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A list of key readings about Papacy.
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  • Catholic Encyclopedia, "The Pope" (1913) online edition many articles on related topics
  • Coppa, Frank J., ed. Encyclopedia of the Vatican and Papacy. Greenwood, 1998. 473 pp.
  • Duffy, Eamon. Saints and Sinners: A History of the Popes, (3rd ed 2006), 496pp; Yale University Press; heavily illustrated history by leading Catholic scholar
  • LaDue, William J. The Chair of Saint Peter: A History of the Papacy. Orbis Books, 1999. 374 pp.
  • Levillain, Philippe, ed. The Papacy: An Encyclopedia. Routledge, 2001. 1780 pp.
  • New Catholic 'Encyclopedia (1967), numerous articles
  • Steimer, Bruno and Parker, Michael G., ed. Dictionary of Popes and the Papacy. Crossroad, 2001. 278 pp.

Specialized studies

  • Baumgartner, Frederic J. Behind Locked Doors: A History of the Papal Elections. Palgrave Macmillan, 2003. 272 pp.
  • Brown, Peter. The Rise of Western Christendom: Triumph and Diversity 200-1000 AD (2002), 640pp
  • Ralph J. Capio; "The Papacy: A Case Study in Organizational Longevity," Journal of European Studies, Vol. 26, 1996. online edition
  • Carlen, Claudia. ed. Papal Pronouncements, a Guide, 1740-1978: Vol. 1: Benedict XIV to Paul VI. and Papal Pronouncements, a Guide, 1740-1978: Vol. 2: Paul VI to John Paul I. Pierian, 1990.
  • Chadwick, Owen. The Popes and European Revolution. Oxford U. Press, 1981. 646 pp.
  • Daniel-Rops, Henri. The Church in the Eighteenth Century (1964)
  • Daniel-Rops, Henri. The Church in an Age of Revolution (1965).
  • Frommel, Christoph L. "Papal Policy: The Planning Of Rome During The Renaissance." Journal Of Interdisciplinary History, 1986 17(1): 39-65. Issn: 0022-1953 Fulltext: in Jstor
  • Hales, E. E. Y. Revolution and Papacy, 1769-1846, (1960)
  • Logan, F. Donald. A History of the Church in the Middle Ages. 2002. online edition
  • Mullett, Michael A. The Catholic Reformation, (1999), online edition
  • Pastor, Ludwig von. History of the Popes From the Close of the Middle Ages, (1894-1930), 16 vol, older Catholic history online from
  • Ullmann, Walter. A Short History of the Papacy in the Middle Ages, (2002), 393pp, online edition
  • Wright, A. D. The Early Modern Papacy: From the Council of Trent to the French Revolution 1564-1789. Longman, 2000. 335 pp.

Specific Popes

  • Catholic Encyclopedia, "The Pope" (1913) online edition many articles on all the Popes and related topics
  • Collins, Jeffrey. Papacy and Politics in Eighteenth-Century Rome: Pius VI and the Arts. Cambridge U. Press, 2004. 355 pp.
  • Coppa, Frank J., ed. Great Popes through History: An Encyclopedia. Greenwood, 2002. 600 pp.
  • Gouwens, Kenneth and Reiss, Sheryl E., ed. The Pontificate of Clement VII: History, Politics, Culture. Ashgate, 2005. 437 pp.
  • Kelly, J.N.D. The Oxford Dictionary of Popes (1988). 349pp; scholarly short biographies; online edition

Since 1815

  • Burns, Gene. "The Politics of Ideology: The Papal Struggle with Liberalism." American Journal of Sociology, 1990 95(5): 1123-1152. Issn: 0002-9602 fulltext: in Jstor and Ebsco
  • Camp, Richard L. "From Passive Subordination To Complementary Partnership: The Papal Conception of a Woman's Place in Church and Society since 1878." Catholic Historical Review, 1990 76(3): 506-525. Issn: 0008-8080 Fulltext: in Ebsco
  • Chadwick, Owen. A History of the Popes, 1830-1914. (1998), 616pp; a standard recent history. online edition,
  • Coppa, Frank J. The Modern Papacy since 1789. Longman, 1998. 296 pp.
  • Coppa, Frank J. "Between Anti-Judaism and Anti-Semitism, Pius XI's Response to the Nazi Persecution of the Jews: Precursor to Pius XII's "Silence"?" Journal of Church and State 2005 47(1): 63-89. Issn: 0021-969x Fulltext: in Ebsco
  • Dalin, David. The Myth of Hitler's Pope: Pope Pius XII and His Secret War Against Nazi Germany, Regnery, 2005. 256 pp. ISBN 0895260344
  • Gillis, Chester, ed. The Political Papacy: John Paul II, Benedict XVI, and Their Influence. Paradigm, 2006. 208 pp.
  • Holland, Joe. Modern Catholic Social Teaching: The Popes Confront the Industrial Age 1740-1958. Paulist Press, 2003. 404 pp.
  • Latourette, Kenneth Scott. Christianity in a Revolutionary Age: A History of Christianity in the Nineteenth and Twentieth Centuries 5 Vol (1958), a detailed history of Chritianity 1800-1950 by a fair-minded Protestant scholar. vol 1 online edition
  • Packard, Jerrold M. Peter's Kingdom: Inside the Papal City. Scribner's, 1985. 352 pp.
  • Pollard, John F. Money and the Rise of the Modern Papacy: Financing the Vatican, 1850-1950. Cambridge U. Press, 2005. 265 pp.
  • Pius XI, Mit Brennender Sorge, Vatican City, 1937.
  • Rittner, Carol and Roth, John K., ed. Pope Pius XII and the Holocaust. Leicester U. Press, 2002. 291 pp.