Takfir wal-Hijra (TwH),also transliterated Takfir al-Hijra, or Excommunication and Holy Flight/Emigration, originated in the thinking of Ali Abduh Ismail, who later repudiated his theories. Takfir, or excommunication, is a tenet directed at all Muslims who are not sufficiently pure. The actual group was established by Shukri Mustafa in 1971. Mustafa was an extreme Salafist who rejected all modern knowledge, and preached withdrawal from society.  He was executed by Egypt in 1977.
TwH wanted to isolate itself and build strength, then strike out at the infidels and apostates. Their ideas merged with those of Sayyid Qutb in affecting more recent extremists, such as Ayman al-Zawahiri.
- Hayder Mili (June 29, 2006), Jihad Without Rules: The Evolution of al-Takfir wa al-Hijra
- Trevor Stanley (July-December 2005), Definition: Kufr - Kafir - Takfir - Takfiri, Perspectives on World History and Current Events
- German police interrogation (2006), Peter Bergen, ed., The Osama bin Laden I know: an Oral History of Al-Qaeda's Leader, Free Press, pp. 259-260