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- Archaea : A major group of numerous microorganisms fundamentally different from the bacteria and including many chemolithotrophs and extremophiles.
- Bacterial cell structure : Morphological and genetic features of unicellular prokaryotic organisms characterized by the lack of a membrane-bound nucleus and membrane-bound organelles.
- Bacteria : A major group of single-celled microorganisms.
- Biology : The science of life — of complex, self-organizing, information-processing systems living in the past, present or future.
- Cell (biology) : The basic unit of life, consisting of biochemical networks enclosed by a membrane.
- Cellular respiration : A series of metabolic processes by which living cells produce energy through the oxidation of organic substances.
- Chloroplast : The green organelles found in many higher plant cells and protists. Internal thylakoid membranes contain chlorophyll where photosynthesis takes place.
- Endosymbiotic theory : Theory on the origins of mitochondria and plastids (e.g. chloroplasts), which are organelles of eukaryotic cells.
- Eukaryote : An organism that is composed of one or more cells containing cell nuclei.
- Evolution : A change over time in the proportions of individual organisms differing genetically.
- Glycolysis : A biochemical pathway by which a molecule of glucose is oxidized to two molecules of pyruvate.
- Halobacterium NRC-1 : A microorganism from the Archaea kingdom perfectly suited for life in highly saline environments giving biologists an ideal specimen for genetic studies.
- Horizontal gene transfer in prokaryotes : Horizontal gene transfer (HGT; also called lateral gene transfer, LGT) is defined as movement of genes between different species, or across broad taxonomic categories. Prokaryotes are cells, such as bacteria, that do not have a nucleus enclosed by a nuclear membrae. Their DNA is in a region of the cell called the nucleiod, or nucleus-like material.
- Horizontal gene transfer : Transfer of genetic material to a being other than one of the donor's offspring.
- Microbial metabolism : The means by which a microbe obtains the energy and nutrients (e.g. carbon) it needs to live and propagate.
- Microbiology : The study of microorganisms (overlapping with areas of virology, bacteriology, mycology, and parasitology).
- Microorganism : A 'germ', an organism that is too small to be seen individually with the naked eye.
- Mitochondrion : Structure, function, life cycle and evolutionary theories involving the origins and role of the mitochondrion.
- Model organism : Species often used in research as models for the study of biological processes.
- Organism : An individual living individual: a complex, adaptive physical system that acts a integrated unit that sustains metabolism and reproduces progeny that resemble it.
- Prokaryote phylogeny and evolution : History of the origins of prokaryotes and the evolutionary processes that have affected bacteria.
- RNA world hypothesis : Proposes that a world filled with life based on ribonucleic acid (RNA) predated current life based on deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA).
- Species (biology) : A fundamental unit of biological classification - a set of individual organisms that produce fertile offspring.
- Targeted gene replacement : Technique in which cloned DNA is introduced into mammalian stem cell culture, via gene modification in vitro.
- Taxonomy of Archaea domain : Is a taxonomic list of Archaea domain based on Garrity et al. (2007) and Euzeby (2008).
- Treponema pallidum : The pathogen, a spirochete, which causes the infectious disease, syphilis.
- Virus (biology) : A microscopic particle that can infect the cells of a biological organism and can reproduce only with the assistance of the cells it infects.