Molecule/Related Articles

From Citizendium, the Citizens' Compendium
Jump to: navigation, search
This article is basically copied from an external source and has not been approved.
Main Article
Related Articles  [?]
Bibliography  [?]
External Links  [?]
Citable Version  [?]
A list of Citizendium articles, and planned articles, about Molecule.
See also changes related to Molecule, or pages that link to Molecule or to this page or whose text contains "Molecule".

Parent topics

  • Chemistry [r]: The science of matter, or of the electrical or electrostatical interactions of matter. [e]


  • Molecular Hamiltonian [r]: Quantum mechanical operator describing the energy associated with motions and interactions of the electrons and nuclei that constitute a molecule. [e]
  • Molecular mass [r]: The mass of a molecule expressed in unified atomic mass units. [e]
  • Intermolecular forces [r]: Non-covalent forces between atoms and molecules; often synonymous with Van der Waals forces. [e]
  • Alcohol [r]: A chemical compound that contains a hydroxy group (OH). [e]
  • Macromolecules [r]: A large molecule exhibiting heavy molecular mass. [e]
    • DNA [r]: A macromolecule — chemically, a nucleic acid — that stores genetic information. [e]
    • RNA [r]: A polymer, made using the nucleotides of adenosine, guanosine, uridine and cytidine, that is used for a variety of biological functions in living systems. [e]
    • Protein [r]: A polymer of amino acids; basic building block of living systems. [e]
  • Water [r]: A chemical compound with one oxygen and two hydrogen atoms (H20). It is often in a liquid form and makes up the bulk of the oceans, lakes, rivers and living organisms. [e]

Other related topics

  • Affinity chromatography [r]: Method to filter a specific molecule out of a solution. [e]
  • Anabolism [r]: Biological processes that build larger molecules from smaller ones, and increase the size of bones, organs and muscles. [e]
  • Angular momentum coupling [r]: The procedure of constructing eigenvectors of a system's angular momentum out of angular momentum eigenvectors of its subsystems. [e]
  • Antigen [r]: A molecule that induces an immune response, such as bee pollen or proteins from viruses or bacteria. [e]
  • Asphalt (petroleum) [r]: A sticky, black and highly viscous liquid or semi-solid that is present in most petroleum crude oils and in some natural deposits. [e]
  • Austria [r]: Federal republic in central Europe (population c. 8.2 million; capital Vienna), bordered to the north by Germany and the Czech Republic; to the south by Italy and Slovenia; to the west by Switzerland and Liechtenstein; and to the east by Hungary and Slovakia. [e]
  • Boiling point [r]: The temperature at which the vapor pressure of the liquid equals the external environmental pressure surrounding the liquid and the liquid initiates boiling. [e]
  • Boltzmann constant [r]: The physical constant relating energy at the particle level with temperature observed at the bulk level. [e]
  • Born-Oppenheimer approximation [r]: A technique in quantum mechanics in which the kinetic energies of nuclei and electrons are calculated separately. [e]
  • Brown Institution [r]: (1871-1944) former veterinary center of research and clinical practice in London. [e]
  • Carbon dioxide [r]: Chemical compound composed of two oxygen atoms covalently bonded to a single carbon atom. [e]
  • Catalytic reforming [r]: A catalytic chemical process that converts petroleum naphthas into high-octane gasoline components. [e]
  • Cell (biology) [r]: The basic unit of life, consisting of biochemical networks enclosed by a membrane. [e]
  • Cellular respiration [r]: A series of metabolic processes by which living cells produce energy through the oxidation of organic substances. [e]
  • Chemical elements [r]: In one sense, refers to species or types of atoms, each species/type distinguished by the number of protons in the nuclei of the atoms belonging to the species/type, each species/type having a unique number of nuclear protons; in another sense, refers to substances, or pieces of matter, each composed of multiple atoms solely of a single species/type. [e]
  • Chemical reaction [r]: A process that transforms one set of chemical substances into another, with the set of substances present at the start of the process being called reactants and the set of substances present at the end being called products. [e]
  • Chromatography [r]: Chemical purification process that separates substances based on differing affinities for other substances. [e]
  • Combustion [r]: A sequence of exothermic chemical reactions between a fuel and an oxidant accompanied by the production of heat or both heat and light in the form of either a glow or flames. [e]
  • Compressibility factor (gases) [r]: A thermodynamic property for modifying the ideal gas law to account for behavior of real gases. [e]
  • Continuous distillation [r]: An ongoing separation process in which a liquid mixture of two or more miscible components is continuously fed into the process and physically separated into two or more products by preferentially boiling the more volatile (i.e., lower boiling point) components out of the mixture. [e]
  • Delayed coking [r]: A petroleum refining process that converts heavy residual oils into petroleum coke and other byproducts. [e]
  • Density (chemistry) [r]: A measure of the mass per unit volume of a gas, liquid or solid. [e]
  • Eckart conditions [r]: Equations describing the conditions under which the vibrations of molecules can be separated from molecular rotations and translations [e]
  • Enzyme [r]: A protein that catalyzes (i.e. accelerate) chemical reactions. [e]
  • Equipartition theorem [r]: A general formula that relates the temperature of a system with its average energies, also known as the law of equipartition, equipartition of energy, or simply equipartition. [e]
  • Exosphere [r]: The uppermost layer of an atmosphere. [e]
  • Fire [r]: The rapid oxidation of a combustible material releasing heat, light, and various reaction products such as carbon dioxide and water. [e]
  • Fluid catalytic cracking [r]: A petroleum refining process that cracks the large hydrocarbon molecules in the portion of the petroleum crude oil boiling above 340 °C into lower boiling, more valuable high octane gasoline and olefinic gases. [e]
  • Force [r]: Vector quantity that tends to produce an acceleration of a body in the direction of its application. [e]
  • Fungus [r]: A eukaryotic organism, classified into the kingdom Fungi, that is heterotrophic and digest their food externally, and may be a yeast, mold, or mushroom. [e]
  • Gas [r]: One of the major states of matter (i.e., gas, liquid, solid and plasma). [e]
  • Genetics [r]: The study of the inheritance of characteristics, genes and DNA. [e]
  • Gene [r]: The functional unit of heredity. [e]
  • Glycolysis [r]: A biochemical pathway by which a molecule of glucose is oxidized to two molecules of pyruvate. [e]
  • History of biology [r]: The study of the development of knowledge and methodology in the study of life. [e]
  • Homeopathy [r]: System of alternative medicine involving administration of highly diluted substances with the intention to stimulate the body's natural healing processes, not considered proven by mainstream science. [e]
  • Hydrocarbons [r]: A class of molecules that contain only carbon and hydrogen atoms. [e]
  • Integer [r]: The positive natural numbers (1, 2, 3, …), their negatives (−1, −2, −3, ...) and the number zero. [e]
  • James Clerk Maxwell [r]: (1831 – 1879) Scottish physicist best known for his formulation of electromagnetic theory and the statistical theory of gases. [e]
  • Johannes Diderik van der Waals [r]: (1837 – 1923) Dutch scientist, proposed the van der Waals equation of state for gases. [e]
  • Life [r]: Living systems, of which biologists seek the commonalities distinguishing them from nonliving systems. [e]
  • Multiple sclerosis [r]: A chronic, inflammatory, demyelinating disease that affects the central nervous system (CNS). [e]
  • Multipole expansion (interaction) [r]: A mathematical series representing a function that depends on angles, and frequently used in the study of electromagnetic, and gravitational fields, where the fields at distant points are given in terms of sources in a small region. [e]
  • NMR spectroscopy [r]: The use of electromagnetic radiation, in the presence of a magnetic field, to obtain information regarding transitions between different nuclear spin states of the nuclei present in the sample of interest. [e]
  • Nucleation [r]: The extremely localized budding of a distinct thermodynamic phase. [e]
  • Orbital hybridisation [r]: The concept of mixing atomic orbitals to form new hybrid orbitals suitable for the qualitative description of atomic bonding properties. [e]
  • Petroleum naphtha [r]: An intermediate hydrocarbon liquid stream derived from the refining of petroleum crude oil and which may be further processed to obtain a gasoline blending component. [e]
  • Petroleum refining processes [r]: The chemical engineering processes used in petroleum refining. [e]
  • Physical chemistry [r]: The application of physics to macroscopic, microscopic, atomic, subatomic, and particulate phenomena in chemical systems within the field of chemistry traditionally using the principles, practices and concepts of thermodynamics, quantum chemistry, statistical mechanics and kinetics. [e]
  • Physics [r]: The study of forces and energies in space and time. [e]
  • Polyatomic ion [r]: An ion consisting of a molecule with covalently bonded atoms or of a metal complex that can be considered to act as a single unit in the context of acid and base chemistry or in the formation of salts (i.e., a group of bonded atoms that act as if they were one). [e]
  • Quantum chemistry [r]: A branch of theoretical chemistry, which applies quantum mechanics and quantum field theory to address issues and problems in chemistry. [e]
  • Quorum sensing [r]: Ability of populations of bacteria to communicate and coordinate their behavior via inter-cellular and inter-species signaling molecules. [e]
  • RNA world hypothesis [r]: Proposes that a world filled with life based on ribonucleic acid (RNA) predated current life based on deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA). [e]
  • Salt and health [r]: Article describing health effects of salt (sodium chloride) in the diet, giving governments' recommendations for consumption. [e]
  • Schrödinger equation [r]: A differential equation of quantum mechanics, describing the spatial and temporal behavior of wave functions. [e]
  • Solid (state of matter) [r]: The state in which matter maintains a fixed volume and shape (is neither a gas nor a liquid). [e]
  • Sulfur dioxide [r]: A colorless gas (SO2) consisting of one atom of sulfur and two atoms of oxygen. [e]
  • Sulfur [r]: A yellowish crystalline chemical element with the symbol S and the atomic number of 16. [e]
  • Temperature [r]: A fundamental quantity in physics - describes how warm or cold a system is. [e]
  • Theoretical chemistry [r]: The description of atoms, molecules and reactions in mathematical form. [e]
  • Unified atomic mass unit [r]: A unit of atomic and molecular mass, the ratio of atomic mass to one twelfth of the mass of carbon 12C at rest in its nuclear and electronic ground state, approximately 1.660 538 921(73) × 10−27 kg . [e]
  • Vacuum distillation [r]: The laboratory or industrial-scale distillation of liquids performed at a pressure lower than atmospheric pressure. [e]
  • Vapor pressure [r]: The pressure of a vapor in equilibrium with its liquid or solid phase. [e]
  • Visbreaking [r]: A chemical engineering process unit used in petroleum refineries that reduces the viscosity of the residual oil from the refinery's atmospheric or vacuum distillation of petroleum crude oil. [e]