Race/Bibliography

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A list of key readings about Race.
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Aboud, Frances E. Children and Prejudice Social psychology and society. New York: Blackwell, 1988. Introduction to how children learn the U.S. version of the "race" notion.

Allen, Theodore. The Invention of the White Race. 2 vols. Haymarket series. London: Verso, 1994. The definitive detailed account of the invention of the U.S. Black/White endogamous color line in the 17th-century Chesapeake. Traces its origins to a military social control tactic developed in Ireland.

Andrews, George Reid. "Race Versus Class Association: The Afro-Argentines of Buenos Aires." Journal of Latin American Studies (UK) 11, no. 1 (1979): 19-39. Shows how Afro-Argentineans were assimilated into the general population, genetically and culturally. Short version.

Andrews, George Reid. "Racial Inequality in Brazil and the United States: A Statistical Comparison." Journal of Social History 26, no. 2 (1992): 229-63. Demonstrates statistically that in Brazil, "money whitens" quite literally, in their census.

Andrews, George Reid. The Afro-Argentines of Buenos Aires, 1800-1900. Madison: University of Wisconsin, 1980. Shows how Afro-Argentineans were assimilated into the general population, genetically and culturally. Long version.

Aptheker, Herbert. American Negro Slave Revolts. 6th ed. New York: International Publishers, 1993. Shows that the notion of invisible Blackness sprang from fear of insurrection in the 1830s.

Asbury, Herbert. The Gangs of New York: An Informal History of the Underworld. 1st Paragon House ed. New York: Paragon House, 1990. Shows the emergence of ethnic groups as political voting blocs in the Jacksonian northeast.

Aspinall, Peter J. "Collective Terminology to Describe the Minority Ethnic Population: The Persistence of Confusion and Ambiguity in Usage." Sociology 36, no. 4 (2002): 803-16. Explanation of why the term "minority" is deliberated crafted to be ambiguous for political ends.

Ball, Bonnie. The Melungeons: Notes on the Origin of a Race. Johnson City TN: Overmountain, 1992. Flawed but useful account of the only triracial isolate (maroon) community of the Cumberland Plateau who see themselves as White.

Bartholet. "Where do Black Children Belong?: The Politics of Race Matching in Adoption." University of Pennsylvania Law Review 139, no. 5 (1991): 1163-1256. Describes the harmful impact of racial ideology on adoptions.

Batiza, Rodolfo. "The Influence of Spanish Law in Louisiana." Tulane Law Review 23 (1958): 29-34. Describes how the Francophone Gulf Coast Creole three-caste system emerged as a synthesis of Spanish and French customs.

Batiza, Rodolfo. "The Louisiana Civil Code of 1808: Its Actual Sources and Present Relevance." Tulane Law Review 46 (1971): 4-31. Explains how the Napoleonic code was used to assign membership in one of the three "races" of that time and place (Black, White, Coloured).

Beale, Calvin. "American Triracial Isolates." Eugenics Quarterly 4, no. 4 (1957): 187-96. The original study of triracial isolate (maroon) communities of the U.S. southeast.

Beam, Lura. He Called Them by the Lightning: A Teacher's Odyssey in the Negro South, 1908-1919. Indianapolis: Bobbs-Merrill, 1967. First-hand account showing that African Americans in the Jim Crow South strongly advocated the one-drop rule.

Beckles, Hilary. "Black Men in White Skins: The Formation of a White Proletariat in West Indian Society." The Journal of Imperial and Commonwealth History October, no. 15 (1986): 5-21. Summarizes the formation of the British West Indian three-caste system (Black, White, Coloured).

Beckles, Hilary. A History of Barbados: From Amerindian Settlement to Nation-State. Cambridge UK: Cambridge University, 1990. Explains why Barbados was unique in never developing an African-descended middle class.

Begley, Sharon. "The Roots of Hatred: Our brains are Programmed to Distrust Outsiders But are We Hard-Wired to Hate?" AARP, May-June 2004. Flawed but simplified account of the inborn human ability/need to perceive "otherness."

Bennett Jr., Lerone. Before the Mayflower: A History of Black America. 6th rev. ed. New York: Penguin, 1993. Explains the invention of the U.S. Black/White endogamous color line in the 17th-century Chesapeake. Less detailed but more entertaining that Allen.

Bennett Jr., Lerone. Forced Into Glory: Abraham Lincoln's White Dream. Chicago: Johnson, 1999. Voluminous first-hand evidence of how northerners in general (and Lincoln in particular) conceptualized the "race" notion.

Bennett Jr., Lerone. The Shaping of Black America. Chicago: Johnson, 1975. A detailed account of the invention of the U.S. Black/White endogamous color line in the 17th-century Chesapeake. Less comprehensive than Allen but more entertaining. One of four outstanding accounts of the invention and perpetuation of the unique U.S. version of the "race" notion.

Berlin, Ira. Slaves Without Masters: The Free Negro in the Antebellum South. New York: New Free Press, 1974. The failed attempt to form an antebellum Black middle class.

Berry, Brewton. Almost White. New York: Macmillan, 1963. The best account of the triracial isolate (maroon) communities of the U.S. southeast.

Bethel, Elizabeth Rauh. The Roots of African-American Identity. New York: St. Martin's, 1997. The best account of the formation of African-American ethnicity in the Jacksonian northeast.

Bieber, Judy. "Race, Resistance, and Regionalism: Perspectives from Brazil and Spanish America." Latin American Research Review 32, no. 3 (1997): 152-168. Shows how Latin America's concept of "race" emerged in colonial times.

Blessing, Patrick J. "The Irish." In Harvard Encyclopedia of American Ethnic Groups, ed. Stephan Thernstrom and Oscar Handlin, 524-45. Cambridge MA: Harvard University, 1980. Summarizes how Irish Americans became White.

Boas, Franz. The Mind of Primitive Man. New York: Macmillan, 1911. The seminal work on distinguishing cultural (learned) from biological (genetic) traits in humans.

Bowser, Frederick P. "Colonial Spanish America." In Neither Slave Nor Free: The Freedmen of African Descent in the Slave Societies of the New World, ed. David W. Cohen and Jack P. Greene, 19-58. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University, 1972. Summarizes how manumitted slaves were accepted into White Latin American society.

Bowser, Frederick P. "The Free Person of Color in Mexico City and Lima: Manumission and Opportunity, 1580-1650." In Race and Slavery in the Western Hemisphere: Quantitative Studies, ed. Stanley L. Engerman, Eugene D. Genovese, Alan H. Adamson, and Mathematical Social Science Board History Advisory Committee, 331-61. Princeton: Princeton University, 1975. More detailed account of manumitted slaves' acceptance into White Latin American society in the two mainland viceroyalty capitals.

Braman, Donald. "Of Race and Immutability." UCLA Law Review 46 (1999): 1375-1463. Shows how U.S. law courts decided on which side of the color line someone belonged.

Breen, T. H., and Stephen Innes. "Myne Owne Ground": Race and Freedom on Virginia's Eastern Shore, 1640-1676. New York: Oxford University, 1980. Shows European and African slave owners' treatment of African and European slaves in the very early Chesapeake (before the invention of the "race" notion).

Brodkin Sacks, Karen. "How Did Jews Become White Folks?" In Race, ed. Steven Gregory and Roger Sanjek, 78-102. New Brunswick NJ: Rutgers University, 1994. The definitive account of how the U.S. Jewish community went from non-White to White in public perception. Short version.

Brodkin, Karen. How Jews Became White Folks and What That Says About Race in America. New Brunswick NJ: Rutgers University, 1998. The definitive account of how the U.S. Jewish community went from non-White to White in public perception. Long version.

Brown Jr., Canter. "Race Relations in Territorial Florida, 1821-1845." Florida Historical Quarterly 73, no. 3 (1995): 287-307. Demonstrates the imposition of an endogamous color line on Spanish Florida after it became a U.S. territory.

Brown, Kathleen M. Good Wives, Nasty Wenches, and Anxious Patriarchs: Gender, Race, and Power in Colonial Virginia. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina, 1996. Gender-illuminated account of the invention of the U.S. "race" notion in the 17th-century Chesapeake.

Brunsma, David L., and Kerry Ann Rockquemore. "What Does 'Black' Mean? Exploring the Epistemological Stranglehold of Racial Categorization." Critical Sociology 28, no. 1/2 (2002): 101-121. Surveys the intellectual pitfalls of scholars' subconscious racialism.

Callahan, Jim. Lest We Forget: The Melungeon Colony of Newman's Ridge. Johnson City TN: Overmountain Press, 2000. First-hand account of the only triracial isolate (maroon) community of the Cumberland Plateau who see themselves as White.

Cartmill, Matt. "The Status of the Race Concept in Physical Anthropology." American Anthropologist 100, no. 3 (1998): 651-60. Survey of the abandonment of the "race" notion by published physical anthropologists as reflected in their articles.

Catterall, Helen Tunnicliff, and James J. Hayden. Judicial Cases Concerning American Slavery and The Negro. New York: Octagon Books, 1968. The definitive first-hand source for antebellum U.S. law cases involving African Americans.

Caughie, Pamela L. Passing and Pedagogy: The Dynamics of Responsibility. Urbana: University of Illinois, 1999. Summarizes how teachers inadvertently reify the "race" notion by telling genetically White children who have a Black grandparent that they are "really" Black.

Chamberlain, Joshua Lawrence. The Passing of the Armies. New York: G.P. Putnam's Sons, 1915. First-hand account of how public perception of "race" changed in the U.S. South during federal military occupation after the Civil War.

Chesnutt, Charles Waddell. The House Behind the Cedars. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1900. Although fiction, explains in accurate detail how "racial" membership was perceived in South Carolina as a function of socio-economic class.

Cohen, David Steven. The Ramapo Mountain People. New Brunswick NJ: Rutgers University, 1974. The definitive account of this triracial isolate (maroon) community.

Coon, Carleton Stevens. The Origin of Races. New York: Knopf, 1962. Definitive explanation of the application of craniofacial anthropometry to the "race" notion. Useful to understanding the conflict between the social and biological concepts of "race" because Coon shows, using his replicable criteria, that much of sub-saharan Africa is inhabited by natives of the "Caucasoid" subspecies.

Cosmides, Lola, John Tooby, and Robert Kurzban. "Perceptions of Race." Trends in Cognitive Sciences 7, no. 4 (2003): 173-79. Definitive account of the inborn human ability/need to perceive "otherness."

Cromwell, Adelaide M. The Other Brahmins: Boston's Black Upper Class, 1750-1950. Fayetteville: University of Arkansas, 1994. Definitive historical account of the formation of a African-American upper class in Boston.

Cross, William E. Shades of Black: Diversity in African-American Identity. Philadelphia: Temple University, 1991. Introduction to multiracialism.

Daniel, G. Reginald. More than Black?: Multiracial Identity and the New Racial Order. Philadelphia: Temple University, 2002. Flawed, but the only scholarly account so far of the emergence of multiracialism as a political ideology.

Davis, Adrienne D. "Identity Notes Part One: Playing in the Light." American University Law Review 45 (1996): 695-720. Surveys how U.S. courts have viewed the Black/White color line.

Davis, David Brion. The Problem of Slavery in Western Culture. Ithaca: Cornell University, 1966. Pulitzer Prize-winning survey of slavery. The little that it has on "race" exemplifies the intellectual pitfalls of a scholar's subconscious racialism.

Davis, F. James. Who is Black?: One Nation's Definition. University Park PA: State University of Pennsylvania, 1991. Dated but still useful explanation of how the U.S. color line is defined as opposed other nations' "race" notion.

Davis, Susan G. Parades and Power: Street Theatre in Nineteenth-Century Philadelphia. Philadelphia: Temple University, 1986. Shows the emergence of ethnicities (including African American) as political voting blocs in the Jacksonian northeast.

Dawley, Alan. Struggles for Justice: Social Responsibility and the Liberal State. Cambridge MA: Harvard University, 1991. How U.S. racialism maintained an endogamous color line that ostracized from the fruits of society an enclave comprising U.S. citizens of mainly African appearance

Day, Caroline Bond, and Earnest Albert Hooton. A Study of Some Negro-White Families in the United States. Cambridge MA: Harvard University, 1932. An early photographic study showing the rate at which utterly White-looking children are born into ethnically Black families.

Degler, Carl N. Neither Black nor White: Slavery and Race Relations in Brazil and the United States. New York: Macmillan, 1971. Definitive work comparing U.S. and Brazilian racialism. Coined the phrase "the mulatto escape hatch."

DeVries, James E. Race and Kinship in a Midwestern town: The Black Experience in Monroe, Michigan, 1900-1915 Blacks in the New World. Urbana: University of Illinois, 1984. Shows that White-looking U.S. citizens with known Black ancestry in Michigan were accepted as White in every sense.

Dickerson, Debra J. The End of Blackness: Returning the Souls of Black Folk to Their Rightful Owners. 1st ed. New York: Pantheon, 2004. Exemplifies the perpetuation of counterfactual myths upon which U.S. racialism depends.

Dinnerstein, Leonard, and David M. Reimers. Ethnic Americans: A History of Immigration. 4th ed. New York: Columbia University, 1999. Statistics on intermarriage rates.

Dominguez, Virginia R. White by Definition: Social Classification in Creole Louisiana. New Brunswick NJ: Rutgers University, 1986. The best account of this biracial community.

Dunning, William Archibald. Essays on the Civil War and Reconstruction, and Related Topics. New York: Macmillan, 1904. The emergence of Jim Crow.

Elkins, Stanley M. "Slavery in Capitalist and Non-Capitalist Countries." In Slavery in the New World: A Reader in Comparative History, ed. Laura Foner and Eugene D. Genovese, 8-26. Englewood Cliffs NJ: Prentice-Hall, 1969. Relates slavery to racialism. Short version.

Elkins, Stanley M. Slavery: A Problem in American Institutional and Intellectual Life. 3d, rev. ed. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1959. Relates slavery to racialism. Long version.

Elliott, Michael A. "Telling the Difference: Nineteenth-Century Legal Narratives of Racial Taxonomy." Law and Social Inquiry (1999): 611-36. Study of how U.S. courts assigned people's "racial" membership.

Eltis, David. The Rise of African Slavery in the Americas. Cambridge UK: Cambridge University, 2000. Relates slavery to racialism.

Fabi, M. Giulia. Passing and the Rise of the African American Novel. Urbana: University of Illinois, 2001. Literary explanation of the concept of invisible Blackness.

Fairclough, Adam. Race & Democracy: The Civil Rights Struggle in Louisiana, 1915-1972. Athens: University of Georgia Press, 1995. Mentions the lynching of Italian-Americans before this immigrant group became White.

Feagin, Joe R. Racist America: Roots, Current Realities, and Future Reparations. New York: Routledge, 2000. Exemplifies the intellectual pitfalls of a scholar's subconscious racialism.

Ficker, Douglas J. "From Roberts to Plessy: Educational Segregation and the 'Separate but Equal' Doctrine." Journal of Negro History 84, no. 4 (1999): 301-14. Account of the first (early 19th-century) court case to impose "racial" school segregation (it was at the request of the African-American community).

Fields, Barbara. "Of Rogues and Geldings." American Historical Review 108, no. 5 (2003): 1397-405. Summary of U.S. racialism in historiography.

Finkelman, Paul. "The Color of Law." Northwestern University Law Review 87, no. 3 (1993): 937-91. Although a book review, this report succinctly explains the emergence and maintenance of the U.S. "race" notion.

Finkelman, Paul. "The Crime of Color." Tulane Law Review 67, no. 6 (1992): 2063-2112. Outstanding summary of U.S. laws, both statutory and caselaw, that imposed inequitable burdens on non-White U.S. citizens. Focuses on period between colonial Chesapeake and the advent of Jim Crow.

Foner, Eric. Reconstruction: America's Unfinished Revolution. New York: Harper & Row, 1988. The definitive narrative of the collapse of U.S. "racial" equality after the Civil War, due to an even stronger and more widespread embrace of the endogamous color line than before the war.

Foner, Laura. "Free People of Color in Louisiana and St. Domingue: A Comparative Portrait of Two Three-Caste Societies." Journal of Social History 3, no. 4 (1970): 406-30. Summary of the Creoles, focus on their cultural heritage from Haiti.

Frankenberg, Ruth. White Women, Race Matters: The Social Construction of Whiteness. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1993. Flawed but gender-focused account of contemporary racialism (to Frankenberg, Jews are White but Hispanics are not).

Franklin, John Hope. From Slavery to Freedom. [1st ] ed. New York: A. A. Knopf, 1947. Shows that antebellum B/W exogamy in the Lower South was higher than in the free states.

Frazier, Edward Franklin. The Negro Family in the United States. Rev. and abridged ed. Chicago: University of Chicago, 1966. Argues that "the pathology of the Black family" traces to slavery.

Fredrickson, George M. The Black Image in the White Mind: The Debate on Afro-American Character and Destiny, 1817-1914. New York: Harper & Row, 1981. Dated survey of myths across the color line.

Fredrickson, George M. White Supremacy: A Comparative Study in American and South African History. New York: Oxford University, 1981. The difference between three-caste and two-caste systems. Important because three-case systems appeared in every British colony except mainland North America.

Freehling, William W. The Road to Disunion: Secessionists at Bay 1776-1854. New York: Oxford University, 1990. Demonstrates that slave owners, and the slave system itself, saw African Americans (free or slave) as having no more rights than did livestock. (thus explaining Dred Scott).

Gates, H.L. Loose Canons: Notes on the Culture Wars. New York: Oxford University, 1992. Shows how other cultures perceive "otherness" (to this day, some Englishmen sincerely believed that they can spot an Irishman trying to pass for White).

Gates, Henry Louis. "The Passing of Anatole Broyard." In Thirteen Ways of Looking at a Black man, xxvi, 226. New York: Random House, 1997. Exemplifies the intellectual pitfalls of the scholar's subconscious "racialism." Excoriates Broyard for "pretending to be White" when, in fact, the man had less subsaharan ancestry than many other Americans who self-identify as White.

Genovese, Eugene D. "The Treatment of Slaves in Different Countries: Problems in the Application of the Comparative Method." In Slavery in the New World: A Reader in Comparative History, ed. Laura Foner and Eugene D. Genovese, 202-10. Englewood Cliffs NJ: Prentice-Hall, 1969. Comparative account of the acceptance of former slaves into White society.

Gerber, David A. The Making of an American Pluralism: Buffalo, New York, 1825-1860 Statue of Liberty--Ellis Island Centennial series. Urbana: University of Illinois, 1989. Shows how the U.S. "race" notion was affected by German immigration.

Gerstle, Gary. American Crucible: Race and Nation in the Twentieth Century. Princeton: Princeton University, 2001. How U.S. racialism maintained an endogamous color line that ostracized from the fruits of society an enclave comprising U.S. citizens of mainly African appearance.

Gilanshah, Bijan. "Multiracial Minorities: Erasing the Color Line." Law and Inequality 12 (1993): 183. Argues that the political ideology of multiracialism weakens the U.S. endogamous color line.

Gladwell, Malcolm. "Black Like Them." The New Yorker, April 29 1996. Compares the British West Indian view of "race" with that of African Americans.

Gleason, Phillip. "Minorities (Almost) All: The Minority Concept in American Social Thought." American Quarterly 43, no. 3 (1991): 392-424. Explanation of why the term "minority" is deliberated crafted to be ambiguous for political ends.

Goodman, Mary Ellen. The Culture of Childhood: Child's-Eye Views of Society and Culture. New York: Columbia University, 1970. Tells how U.S. children learn the U.S. version of the "race" notion.

Goodwyn, Lawrence. Democratic Promise: The Populist Moment in America. New York: Oxford University, 1976. Tells how the late 19th-century Populist movement originally rejected racialism but then embraced it.

Gordon, Milton M. Assimilation in American Life: The Role of Race, Religion, and National Origins. New York: Oxford University, 1964. Delineates the difference between "race" (or "caste," as he calls it) and class.

Gordon-Reed, Annette. Thomas Jefferson and Sally Hemings: An American Controversy. Charlottesville: University of Virginia, 1997. Shows that Eston Hemings was socially accepted as a White Virginian after his manumission.

Gorn, Elliott J. "'Good-Bye Boys, I Die a True American': Homicide, Nativism, and Working-Class Culture in Antebellum New York City." The Journal of American History 74, no. 2 (1987): 388-410. Account of the formation of ethnicities in the Jacksonian northeast as political voting blocs--violent ones.

Gossett, Thomas F. Race: The History of an Idea in America. New ed. Race and American culture. New York: Oxford University, 1997. One of four outstanding accounts of the invention and perpetuation of the unique U.S. version of the "race" notion.

Gotanda, Neil. "A Critique of 'Our Constitution is Color-Blind'." Stanford Law Review 44, no. 1 (1991): 1-68. Tells of U.S. Congress’s present unwillingness to legislate endogamous group membership criteria for federal affirmative action programs despite strong pleas for such standards from those who must litigate claims.

Gould, Virginia Meacham. "The Free Creoles of Color of the Antebellum Gulf Ports of Mobile and Pensacola: A Struggle for the Middle Ground." In Creoles of Color of the Gulf South, ed. James H. Dormon, 28-50. Knoxville: University of Tennessee, 1996. Tells of the emigration of Creoles consequent to the Anglo-American imposition of a single color line.

Graham, Lawrence. Our Kind of People: Inside America's Black Upper Class. New York: HarperCollins, 1999. Idiosyncratic but entertaining account of the customs of today's Black upper crust.

Graham, Thomas. The Awakening of St. Augustine. St. Augustine: St. Augustine Historical Society, 1978. Shows that incoming Americans after Florida's acquisition by the U.S. initially saw all Hispanics as "niggers."

Graves, Rachel. "Forgotten Culture: Ignored by Society, Black Mexicans Deny Their History." Houston Chronicle, July 3 2004. Explains that today's Mexicans counterfactually deny African ancestry due to the social assimilation of former slaves.

Gross, Ariela J. "Litigating Whiteness: Trials of Racial Determination in the Nineteenth-Century South." Yale Law Journal 108, no. 1 (1998): 109-188. Study of U.S. court cases showing the gradual change in criteria used to assign someone to one side or the other of the color line.

Gutman, Herbert George. The Black Family in Slavery and Freedom, 1750-1925. New York: Pantheon Books, 1976. Reaction against Frazier. Portrays the Black family as strong and unhurt by slavery.

Gutman, Herbert George. Work, Culture, and Society in Industrializing America: Essays in American Working-Class and Social History. 1st ed. New York: Knopf, 1976.

Hacker, Andrew. Two Nations: Black and White, Separate, Hostile, Unequal. New York: Ballantine, 1995. The latest statistical survey of U.S. Black/White inequality.

Hall, Gwendolyn Midlo. Africans in Colonial Louisiana: The Development of Afro-Creole Culture in the Eighteenth Century. Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University, 1992. Account of the early formation of the three-caste system of the Gulf Coast.

Hancock, Scott. "The Elusive Boundaries of Blackness: Identity Formation in Antebellum Boston." Journal of Negro History 84, no. 2 (1999): 115-29. Account of the formation of African-American ethnicity in the Jacksonian northeast as a political voting bloc.

Handlin, Oscar, and Mary F. Handlin. "Origins of the Southern Labor System." William and Mary Quarterly 7, no. 2 (1950): 199-222. Early study of the pre-color-line Chesapeake. Now superseded by Breen and Innes.

Handlin, Oscar. Boston's Immigrants, 1790-1880. Rev. and enl. ed. Cambridge MA: Harvard University, 1959. Shows that Irish immigrants were not seen as White, and so intermarried with Blacks.

Haney-Lopez, Ian F. White by Law: The Legal Construction of Race. New York: New York University, 1996. Definitive tabulation of U.S. Supreme Court cases ruling whether this immigrant group or that was White, and so eligible to apply for naturalization.

Hanger, Kimberly S. "Origins of New Orleans Free Creoles of Color." In Creoles of Color of the Gulf South, ed. James H. Dormon, 1-27. Knoxville: University of Tennessee, 1996. Account of the formation of New Orleans' three-caste system.

Hanger, Kimberly S. A Medley of Cultures: Louisiana History at the Cabildo. New Orleans: Louisiana Museum Foundation, 1996. Account of the civil war that erupted in 1870s Louisiana during the collapse of Reconstruction.

Hannaford, Ivan. Race: The History of an Idea in the West. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University, 1996. One of four outstanding accounts of the invention and perpetuation of the "race" notion.

Harris, Marvin. "The Myth of the Friendly Master." In Slavery in the New World, ed. Laura Foner and Eugene D. Genovese, 38-47. Englewood Cliffs NJ: Prentice-Hall, 1969. Argues that slavery was just as harsh in Latin America as in North America. (For some reason, studies of comparative racialism usually degenerate to arguments over comparative harshness of slavery.)

Harris, Marvin. Patterns of Race in the Americas. Westport CT: Greenwood, 1964. Definitive work showing how Latin American racialism differs from U.S. racialism. Coined the term "hypodescent."

Haynes, Monica L. "Passing: How Posing as White Became a Choice for Many Black Americans." Post-Gazette, Oct. 26 2003, Lifstyle, 1. Tries to be non-judgmental but basically argues that any White person who knows of African ancestry is betraying his "race" by not self-identifying as Black. This is important because the argument makes sense to many if not most in the United States, but is seen as psychotic everywhere else.

Heinegg, Paul. Free African Americans of Maryland and Delaware from the Colonial Period to 1810. Baltimore: Genealogy Publishing, 2000. Detailed family genealogies tracing Afro-Euro-Amerind intermixing in most colonial families. Endorsed by Ira Berlin.

Hening, William Waller. The Statutes at Large: Being a Collection of all the Laws of Virginia, from the First Session of the Legislature in the Year 1619. Richmond [Va.]: Printed by and for Samuel Pleasants Junior printer to the Commonwealth, 1809. Primary source for early Chesapeake statutes.

Herskovits, Melville J. The Anthropometry of the American Negro. New York: Columbia University, 1930. An early photographic study showing the heredity of racialized physical traits.

Hickman, Christine. "The Devil and the One Drop Rule." Michigan Law Review 95, no. 5 (1997): 1161-1265. Argues that the one-drop rule must be enforced because it benefits the African-American community.

Higginbotham, Leon A., Jr., and Barbara K. Kopytoff. "Racial Purity and Interracial Sex in the Law of Colonial and Antebellum Virginia." Georgetown Law Journal 77, no. 6 (1989): 1967-2029. Survey of early Virginia statutes and caselaw defining the endogamous color line.

Hirschfeld, Lawrence A. "Do children have a theory of race?" Cognition 54, no. 2 (1995): 209-52. How U.S. children learn the unique U.S. version of racialism. Short version.

Hirschfeld, Lawrence A. "The Inheritability of Identity: Children's Understanding of the Cultural Biology of Race." Child Development 66, no. 5 (1995b): 1418-37. How U.S. children learn the unique U.S. version of racialism. Short version.

Hirschfeld, Lawrence A. Race in the Making: Cognition, Culture, and the Child's Construction of Human Kinds Learning, development, and conceptual change. London: MIT Press, 1996. How U.S. children learn the unique U.S. version of racialism. Long version.

Hodes, Martha Elizabeth. White Women, Black Men: Illicit Sex in the Nineteenth-Century South. New Haven: Yale University, 1997. Despite the lurid (and inaccurate) title, a serious account of colonial and antebellum intermarriage.

Hoetink, Harry. Caribbean Race Relations: A Study of Two Variants. London: Oxford University, 1971. Definitive work on how/why different cultures can perceive the same person as being obviously, visibly, of different "races."

Hollinger, David A. "Amalgamation and Hypodescent: The Question of Ethnoracial Mixture in the History of the United States." American Historical Review 108, no. 5 (2003): 1363-90. Explains the U.S. one-drop rule.

Holmes, Robyn M. How Young Children Perceive Race. Thousand Oaks CA: Sage, 1995. Popularized explanation of how U.S. children learn the unique U.S. version of racialism.

Holt, Thomas. Black Over White: Negro Political Leadership in South Carolina During Reconstruction Blacks in the New World. Urbana: University of Illinois, 1977. Details the collapse of South Carolina's wealth-based color line and its importation from the north of an ethnic-identity-based color line.

Howe, William Wirt. "Roman and Civil Law in America." Harvard Law Review 16 (1903): 142-58. Discusses the three-caste system of the Gulf Coast.

Ignatiev, Noel. How the Irish Became White. New York: Routledge, 1995. Definitive study of how Irish Americans went from being seen as non-White to White.

Jacobson, Matthew Frye. Whiteness of a Different Color: European Immigrants and the Alchemy of Race. Cambridge: Harvard University, 1998. The best overall survey of originally non-White immigrant groups' generational acceptance into White U.S. society.

James, C. L. R. The Black Jacobins: Toussaint L'Ouverture and the San Domingo Revolution. 2d , rev. ed. New York: Vintage Books, 1989. Flawed, but the only available account of how the French in Haiti saw "racial" membership.

Jefferson, Thomas, Andrew Adgate Lipscomb, Albert Ellery Bergh, and Richard Holland Johnston. The Writings of Thomas Jefferson. Washington DC: Thomas Jefferson Memorial Association, 1905. Shows how Jefferson viewed "race," and Jefferson was very influential indeed.

Jervey, Theodore D. The Slave Trade: Slavery and Color. Columbia: The State Company, 1925. Detailed account of the 1895 South Carolina Constitutional Convention that scrapped the old wealth-based color line and adopted a new ethnicity-based color line.

Johnson, James Weldon. Along This Way: The Autobiography of James Weldon Johnson. New York: Da Capo, 1973. Demonstrates that at the height of Jim Crow, Hispanics even of obvious African admixture were seen as White in the South.

Johnson, Michael P., and James L. Roark. Black Masters: A Free Family of Color in the Old South. 1st ed. New York: Norton, 1984. Tightly focused study of the South Carolina slave-owning Mulatto elite.

Johnston, James Hugo. Race Relations in Virginia & Miscegenation in the South, 1776-1860. Amherst: University of Massachusetts, 1970. Monograph on the unfolding of the endogamous color during the period.

Jones, Jacqueline. Labor of Love, Labor of Sorrow: Black women, Work, and the Family From Slavery to the Present. New York: Basic Books, 1985. Reaction against Frazier. Portrays the Black family as strong and unhurt by slavery.

Jones, Kevin. "DNA Study Results." A paper delivered at the Fourth Union: A Melungeon Gathering, Kingsport TN, June 20 2000. Shows that this White community has about 5 percent subsaharan genetic admixture.

Jones, Nicholas A., and Amy Symens Smith. The Two or More Races Population: 2000. Washington: U.S. Census Bureau, 2001. Census 2000 Brief, C2KBR/01-6. Demonstrates that the single sharp U.S. color line is hardening with regards to self-identity.

Jones, Trina. "Shades of Brown: The Law of Skin Color." Duke Law Journal 49, no. 6 (2000b): 1487-1558. Discusses the period in U.S. caselaw when "racial" determination was primarily based on phenotype (rather than on ancestry, association, or ethnic self-identity).

Jordan, Daniel P. Statement on the TJMF Research Committee Report on Thomas Jefferson and Sally Hemings. : Thomas Jefferson Memorial Foundation, Inc., 2000. Shows that Eston Hemings was accepted into White Virginia society after his manumission.

Jordan, Winthrop D. "American Chiaroscuro: The Status and Definition of Mulattoes in the British Colonies." In Slavery in the New World: A Reader in Comparative History, ed. Laura Foner and Eugene D. Genovese, 189-201. Englewood Cliffs NJ: Prentice-Hall, 1969. Explains the differences between B.W.I. and U.S. notions of "race."

Jordan, Winthrop D. The White Man's Burden: Historical Origins of Racism in the United States. New York: Oxford University, 1974. Flawed and outdated, but still useful early account of the rise of U.S. racialism. Short version,

Jordan, Winthrop D. White Over Black: American Attitudes Toward the Negro, 1550-1812. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina, 1968. Flawed and outdated, but still useful early account of the rise of U.S. racialism. Long version,

Katz, Phyllis A. Development of Children's Racial Awareness and Intergroup Attitudes. Washington: National Institute of Education, 1981. How U.S. children learn the U.S. version of the "race" notion.

Kavanaugh, Celeste H. David Levy Yulee: A Man and His Vision. Fernandina FL: Amelia Island Museum of History, 1995. Shows that in 1845 the openly avowed African ancestry of Florida's first U.S. senator was important to northern legislators, but not to southern ones.

Kennedy, N. Brent. The Melungeons, The Resurrection of a Proud People: An Untold Story of Ethnic Cleansing in America. Macon: Mercer University, 1997. Argues that this triracial isolate (maroon) community of the Cumberland Plateau has Turkish cultural roots.

Kennedy, Randall. "Interracial Intimacy." Atlantic Monthly, December 2002, 103-10. Shows that African Americans more strongly oppose intermarriage than do White Americans. Short version.

Kennedy, Randall. Interracial Intimacies: Sex, Marriage, Identity, and Adoption. New York: Pantheon Books, 2003. Shows that African Americans more strongly oppose intermarriage than do White Americans. Long version.

Kingsley, Zephaniah. Balancing Evils Judiciously: The Proslavery Writings of Zephaniah Kingsley Florida History and Culture, ed. Daniel W. Stowell. Gainesville: University of Florida, 2000. The anti-racialism writings of Florida's wealthiest professional slave trader (and congressman), whose wife was Senegalese.

Klein, A. Norman. "West African Unfree Labor Before and After the Rise of the Atlantic Slave Trade." In Slavery in the New World: A Reader in Comparative History, ed. Laura Foner and Eugene D. Genovese, 87-95. Englewood Cliffs NJ: Prentice-Hall, 1969. Shows that indigenous slavery in West Africa lacked an "otherness" component.

Klein, Herbert S. "Anglicanism, Catholicism, and the Negro Slave." In Slavery in the New World: A Reader in Comparative History, ed. Laura Foner and Eugene D. Genovese, 138-166. Englewood Cliffs NJ: Prentice-Hall, 1969. Argues that the collapse of the Anglican Church in the colonial Chesapeake (in contrast to its flourishing in Jamaica, Barbados, and Trinidad) is what led to a two-caste system in the North America and a three-caste system in the West Indies.

Klingberg, Frank J. An Appraisal of the Negro in Colonial South Carolina. Philadelphia: Porcupine, 1975. Detailed account of the importation of Barbadian racialism.

Klos, George. "Blacks and the Seminole Removal Debate." In The African American Heritage of Florida, ed. David R. Colburn and Jane L. Landers, 128-56. Gainesville: University of Florida, 1995. Tells how the inability of this triracial isolate (maroon) community to grasp the U.S. color line led to their military destruction.

Knobel, Dale T. Paddy and the Republic: Ethnicity and Nationality in Antebellum America. 1st ed. Middletown CT: Wesleyan University, 1986. Account of the ultimately successful Irish-American effort to become accepted as White.

Koger, Larry. Black Slaveowners: Free Black Slave Masters in South Carolina, 1790-1860. Jefferson NC: McFarland, 1985. Tells of the slave-owning South Carolina Mulatto elite.

Kroeger, Brooke. Passing: When People Can't be Who They Are. New York: Public Affairs, 2003. Useful account of physically White people born into Black families. Flawed only by the author's relentless hostility towards their adopting a White identity matching their appearance as treason to their "race."

Kunkel, Paul A. "Modifications in Louisiana Negro Legal Status Under Louisisana Constitutions, 1812-1957." Journal of Negro History 44 (1959): 1-25. Shows how incoming Anglo-Americans imposed a single color line upon a previously three-caste society.

Kurzban, Robert Owen. "The Social Psychophysics of Cooperation in Groups." Ph.D., University of California, 1998. Shows how to measure each culture's "otherness" recognition as learned in early childhood. Long version.

Kurzban, Robert, John Tooby, and Leda Cosmides. "Can Race be Erased? Coalitional Computation and Social Categorization." Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 98, no. 26 (2001): 15387-15392. Shows how to measure each culture's "otherness" recognition as learned in early childhood. Short version.

Lane, Roger. Roots of Violence in Black Philadelphia, 1860-1900. Cambridge MA: Harvard University, 1986. Definitive study of the first emergence of the urban ghetto Black counter-culture. (Builds upon Du Bois's more famous prior study of the same phenomenon.)

Lapansky, Emma Jones. "'Since They Got Those Separate Churches': Afro-Americans and Racism in Jacksonian Philadelphia." American Quarterly 31, no. 1 (1980): 54-78. Shows the emergence of African-American ethnicity as political voting bloc in the Jacksonian northeast.

Larson, Pier M. "Reconsidering Trauma, Identity, and the African Diaspora: Enslavement and Historical Memory in Nineteenth-Century Highland Madagascar." William and Mary Quarterly 56, no. 2 (1999): 335-62. Shows that Black self-identity did not emerge in the former slave societies of the Indian Ocean.

Levy, Leonard W., and Harlan B. Philips. "The Roberts Case: Source of the "Separate but Equal" Doctrine." American Historical Review 56, no. 3 (1951): 510-8. Account of the first (early 19th-century) court case to impose "racial" school segregation (it was at the request of the African-American community).

Lieberman, Leonard, Rodney C. Kirk, and Alice Littlefield. "Perishing Paradigm: Race--1931-99." American Anthropologist 105, no. 1 (2003): 110-13. Survey of the abandonment of the "race" notion by published physical anthropologists as reflected in their articles.

Litwack, Leon F. Been in the Storm So Long: The Aftermath of Slavery. New York: Random House - Vintage, 1979. The impact of Jim Crow on African Americans in the South.

Litwack, Leon F. North of Slavery: the Negro in the Free States, 1790-1860. Chicago: University of Chicago, 1961. The impact of racialism on the African-American middle class in the free states.

Litwack, Leon F. Trouble in Mind: Black Southerners in the Age of Jim Crow. New York: Vintage Books, 1998. The impact of Jim Crow on African Americans in the South.

Loercher, Diana. "Black Art Exhibit." The Ann Arbor News, July 27 1977, B5. Shows acceptance of John James Audubon as White, despite his having some known subsaharan ancestry.

Loewen, James W. The Mississippi Chinese: Between Black and White Harvard East Asian series, 63. Cambridge MA: Harvard University, 1971. Details the successful Chinese-American effort to become accepted as White in Jim Crow Mississippi.

Love, Edgar F. "Marriage Patterns of Persons of African Descent in a Colonial Mexico City Parish." Hispanic American Historical Review 41, no. 1 (1971): 79-91. Details the genetic assimilation of Afro-descended Mexicans.

Lowenthal, David. "Post-Emancipation Race Relations: Some Caribbean and American Perpectives." Journal of Interamerican Studies and World Affairs 13, no. 3/4 (1971): 367-77. Argues that the B.W.I. three-caste system was strengthened by emancipation. (Does not explain why the unique U.S. two-caste system was also strengthened by emancipation).

Lutz, Christopher. Santiago de Guatemala, 1541-1773: City, Caste, and the Colonial Experience. Norman: University of Oklahoma, 1994. Details the genetic assimilation of Afro-descended Guatemalans.

Lythcott-Haims, Julie C. "Where Do Mixed Babies Belong-Racial Classification in America and Its Implications for Transracial Adoption." Harvard Civil Rights-Civil Liberties Law Review 29 (1994): 531-58. Describes the harmful impact of racial ideology on adoptions.

Mahon, John K. History of the Second Seminole War 1835-1842. revised ed. Gainesville: University of Florida, 1985. Tells how the inability of this triracial isolate (maroon) community to grasp the U.S. color line led to their military destruction. Long version.

Mahon, John K., and Brent R. Weisman. "Florida's Seminole and Miccosukee Peoples." In The New History of Florida, ed. Michael Gannon, 183-206. Gainesville: University of Florida, 1996. Tells how the inability of this triracial isolate (maroon) community to grasp the U.S. color line led to their military destruction. Short version.

Malcomson, Scott L. One Drop of Blood: The American Misadventure of Race. New York: Farrar Straus Giroux, 2000. Popular and idiosyncratic (non-scholarly) account of the imposition of the "race" notion on Native Americans.

Martinez Alcubilla, Marcelo. Codigos antiguos de Espana: coleccion completa de todos los codigos de Espana, desde el Fuero juzgo hasta la Novisima recopilacion, con un glosario de las principales voces anticuadas, notas, bindices parciales y un repertorio general alfabbetico de materias. Madrid: Administracion J. Lopez Comancho Impresor, 1885. Primary source for the race-definition laws that went into the Napoleonic Code (which is still enforced in Louisiana).

Martinez Alier, Verena. Marriage, Class and Colour in Nineteenth-Century Cuba: A Study of Racial Attitudes and Sexual Values in a Slave Society. London: Cambridge University, 1974. Gender-focus account of the acceptance into White society of manumitted slaves.

Miller, Kerby A. Emigrants and Exiles: Ireland and the Irish Exodus to North America. New York: Oxford University, 1985. Shows the initial rejection of Irish immigrants as non-White.

Mills, Gary B. "Miscegenation and the Free Negro in Antebellum 'Anglo' Alabama: A Reexamination of Southern Race Relations." Journal of American History 68, no. 1 (1981): 16-34. Shows that Black/White intermarriage was higher in antebellum Alabama than today's overall U.S. average.

Mills, Gary B. The Forgotten People: Cane River's Creoles of Color. Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University, 1977. Details the most famous Coloured Creole community.

Mintz, Sidney W. "Labor and Sugar in Puerto Rico and Jamaica, 1800-1850." In Slavery in the New World: A Reader in Comparative History, ed. Laura Foner and Eugene D. Genovese, 170-7. Englewood Cliffs NJ: Prentice-Hall, 1969. Shows how the sugar industry strengthened slavery but not the "race" notion in the Caribbean.

Model, Suzanne, and Gene Fisher. "Unions Between Blacks and Whites: England and the U.S. Compared." Ethnic and Racial Studies 25, no. 5 (2002): 728-54. Shows that the UK today (while it may suffer from "racism" in some sense) lacks an endogamous color line.

Morales Padron, Francisco. "La Vida Cotidiana en una Hacienda de Esclavos." Revista del Instituto de Cultura Puertorriquena 4, no. 10 (1961): 23-33. Shows that Puerto Ricans average 50-50 Afro-Euro ancestry. (This is important because 90 percent of Puerto Ricans today check off "White" on the census.)

Morgan, Edmund Sears. American Slavery, American Freedom: The Ordeal of Colonial Virginia. New York: Norton, 1975. Describes the invention of the "race" notion in the 17th-centuiry Chesapeake.

Morner, Magnus. Race Mixture in the History of Latin America. Boston: Little Brown, 1967. Shows that Africans were genetically assimilated everywhere in Latin America.

Murray, Pauli, ed. States' Laws on Race and Color. Athens: University of Georgia, 1997. Definitive primary source for U.S. statutes related "race" as of its publication date.

Myrdal, Gunnar, Richard Mauritz Edvard Sterner, and Arnold Marshall Rose. An American Dilemma: The Negro Problem and Modern Democracy. New York: Pantheon Books, 1972. Seminal study of the U.S. "Race Problem" as of the 1940s.

Napier, Rodney, and Matti K. Gershenfeld. Groups: Theory and Experience. 7th ed. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 2004. Explains why the one-drop rule was used to punish Whites who defended Blacks during Jim Crow.

Nash, Gary B. Red, White, and Black: The Peoples of Early America. 2nd ed. Englewood Cliffs NJ: Prentice-Hall, 1982. Describes how Africans and Native Americans were seen by Europeans as distinct non-White "races" and yet no endogamous color formed between Whites and Native Americans.

O'Neill, Tom. "Untouchables." National Geographic, June 2003, 2-31. Popularized but accurate account of Hindu India's lowest caste.

Opotow, Susan. "Moral Exclusion and Injustice: An Introduction." Journal of Social Issues 46, no. 1 (1990): 1-20. Explains why the one-drop rule was used to punish Whites who defended Blacks during Jim Crow.

Orfield, Gary, and Susan E. Eaton. Dismantling Desegregation: The Quiet Reversal of Brown v. Board of Education. New York: New Press, 1996. Describes the current backlash among African Americans who advocate re-segregation.

O'Toole, James M. "Racial Identity and the Case of Captain Michael Healy, USRCS." Prologue: Quarterly of the National Archives & Records Administration 29, no. 3 (1997). Exemplifies the intellectual pitfalls of a scholar's subconscious racialism. The Healy's were White Irish-Americans with a trace of Black ancestry. Their contemporaries saw them as White. The modern-day author sees them as betraying their true "race."

Perman, Michael. Struggle for Mastery: Disfranchisement in the South, 1888-1908. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina, 2001. The beginnings of Jim Crow.

Pfeiffer, Kathleen. Race Passing and American Individualism. Amherst: University of Massachusetts, 2003. A study questioning why American Scholars advocate self-improvement and social mobility but vilify any Anglo-American with known Black ancestry who self-identifies as White due to looks.

Phillips, Ulrich Bonnell. American Negro Slavery. New York: D. Appleton, 1918. Terribly dated argument that slavery was justified by "racial" inferiority.

Phinney, Jean S., and Mary Jane Rotheram. Children's Ethnic Socialization: Pluralism and Development. Beverly Hills: Sage, 1987. How U.S. children learn the U.S. version of the "race" notion.

Poitrineau, Abel. "Demography and the Political Destiny of Florida During the Second Spanish Period." The Florida Historical Quarterly 66, no. 4 April (1988): 420-443. The imposition of an endogamous color line on a Spanish society.

Polgreen, Lydia. "For Mixed-Race South Africans, Equity is Elusive." The New York Times International, July 27 2003, 3. A popularized account of the South African three-caste system

Pollitzer, William. "The Physical Anthropology and Genetics of Marginal People of the Southeastern United States." American Anthropologist 74, no. 3 (1972): 723-30. A dated study of the triracial isolate (maroon) communities of the U.S. southeast.

Porter, Judith D. R. Black Child, White Child: The Development of Racial Attitudes. Cambridge MA: Harvard University, 1971. How U.S. children learn the U.S. version of the "race" notion.

Porter, Kenneth W. The Black Seminoles. Gainesville: University of Florida, 1996. Focuses on leaders of this triracial isolate (maroon) community who were of mostly African ancestry.

Price, Richard. Maroon Societies: Rebel Slave Communities in the Americas. [1st ] ed. Garden City NY: Anchor Press, 1973. Surveys triracial isolate (maroon) communities throughout the hemisphere.

Rasico, Philip D. The Minorcans of Florida: Their History, Language, and Culture. New Smyrna Beach: Luthers, 1990. Account of a community of mixed-heritage former involuntary laborers who were accepted into society as White.

Richardson, Heather Cox. The Death of Reconstruction: Race, Labor, and Politics in the Post-Civil War North, 1865-1901. Cambridge MA: Harvard University, 2001. Survey of the collapse of Reconstruction and the spread of a single nationwide concept of "race."

Rivara, Frederick P., and Laurence Finberg. "Use of the Terms Race and Ethnicity." Archives of Pediatrics & Adolescent Medicine 155, no. 2 (2001): 119. Explains the usefulness of distinguishing between voluntary and involuntary group membership.

Rivers, Larry Eugene. Slavery in Florida: Territorial Days to Emancipation. Gainesville: University of Florida, 2000. Includes an account of Florida courts resisting the imposition of the Anglo-American single endogamous color line.

Robinson, Eugene. Coal to Cream. New York: The Free Press, 1999. Non-scholarly, but includes a funny illustrative account of the African-American author trying to persuade some brown-complexioned Brazilians that they are actually "Black," during a visit to their country. They thought he was insane. He insists they are in denial.

Rodriguez, Clara E. "Challenging Racial Hegemony: Puerto Ricans in the United States." In Race, ed. Steven Gregory and Roger Sanjek, 131-45. New Brunswick NJ: Rutgers University, 1994. Explains why 90 percent of Puerto Ricans consider themselves White, despite having about 50 percent African ancestry.

Roediger, David R. The Wages of Whiteness: Race and the Making of the American Working Class. London: Verso, 1991. Tells how the "race" notion stifled working class solidarity in the mid-1800s.

Root, Maria P.P. "Resolving 'Other' Status: Identity Development of Biracial Individuals." Women and Therapy 9 (1990): 185-205. Shows that youngsters who consider themselves White despite having a Black grandparent are psychologically well adjusted.

Rothman, Joshua D. Notorious in the Neighborhood: Sex and Families Across the Color Line in Virginia, 1787-1861. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina, 2003. The most detailed account available of the permeability of the endogamous color line in early 19th-century Virginia.

Rout, Leslie B. The African Experience in Spanish America, 1502 to the Present Day Cambridge Latin American studies ; 23. Cambridge UK: Cambridge University, 1976. The most tightly focused account of the assimilation of Afro-descended Latin Americans. Marred only by its judgmental tone that out-marriage was harmful to "racial" solidarity.

Russell, Kathy, Midge Wilson, and Ronald E. Hall. The Color Complex: The Politics of Skin Color Among African Americans. 1st ed. New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, 1992. A discussion of colorism within the African American community.

Salazar, Lila E. Love Child: A Genealogist's Guide to the Social History of Barbados. St. Michael, Barbados: Family Find, 2000. Detailed account of the exogamous permeability of both color lines (Black-to-Coloured and Coloured-to-White) in Barbados.

Sanjek, Roger. "Intermarriage and the Future of Races in the United States." In Race, ed. Steven Gregory and Roger Sanjek, 103-30. New Brunswick NJ: Rutgers University, 1994. Explains the importance of intermarriage statistics to assessing the strength of the U.S. "race" notion.

Schafer, Daniel L. Anna Kingsley. St. Augustine: St. Augustine Historical Society, 1994. An account of the wealthiest, most famous female professional slave trader in antebellum Florida. She was from Senegal.

Schafer, Judith Kelleher. Becoming Free, Remaining Free: Manumission and Enslavement in New Orleans, 1846-1862. Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University, 2003. Describes the destructions of the intermediate Coloured caste, which formed when a rise in manumissions consequent to Spanish rule in the 1760s dented but did not break the Black-to-Coloured color line.

Schultz, Mark R. "Interracial Kinship Ties and the Emergence of a Rural Black Middle Class." In Georgia in Black and White: Explorations in the Race Relations of a Southern State, 1865-1950, ed. John C. Inscoe`, 141-72. Athens GA: University of Georgia, 1994. Shows how "race" was perceived in antebellum Georgia was influenced by South Carolina. In short, if your father was White and you were also personally rich, then you were White, too, regardless of your mother.

Schweninger, Loren. "Socioeconomic Dynamics among the Gulf Creoles." In Creoles of Color of the Gulf South, ed. James H. Dormon. Knoxville: University of Tennessee, 1996. Shows the wealth of the intermediate caste.

Sharfstein, Daniel J. "The Secret History of Race in the United States." Yale Law Journal 112, no. 6 (2003): 1473-1509. Similar to Finkelman, an account of race-related court cases. Like Finkelman, considers Hudgins v. Wrights, 1806 Virginia, as precedent-setting but ignores both Gobu v. Gobu, 1802 North Carolina, and Adelle v. Beauregard, 1810 Louisiana.

Sider, Gerald M. Lumbee Indian Histories: Race, Ethnicity, and Indian Identity in the Southern United States Culture and class in anthropology and history ; v. 2. Cambridge UK: Cambridge University, 1993. Tells of this triracial isolate (maroon) community of Robeson County, North Carolina.

Sio, Arnold A. "Marginality and Free Coloured Identity in Caribbean Slave Society." In Caribbean Slave Society and Economy: A Student Reader, ed. Hilary Beckles and Verene Shepherd, 150-59. New York: New Press, 1991. Introduction to "race" in the B.W.I.

Skidmore, Thomas E. "Racial Mixture and Affirmative Action: The Cases of Brazil and the United States." American Historical Review 108, no. 5 (2003): 1391-6. Compares Brazilian and U.S. concepts of "race."

Smedley, Audrey. Race in North America: Origin and Evolution of a Worldview. 2nd ed. Boulder: Westview, 1999. One of four outstanding accounts of the invention and perpetuation of the unique U.S. version of the "race" notion.

Smith, John David. Black Voices From Reconstruction. Gainesville: University of Florida, 1997.

Sollors, Werner. Neither Black Nor White Yet Both. Cambridge: Harvard university, 1997. Comprehensive survey of literary perceptions of the U.S. color line.

Sollors, Werner. The Invention of Ethnicity. New York: Oxford University, 1989. Collection of essays on ethnicity formation.

Sollors, Werner. Theories of Ethnicity: A Classical Reader. Washington Square NY: New York University, 1996. A collection of the definitive theories of ethnicity formation, all in one binding.

Sowell, Thomas. Ethnic America: A History. New York: Basic Books, 1981. Intermarriage statistics.

Stephenson, Gilbert Thomas. Race Distinctions in American Law. New York: AMS Press, 1910. Primary source for race-related statutes as of its publication date.

Sterkx, H. E. The Free Negro in Ante-Bellum Louisiana. Cranbury NJ: Associated University Presses, 1972. The upward mobility (or lack of it) of former slaves into the intermediate Coloured Creole caste.

Sterling, Dorothy, ed. The Trouble They Seen: The Story of Reconstruction in the Words of African Americans. New York: Da Capo, 1994. Primary source material for the collapse of Reconstruction.

Stocking, George W. Race, Culture, and Evolution: Essays in the History of Anthropology. New York,: Free Press, 1968. Interesting historical account of how anthropologists changed their view of "race" throughout the 20th century.

Stone, Ferdinand. "The Law with a Difference and How it Came About." In The Past as Prelude: New Orleans, 1718-1968, ed. Hodding Carter, 42-70. New Orleans: Tulane University, 1968. How Coloured Creoles went from not being seen as "free Blacks" to their re-definition consequent to the imposition of a single color line.

Sweet, Frank W. Legal History of the Color Line: The Rise and Triumph of the One-Drop Rule. Palm Coast: Backintyme, 2005. This analysis of the nearly 300 appealed court cases that determined Americans' "raciak" identity may be the most thorough study of the legal history of the U.S. color line yet published.

Tannenbaum, Frank. Slave and Citizen, the Negro in the Americas. Boston: Beacon Press, 1946. The definitive work on Latin American racialism.

Tenzer, Lawrence Raymond. The Forgotten Cause of the Civil War: A New Look at the Slavery Issue. Manahawkin NJ: Scholars' Pub. House, 1997. Primary source material showing thousands of genetically White (but legally enslaved due to matrilineal descent) slaves in the antebellum South.

Thernstrom, Stephan, Ann Orlov, and Oscar Handlin, eds. Harvard Encyclopedia of American Ethnic Groups. Cambridge MA: Belknap, 1980. Reference source for ethnicity.

Thomas, Hugh. The Slave Trade: The Story of the Atlantic Slave Trade: 1440-1870. New York: Simon and Schuster, 1997. Reference source for transatlantic slave trade statistics.

Thornton, John Kelly. Africa and Africans in the Making of the Atlantic World, 1400-1800. 2nd ed. New York: Cambridge University, 1998. The cultural impact of Africans on New World societies.

Tindall, George Brown. South Carolina Negroes, 1877-1900. Columbia: University of South Carolina, 1952; reissued 2003 with a new introduction by the author. Detailed account of the 1895 South Carolina Constitutional Convention that scrapped the old wealth-based color line and adopted a new ethnicity-based color line.

Tocqueville, Alexis de. Democracy in America. New York: Harper & Row, 1966. First-hand source material that the perception of "race" was much stronger in the free states than in the slave states.

Trollope, Anthony, and Fred D'Aguiar. The West Indies and the Spanish Main. New York: Carroll & Graf, 1999. First-hand account of the three-caste systems of the B.W.I. as of mid-19th century.

Tucker, M. Belinda, and Claudia Mitchell-Kernan. "New Trends in Black American Interracial Marriage: The Social Structural Context." Journal of Marriage and the Family 52, no. 1 (1990): 209-218. Argues the importance of intermarriage statistics to assessing the strength of the U.S. color line.

Ullman, Victor. Martin R. Delany: The Beginnings of Black Nationalism. Boston,: Beacon, 1971. Biography of one of the men who invented African-American ethnicity,

Van Ausdale, Debra, and Joe R. Feagin. The First R: How Children Learn Race and Racism. Lanham MD: Rowman & Littlefield, 2001. Single-school monograph that details how young children learn race step by step.

Voegeli, V. Jacque. Free But Not Equal: The Midwest and the Negro During the Civil War. Chicago: University of Chicago, 1967. Details the harsh color line of the antebellum midwest.

Wade, Peter. Blackness and Race mixture: The Dynamics of Racial Identity in Colombia Johns Hopkins Studies in Atlantic History and Culture. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University, 1993. Details the genetic assimilation of Afro-descended Colombians.

Wadlington, Walter. "The Loving Case: Virginia's Anti-Miscegenation Statute in Historical Perspective." Virginia Law Review 52, no. 7 (1966): 1189-1223. Convincingly argues that Loving was more seminal than Brown in softening U.S. racism.

Warren, Jonathan W., and France Winddance Twine. "White Americans, the New Minority?" Journal of Black Studies 28, no. 2 (1997): 200-218. Essential explanation of the intersection between the U.S. concepts of "race" and "ethnicity." Argues convincingly that immigrants are accepted as White only when they learn to display contempt towards Blacks.

Waters, Mary C. Black Identities: West Indian Immigrant Dreams and American Realities. New York: Harvard University, 1999. Details the generational assimilation of British West Indian immigrants into the African-American community.

Waters, Mary C. Ethnic Options: Choosing Identities in America. Berkeley: University of California, 1990. Comprehensive analysis of how Americans self-identify on the census "ethnicity" question. (Not the "race" question; the "ethnicity" question appears only on the long form.)

Watson, Graham. Passing for White: A Study of Racial Assimilation in a South African School. London: Tavistock, 1970. Demonstrates the rhetorical ambiguity of South African "racial" classification, even at the height of Apartheid.

Wikramanayake, Marina. A World in Shadow: The Free Black in Antebellum South Carolina Tricentennial studies, no. 7. Columbia: University of South Carolina, 1973. Summary of the wealth-based color line of antebellum South Caarolina.

William Harlan Gilbert, Jr. "Memorandum Concerning the Characteristics of the Larger Mixed-Blood Racial Islands of the Eastern United States." Social Forces 24, no. 4 (1946): 438-47. Study of the triracial isolate (maroon) communities of the U.S. southeast.

Williams, Richard. Hierarchical Structures and Social Value: The Creation of Black and Irish Identities in the United States. Cambridge UK: Cambridge University, 1990. Tells how the Irish strove to become accepted as White.

Williamson, Joel. After Slavery: The Negro in South Carolina During Reconstruction, 1861-77. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina, 1965. The author's theory as to why the Jim Crow wave of state-sponsored disfranchisement, terrorism, and murder happened. Long version.

Williamson, Joel. New People: Miscegenation and Mulattoes in the United States. New York: Free Press, 1980. Short survey of African-American history focusing on Americans of dual ancestry.

Williamson, Joel. The Crucible of Race: Black/White Relations in the American South Since Emancipation. New York: Oxford University, 1984. The author's theory as to why the Jim Crow wave of state-sponsored disfranchisement, terrorism, and murder happened. Short version.

Winkler, Wayne. Walking Toward the Sunset: The Melungeons of Appalachia. 1st ed. Macon GA: Mercer University, 2004. The most scholarly account of this triracial isolate (maroon) community of the Cumberland Plateau.

Wood, Peter H. Black Majority: Negroes in Colonial South Carolina From 1670 Through the Stono Rebellion. 1st ed. New York: Knopf, 1974. The emergence of a Barbadian concept of "race" in early colonial South Carolina.

Woodson, Carter G. "The Negroes of Cincinnati Prior to the Civil War." The Journal of Negro History 1, no. 1 (1916): 1-22. The most detailed account of the abrupt exile of Cincinnati's middle-class African Americans and their flight to Canada.

Woodward, C. Vann. The Strange Career of Jim Crow. 3d rev. ed. New York: Oxford University, 1974. Dated but important account of the details of the Jim Crow era.

Wright, Luther, Jr. "Who's Black, Who's White, and Who Cares: Reconceptualizing the United States's Definition of Race and Racial Classifications." Vanderbilt Law Review 48, no. 2 (1995): 513-70. Discusses contradictory federal regulations as to "racial" identity.

Xie, Yu, and Kimberly Goyette. "The Racial Identification of Biracial Children with One Asian Parent: Evidence from the 1990 Census." Social Forces 76, no. 2 (1997): 547-70. Shows that, while children of Black/White mixed marriages are almost always deemed Black by their parents as well as by White society, the children of Asian/White mixed marriages are almost always deemed White.

Yanez, Barbara. "Taking a Closer Look at the 'One Drop Rule': An Interview with Frank Sweet." Mulatto Nation Times, July 2004. Summarizes the history of the U.S. color line in question-and-answer format.

Yiannopoulos, A. N. "The Early Sources of Louisiana Law: Critical Appraisal of a Controversy." In An Uncommon Experience: Law and Judicial Institutions in Louisiana, 1803-2003, ed. Judith Kelleher Schafer and Warren M. Billings, 93-108. Lafayette: University of Southwestern Louisiana, 1997. Describes how Louisiana courts initially resisted the Anglo-American imposition of a single color line..

Zack, Naomi. Thinking About Race. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth, 1998. An introductory student text on the "race" notion by a philosophy professor.