when the monkey executes a certain class of actions, but also when the monkey observes more or less similarly meaningful hand movements made by the experimenter (or by another monkey). The area in which these grasp-related neurons are found is analogous with the Broca's area in human brains, which is involved in assessing the syntax of words. This observation serves as the basis for the mirror-system hypothesis, which postulates that Broca's area in humans evolved from a basic mechanism not originally related to communication but rather from the mirror system for grasping in the common ancestor of monkey and human. As a result, the mirror system provides a possible ‘neural link’ in the evolution of human language.

There is still much debate about the selection pressures that led to the evolution of language. Observing the overabundance of potential selective scenarios for why language evolved, the linguist Derek Bickerton voices his scepticism: ‘The fact that these and similar explanations flourish side by side tells one immediately not enough constraints are being used to limit possible explanations.’ One frequent source of confusion, he notes, is equating language with speech by not distinguishing between modality, lexicon, and structure. Hauser and Fitch share Bickerton's scepticism and urge scientists to rely more on the traditional comparative approach, which was always the strength of Darwinian evolutionary theory.

Primatologist Robin Dunbar, who originally proposed that grooming (group bonding) could have provided the stimulus for language, dismisses two other possible scenarios—hunting and tool-making—as potential ecological contexts for the evolution of human language. Gestural origins are also dismissed in his theory, because gestural languages do not seem to develop spontaneously and also require a line-of-sight contact making them useless at night.

Interestingly, Steven Pinker rules out both Dunbar's theory of grooming and Geoffrey Miller's theory of sexual selection, whereas Bickerton rules out grooming, gossip, mating contract, and Machiavellian intelligence as likely contexts for the origin of human language.

Also under fire in the book is the idea that the human brain is somehow equipped at birth with a ‘universal grammar’ out of which all human languages later develop. Several authors try to provide alternatives to innate predispositions, such as the importance of function to categorization (Michael Tomasello) and the importance of cultural transmission to the structure of language (Simon Kirby and Morton Christiansen). Arbib explicitly questions the traditional Chomskyan theory of innate linguistic predispositions and argues that what humans have and had in the past is ‘language readiness’ rather than a fixed universal grammar.

Neuroscientist Terrence Deacon also puts an alternative theory forward. According to Deacon, many of the language universals reflect semiotic constraints inherent in the requirements for producing symbolic reference rather than innate predispositions. Thus, neither evolved innate predispositions nor culturally evolved and transmitted regularities can be considered as the ultimate source of language universals. He draws a parallel with mathematical operations (addition, subtraction, etc.) and with prime numbers. Symbolic reference, he argues, is constrained by the structure it refers to.

The editors claim, in the light of this diversity, that ‘this book is intended to bring together, for the first time, all the major perspectives on language evolution’. We have two concerns with this aim. First, two books of the same organization and scope have been published in the past six years based on the material from language evolution conferences (Hurford et al. 1998; Knight et al. 2000). Although this first concern might be just splitting hairs, the second is more substantial: several crucial aspects of language evolution are not represented at all or are just touched superficially.

One of these missing themes is the selective advantage of early language. As discussed, many of the contributors express their scepticism towards the selective scenarios found in the literature—and indeed towards such constructions in general—but there is no review and no balanced evaluation of these selective scenarios. Since one of the key questions of language evolution is the selective advantage of early language, the lack of such a review is a major weakness. A balanced account could have been presented even if the editors and most of the contributors are frustrated by the plethora of selective scenarios.

Related to the possible selective advantage of language is the issue of genetic background. Although there is mention of the so-called FOX genes—some mutations of which are associated with language disorders—there is no detailed discussion of our current knowledge of genetics related to language.

Another lightly treated theme is the neural basis of language and language evolution. Understandably it is one of the most difficult issues concerning human language, and no one expects the editors or any of the contributors to come up with an answer to all the questions. What is missing again is a good survey outlining the problems and the current findings of the field.

The weaknesses of the book come from its structure and organization. The editors, instead of outlining a structure and asking specialists to contribute to that structure, appear to have let every contributor write freely about their current ideas and current research without regard to the bigger picture. This definitely shows the interests of the contributors and outlines the current state of the art; it leaves gaps, however, in the coverage of crucial topics related to the evolution of human language.

References:

Hurford JR, Studdert-Kennedy M, Knight C (1998) Approaches to the evolution of language: Social and cognitive bases. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 452 p.

Knight C, Studdert-Kennedy M, Hurford JR (2000) The evolutionary emergence of language: Social function and the origins of linguistic form. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 438 p.

refs

  1. Wang Y, Lam KS, Yau MH, Xu A. (2008) Post-translational modifications of adiponectin: mechanisms and functional implications. Biochem J 409: 623–633.
  2. Trujillo ME, Scherer PE. (2005) 10.1111/j.1365-2796.2004.01426.x Adiponectin–journey from an adipocyte secretory protein to biomarker of the metabolic syndrome. J Intern Med 257: 167–175.
  3. Barb D, Williams CJ, Neuwirth AK, Mantzoros CS. (2007) Adiponectin in relation to malignancies: a review of existing basic research and clinical evidence. Am J Clin Nutr 86: s858–866.
  4. Schaffler A, Scholmerich J, Buechler C. (2007) Mechanisms of disease: adipokines and breast cancer - endocrine and paracrine mechanisms that connect adiposity and breast cancer. Nat Clin Pract Endocrinol Metab 3: 345–354.
  5. Roberts EA. (2007) Pediatric nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD): a "growing" problem?" J Hepatol 46:1133-42.
  6. Stefan N, Hennige AM, Staiger H, Machann J, Schick F, Krobe SM, et al. (2006) a2-Heremans-Schmid Glycoprotein/Fetuin-A is associated with insulin resistance and fat accumulation in the liver in humans. Diabetes Care 29:853–857.
  7. Bugianesi E, Pagotto U, Manini R, Vanni E, Gastaldelli A, de Iasio R, et al.(2005) Plasma adiponectin in nonalcoholic fatty liver is related to hepatic insulin resistance and hepatic fat content, not to liver disease severity. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 90:3498–3504.
  8. Pagano C, Soardo G, Esposito W, Fallo F, Basan L, Donnini D, et al. (2005) Plasma adiponectin is decreased in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. Eur J Endocrinol 152:113–118.
  9. Louthan MV, Barve S, McClain CJ, Joshi-Barve S. (2005) Decreased serum adiponectin: an early event in pediatric nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. J Pediatr 147:835–838.
  10. Gil-Campos M, Canete RR, Gil A. Adiponectin, the missing link in insulin resistance and obesity. Clin Nutr 23:963–974.
  11. Guerre-Millo M. (2007) Adiponectin: An update. Ddiabetes & Metaboism 34:12-18.
  12. Fruebis J., Tsao T.S., Javorschi S., Ebbets-Reed D., Erickson M.R., Yen F.T., et al. (2001) Proteolytic cleavage product of 30-kDa adipocyte complement-related protein increases fatty acid oxidation in muscle and causes weight loss in mice Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 98:2005-2010
  13. Yamauchi T., Kamon J., Waki H., Terauchi Y., Kubota N., Hara K., et al. (2001) The fat-derived hormone adiponectin reverses insulin resistance associated with both lipoatrophy and obesity. Nat Med 7:941-946.
  14. Berg A.H., Combs T.P., Du X., Brownlee M., Scherer P.E. (2001) The adipocyte-secreted protein Acrp30 enhances hepatic insulin action. Nat Med 7:947-953.
  15. Combs T.P., Berg A.H., Obici S., Scherer P.E., Rossetti L. (2001) Endogenous glucose production is inhibited by the adipose-derived protein Acrp30. J Clin Invest 108:1875-1881.
  16. Bajaj M., Suraamornkul S., Piper P., Hardies L.J., Glass L., Cersosimo E., et al. (2004) Decreased plasma adiponectin concentrations are closely related to hepatic fat content and hepatic insulin resistance in pioglitazone-treated type 2 diabetic patients. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 89:200-206.
  17. Miyazaki Y., Mahankali A., Wajcberg E., Bajaj M., Mandarino L.J., DeFronzo R.A. (2004) Effect of pioglitazone on circulating adipocytokine levels and insulin sensitivity in type 2 diabetic patients. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 89:4312-4319.
  18. Bugianesi E., Pagotto U., Manini R., Vanni E., Gastaldelli A., de Iasio R., et al. (2005) Plasma adiponectin in nonalcoholic fatty liver is related to hepatic insulin resistance and hepatic fat content, not to liver disease severity. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 90:3498-3504.
  19. Huang,S.S.; Huang,P.H.; Chen,Y.H.; Chiang,K.H.; Chen,J.W.; Lin,S.J. (2010) Association of Adiponectin with Future Cardiovascular Events in Patients After Acute Myocardial Infarction. J Atheroscler.Thromb. Advance Publication Online Feb. 2010.
  20. Wu N, et al. (2010) Relationships between serum adiponectin, leptin concentrations and bone mineral density, and bone biochemical markers in Chinese women. Clin Chim Acta In Press. doi = 10.1016/j.cca.2010.02.064
  21. This section represents a permissible (Creative Commons Attribution License) adaption and modification of an article by Számadó S and Szathmáry E published in the open access journal, PLoS Biol 2(10): e346.
    Copyright: © 2004 Szabolcs Számadó and Eörs Szathmáry. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
    Correspondence should be addressed. E-mail: szathmary@colbud.hu
    Szabolcs Számadó and Eörs Szathmáry are at the Collegium Budapest (Institute for Advanced Study), Budapest, Hungary.
    Citizendium makes no claim that the originators of the open-access article, Szabolcs Számadó and Eörs Szathmáry, endorse Citizendium's modification of the original article, cited above.


consider for user page

A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z
Use in English
Alphabetical word list
Retroalphabetical list  
Common misspellings  


Articles I started

Biographies: Alcmaeon; Stub John Dalton; Developing Article Vesalius [Andreas Vesalius]; Developing Article Alfred Russel Wallace;

Biology: Approved Article Life.....

epigraph code

Our entire body operates by electricity. Gnarled living electrical
cables extend into the depths of our brains; intense electric and
magnetic force fields stretch into our cells, flinging food or neuro-
transmitters across microscopic barrier membranes; even our DNA
is controlled by potent electrical forces.
      — David Bodanis[1]



block

<blockquote> <p style="margin-left:2.0%; margin-right:6%;font-size:0.95em;"><font face="Comic Sans MS, Trebuchet MS, Consolas"> Text </font> <ref>xx</ref></p> </blockquote>


ps

3CO2 + 6H2O +343 kcal light energy → C3H6O3 [triose] + 302 +3H2O


Test E&B

In the science of biology the concept of energy occupies a central and critical position, inasmuch as living systems could not exist without an ultimate source of energy from the external non-biological world,[2] [3] and could not have emerged from the abiotic world in the first place.[4]

Alcmaeon's extant fragments

Health is the equality of rights of the functions.


J.B. Wilbur lists the English translation of the extant fragments of Alcmaeon's book:[5]

  • Alcmaeon of Croton, son of Peirithous, said the following to Brotinus and Leon and Bathyllus: concerning things unseen, (as) concerning things mortal, the gods have certainty, whereas to us as men conjecture (only is possible).
  • Men perish because they cannot join the beginning to the end.
  • (In mules, the males are sterile because of the fineness and coldness of the seed, and the females because their wombs do not open).
  • Health is the equality of rights of the functions, wet-dry, cold-hot, bitter-sweet and the rest; but single rule among them causes disease; the single rule of either pair is deleterious. Disease occurs sometimes from an internal cause such as excess of heat or cold, sometimes from an external cause such as excess or deficiency of food, sometimes in a certain part, such as blood, marrow or brain; but these parts also are sometimes affected by external causes, such as certain waters or a particular site or fatigue or constraint or similar reasons. But health is the harmonious mixture of the qualities.
  • It is easier to guard against an enemy than against a friend.

Notes from SEP re Alcmaeon

lcmaeon from SEP

Book written between 500-450 BC. 1st to identify brain as seat of understanding Distinguished unerstandin rom perception Sense organs connected to brain by hannels Developed argument for soul immortality Physiology: sleep, death, embryonic development Influenced later greek philosopher

Aristotle wrote a treatise responding to him, Plato adopted his argument for the immortality of the soul, and both Plato and Philolaus accepted his view that the brain is the seat of intelligence.

Pasted from <http://plato.stanford.edu/archives/win2008/entries/alcmaeon/>

Bionets

Biological networks resemble many types of man-made networks, types of systems of diverse structure and function, each a collection of parts, the parts themselves differing in type, with multiple copies of each type, parts capable of interconnecting, the interconnections tying all the parts together into a whole structure made up of subtructures and modules of subtructures, the interconnected parts capable of interacting, the interactions capable of producing particular changes in the structure of each other or in the structures' properties, enabling intercommunication with signals that convey information, the whole structure a functional unit designed for a purpose.

Biological networks differ from such man-made networks, however, in having no human designer, having emerged from nature by organic evolutionary processes, its foundational system a biological cell, a biocomputer, designed basically to live and reproduce itelf, autonomous, capable of cooperating with other cells to generate multicellular structures that can intelligently design networks, inorganic as well as organic ones.

tbl

Table Cell Table Cell Table Cell Table Cell
Table Cell Table Cell Table Cell Table Cell
Table Cell Table Cell Table Cell Table Cell
Table Cell Table Cell Table Cell Table Cell
Table Cell Table Cell Table Cell Table Cell
Table Cell Table Cell Table Cell Table Cell

<a href="http://www.quackit.com/html/html_table_tutorial.cfm" target="_top">HTML Tables</a>


Refs

  1. Bodanis D. (2005) Electric Universe: How Electricity Switched On the Modern World. Random House. ISBN 9780307335982. | Google Books Limited Preview.Excerpt.
  2. Wrigglesworth JM. (1997) Energy and life. London: Taylor & Francis. ISBN 0748404333. | Google Books preview.
  3. Brown GC. (1999) The energy of life : the science of what makes our minds and bodies work. Originally published in the UK in 1999 by HarperCollins Publishers. 1st Free Press ed. ISBN 0-684-86257-3
  4. Baltscheffsky H. (1996) Origin and Evolution of Biological Energy Conversion. Wiley-VCH. ISBN 0471185817, ISBN 9780471185819. Google Books Preview | Publisher´s Description
  5. Wilbur JB, Allen HJ. (1979) The Worlds of the Early Greek Philosophers. Prometheus Books: Buffalo, NY.

epigraph code

Our entire body operates by electricity. Gnarled living electrical
cables extend into the depths of our brains; intense electric and
magnetic force fields stretch into our cells, flinging food or neuro-
transmitters across microscopic barrier membranes; even our DNA
is controlled by potent electrical forces.
      — David Bodanis[1]



block

<blockquote> <p style="margin-left:2.0%; margin-right:6%;font-size:0.95em;"><font face="Comic Sans MS, Trebuchet MS, Consolas"> Text </font> <ref>xx</ref></p> </blockquote>


ps

3CO2 + 6H2O +343 kcal light energy → C3H6O3 [triose] + 302 +3H2O




Alcmaeon's extant fragments

Health is the equality of rights of the functions.


J.B. Wilbur lists the English translation of the extant fragments of Alcmaeon's book:[2]

  • Alcmaeon of Croton, son of Peirithous, said the following to Brotinus and Leon and Bathyllus: concerning things unseen, (as) concerning things mortal, the gods have certainty, whereas to us as men conjecture (only is possible).
  • Men perish because they cannot join the beginning to the end.
  • (In mules, the males are sterile because of the fineness and coldness of the seed, and the females because their wombs do not open).
  • Health is the equality of rights of the functions, wet-dry, cold-hot, bitter-sweet and the rest; but single rule among them causes disease; the single rule of either pair is deleterious. Disease occurs sometimes from an internal cause such as excess of heat or cold, sometimes from an external cause such as excess or deficiency of food, sometimes in a certain part, such as blood, marrow or brain; but these parts also are sometimes affected by external causes, such as certain waters or a particular site or fatigue or constraint or similar reasons. But health is the harmonious mixture of the qualities.
  • It is easier to guard against an enemy than against a friend.

Notes from SEP re Alcmaeon

lcmaeon from SEP

Book written between 500-450 BC. 1st to identify brain as seat of understanding Distinguished unerstandin rom perception Sense organs connected to brain by hannels Developed argument for soul immortality Physiology: sleep, death, embryonic development Influenced later greek philosopher

Aristotle wrote a treatise responding to him, Plato adopted his argument for the immortality of the soul, and both Plato and Philolaus accepted his view that the brain is the seat of intelligence.

Pasted from <http://plato.stanford.edu/archives/win2008/entries/alcmaeon/>

Liven in croton, so italy Physician-pilosopher Strong medical tradition developed in crotonj

Pythagorean or not? Aristotle wrote a separate book on Alcmaeon

The overwhelming majority of scholars since 1950 have accordingly regarded Alcmaeon as a figure independent of the Pythagoreans (e.g., Guthrie 1962 and Lloyd 1991, 167; Zhmud 1997, 70-71, is one of the few exceptions), although, as a fellow citizen of Croton, he will have been familiar with their thought.

Pasted from <http://plato.stanford.edu/archives/win2008/entries/alcmaeon/>

One group of scholars dates the publication of Alcmaeon's book to around 500 (Burkert 1972, 292; Kirk, Raven, Schofield 1983, 339 [early 5th]) so that he would have been born around 540. Another group has him born around 510 so that his book would have been published in 470 or later (Guthrie 1962, 358 [480-440 BC]; Lloyd 1991, 168 [490-430 BC]). In either case Alcmaeon probably wrote before Empedocles, Anaxagoras and Philolaus. He is either the contemporary or the predecessor of Parmenides.

Pasted from <http://plato.stanford.edu/archives/win2008/entries/alcmaeon/>

He thus takes the stance of the scientist who draws inferences from what can be perceived, and he implicitly rejects the claims of those who base their account of the world on the certainty of a divine revelation (e.g., Pythagoras, Parmenides B1).

Pasted from <http://plato.stanford.edu/archives/win2008/entries/alcmaeon/>

Socrates connects this view of the brain with an empiricist epistemology, which Aristotle will later adopt (Posterior Analytics 100a3 ff.). This epistemology involves three steps: first, the brain provides the sensations of hearing, sight and smell, then, memory and opinion arise from these, and finally, when memory and opinion achieve fixity, knowledge arises. Some scholars suppose that this entire epistemology is Alcmaeon's (e.g., Barnes 1982, 149 ff.), while others more cautiously note that we only have explicit evidence that Alcmaeon took the first step (e.g., Vlastos 1970, 47, n.8).

Pasted from <http://plato.stanford.edu/archives/win2008/entries/alcmaeon/>

he only conclusions we can reasonably draw about Alcmaeon from the passage are that he excised the eyeball of an animal and observed poroi (channels, i.e. the optic nerve) leading from the eye in the direction of the brain (Lloyd 1975). Theophrastus' account of Alcmaeon's theory of sensation implies that he thought that there were such channels leading from each of the senses to the brain: All the senses are connected in some way with the brain. As a result, they are incapacitated when it is disturbed or changes its place, for it then stops the channels, through which the senses operate. (DK, A5)

Pasted from <http://plato.stanford.edu/archives/win2008/entries/alcmaeon/>

It would be a serious mistake then to say that Alcmaeon discovered dissection or that he was the father of anatomy, since there is no evidence that he used dissection systematically or even that he did more than excise a single eyeball.

Pasted from <http://plato.stanford.edu/archives/win2008/entries/alcmaeon/>

The idea that health depends on a balance of opposed factors in the body is a commonplace in Greek medical writers. Although Alcmaeon is the earliest figure to whom such a conception of health is attributed, it may well be that he is not presenting an original thesis but rather drawing on the earlier medical tradition in Croton. Perhaps what is distinctive to Alcmaeon is the use of the specific political metaphor and terminology (isonomia, monarchia). Just as Anaximander explained the order of the cosmos in terms of justice in the city-state, so Alcmaeon used a political metaphor to explain the order of the human body.

Pasted from <http://plato.stanford.edu/archives/win2008/entries/alcmaeon/>

Contrary to a popular Greek view, which regarded the father alone as providing seed, a view that would be followed by Aristotle (Lloyd 1983, 86 ff.), Alcmaeon argued that both parents contribute seed (DK, A13) and that the child takes the sex of the parent who contributes the most seed (DK, A14).

Pasted from <http://plato.stanford.edu/archives/win2008/entries/alcmaeon/>


More significantly, he used analogies with animals and plants in developing his accounts of human physiology. Thus, the pubic hair that develops when human males are about to produce seed for the first time at age fourteen is analogous to the flowering of plants before they produce seed (DK, A15); milk in mammals is analogous to egg white in birds (DK, A16).

Pasted from <http://plato.stanford.edu/archives/win2008/entries/alcmaeon/> Alcmaeon agrees with these Pythagoreans in regarding the opposites as principles of things. Aristotle complains, however, that Alcmaeon did not arrive at a definite set of opposites but spoke haphazardly of white, black, sweet, bitter, good, bad, large and small, and only threw in vague comments about the remaining opposites. It may well be that Alcmaeon's primary discussion of opposites was in relation to his account of the human body (DK, B4; see the discussion of his medical theories above). Aristotle's language supports this suggestion to some extent, when he summarizes Alcmaeon's view as that "the majority of human things (tôn anthrôpinôn) are in pairs" (Metaph. 986a31). Isocrates (DK, A3) says that Alcmaeon, in contrast to Empedocles, who postulated four elements, said that there were only two, and, according to a heterodox view, Alcmaeon posited fire and earth as basic elements (Lebedev 1993).

Pasted from <http://plato.stanford.edu/archives/win2008/entries/alcmaeon/>

• Long, A. A., (ed.), 1999, The Cambridge Companion to Early Greek Philosophy, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press

Pasted from <http://plato.stanford.edu/archives/win2008/entries/alcmaeon/>

• Taylor, C. C. W., (ed.), 1997, Routledge History of Philosophy, Volume 1: From the Beginning to Plato, London: Routledge

Pasted from <http://plato.stanford.edu/archives/win2008/entries/alcmaeon/>


Sep au Carl Huffman

Pasted from <http://plato.stanford.edu/archives/win2008/entries/alcmaeon/>


Bionets

Biological networks resemble many types of man-made networks, types of systems of diverse structure and function, each a collection of parts, the parts themselves differing in type, with multiple copies of each type, parts capable of interconnecting, the interconnections tying all the parts together into a whole structure made up of subtructures and modules of subtructures, the interconnected parts capable of interacting, the interactions capable of producing particular changes in the structure of each other or in the structures' properties, enabling intercommunication with signals that convey information, the whole structure a functional unit designed for a purpose.

Biological networks differ from such man-made networks, however, in having no human designer, having emerged from nature by organic evolutionary processes, its foundational system a biological cell, a biocomputer, designed basically to live and reproduce itelf, autonomous, capable of cooperating with other cells to generate multicellular structures that can intelligently design networks, inorganic as well as organic ones.

tbl

Table Cell Table Cell Table Cell Table Cell
Table Cell Table Cell Table Cell Table Cell
Table Cell Table Cell Table Cell Table Cell
Table Cell Table Cell Table Cell Table Cell
Table Cell Table Cell Table Cell Table Cell
Table Cell Table Cell Table Cell Table Cell

<a href="http://www.quackit.com/html/html_table_tutorial.cfm" target="_top">HTML Tables</a>


Refs

  1. Bodanis D. (2005) Electric Universe: How Electricity Switched On the Modern World. Random House. ISBN 9780307335982. | Google Books Limited Preview.Excerpt.
  2. Wilbur JB, Allen HJ. (1979) The Worlds of the Early Greek Philosophers. Prometheus Books: Buffalo, NY.