From Citizendium, the Citizens' Compendium
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- Acute kidney injury : Formerly termed acute renal failure (ARF), an abrupt (within 48 hours) reduction in kidney function currently defined as an absolute increase in serum creatinine, a percentage increase in serum creatinine , or a reduction in urine output beyond quantitatively defined levels
- Adrenal glands : A pair of glands located at the cranial pole of each of the two kidneys. Each adrenal gland is composed of two distinct endocrine tissues with separate embryonic origins, the adrenal cortex producing glucocorticoids and mineralocorticoids and the adrenal medulla producing neurotransmitters.
- Amanita phalloides : The poisonous Death Cap mushroom, renowned as one of the most toxic of all fungi.
- Amino acid : Biochemical with an amino group, a carboxyl group, a hydrogen atom, and a side chain bonded to a central carbon.
- Angiotensin : Oligopeptides which are important in the regulation of blood pressure (vasoconstriction) and fluid homeostasis via the renin-angiotensin system. These include angiotensins derived naturally from precursor angiotensinogen, and those synthesized.
- Autonomic and endocrine functions and music : Theory that music has therapeutic purposes by interacting with autonomic and endocrine functions.
- Chronic kidney disease : Kidney damage or glomerular filtration rate (GFR) <60 mL/min/1.73 m(2) for 3 months or more, irrespective of cause.
- Diabetes insipidus : Disease caused by a deficiency in the secretion of vasopressin, or by the failure of the kidney to respond to vasopressin.
- Dialysis : A process of selective diffusion through a membrane. It is usually used to separate low-molecular-weight solutes which diffuse through the membrane from the colloidal and high-molecular-weight solutes which do not.
- Diuretic : Agents that promote the excretion of urine through their effects on kidney function.
- Drugs banned from the Olympics : Substances prohibited for use by athletes prior to, and during competing in the Olympics.
- Ebola : A virus that causes severe hemhorragic fever and often death, that is easily spread.
- Emergence (biology) : The exhibition of novel collective phenomena in living systems stemming from a complex organization of their many constituent parts.
- Endocrinology : Generically, the study of glands and the hormonal regulation of physiology; also the subspecialty of internal medicine concerned with diseases of the endocrine system
- Erythropoietin : A protein hormone produced by the kidneys in response to hypoxia; it is essential for normal development and maturation of red blood cells (RBC).
- Fungus : A eukaryotic organism, classified into the kingdom Fungi, that is heterotrophic and digest their food externally, and may be a yeast, mold, or mushroom.
- Gluconeogenesis : Formation of glucose, especially by the liver, from noncarbohydrate precursors, such as amino acids, lactate, pyruvate, and the glycerol portion of fats.
- Glycogen : Polysaccharide that is the main form of carbohydrate storage in animals and occurs primarily in the liver and muscle tissue.
- Gold : Chemical element 79, symbol Au, a lustrous corrosion-resistant precious metal used for money, electronics and jewelry.
- Hemodiafiltration : The combination of hemodialysis and hemofiltration either simultaneously or sequentially.
- Hippurate : A natural metabolite and conjugate base of hippuric acid that serves as a general indicator of kidney function.
- Hormone : A chemical director of biological activity that travels through some portion of the body as a messenger.
- Hypothalamus : A part of the mammalian brain located below the thalamus, forming the major portion of the ventral region of the diencephalon.
- Insulin : Hormone that regulates blood glucose levels.
- Kallikrein-kinin system : System of metabolic interactions by products produced in the distal nephron of the kidney.
- Kinins : These peptides are autacoids that act locally to produce pain, vasodilatation, increased vascular permeability, and the synthesis of prostaglandins.
- Life extension : Medical and non-medical attempts to slow down or reverse the processes of aging, to extend both the maximum and average lifespan.
- Life : Living systems, of which biologists seek the commonalities distinguishing them from nonliving systems.
- Magnocellular neurosecretory cell : Large neuroendocrine neuron in the supraoptic nucleus and paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus that projects to the posterior pituitary gland.
- Mammal : A warm-blooded animal with a backbone which also has hair, and produces milk to feed its young.
- Marcello Malpighi : (1628-1694), Italian scientist who creatively exploited the early microscope as Galileo did the early telescope, discoverer of the capillaries, and regarded as the founder of microscopic anatomy (histology).
- Maximum life span : Measure of the maximum amount of time one or more members of a group has been observed to survive between birth and death.
- Measles : Highly contagious infection of the respiratory system, and maculopapular skin rash, caused by a paramyxovirus of the genus Morbillivirus.
- Natural selection : The differential survival and/or reproduction of classes of entities that differ in one or more characteristics
- Neuroendocrinology : The study of the interactions between the nervous system and the endocrine system.
- Neurotransmitter : A class of chemicals which relay, amplify or modulate electrical signals between a neuron and other cells in the nervous system.
- Oxytocin : A mammalian hormone that is secreted into the bloodstream from the posterior pituitary gland, and which is also released into the brain where it has effects on social behaviors.
- Pain : Unpleasant feeling or hurtful sensation that is conveyed to the brain by stimulation of sensory neurons.
- Pannexin : Member of a vertebrate family of proteins homologous to the invertebrate innexins, present to form channels that allow release of ATP in erythrocytes and taste receptor cells.
- Paraventricular nucleus : Aggregation of neurons in the hypothalamus with important roles in neurendocrine regulation.
- Peptide hormone : A class of chemical messengers, secreted into the blood from endocrine cells, that bind to specific receptors expressed on the plasma membrane of target cells.
- Plasmodium falciparum : Protozoan parasite, one of the species of Plasmodium that cause falciparum malaria in humans, transmitted by the female Anopheles mosquito.
- Pyelonephritis : An inflammation of the kidney and upper urinary tract that usually results from noncontagious bacterial infection of the bladder (cystitis).
- Rejuvenation (aging) : Hypothetical reversal of the aging process, aiming to repair the damage that is associated with aging or replacement of damaged tissue with new tissue.
- Renal dialysis : Therapy for the insufficient cleansing of the blood by the kidneys based on dialysis.
- Renal replacement therapy : Procedures which temporarily or permanently remedy insufficient cleansing of body fluids by the kidneys.
- Renin-angiotensin system : A blood pressure regulating system of interacting components that include renin; angiotensinogen; angiotensin converting enzyme; angiotensin I; angiotensin II; and angiotensinase.
- Septic shock : Serious medical condition caused by decreased tissue perfusion and oxygen delivery as a result of infection and sepsis.
- Snake venom : Highly modified toxic saliva containing hydrolithic enzymes, polypeptide complexs, nucleases, and peptidases, that is produced by special glands of certain species of snakes.
- Supraoptic nucleus : An aggregation in the hypothalamus of magnocellular neurosecretory neurones that project to the posterior pituitary gland, and which secrete the hormones oxytocin and vasopressin
- Systems biology : The study of biological systems as a whole.
- Urinary catheterization : Insertion of a urinary catheter into a patient's bladder via their urethra.
- Urogenital system : Applicable to both biological sexes, the set of organs involved in sexual reproduction and the excretion of urine
- Vasopressin receptor : Cell surface receptors to which vasopressins bind or interact in order to modify the function of the cells. Two types of vasopressin receptor exist, the V1 receptor in the vascular smooth muscle and the V2 receptor in the kidneys.
- Vasopressin : A hormone also called (arginine vasopressin, (AVP); formerly known as antidiuretic hormone, ADH), produced in the hypothalamus secreted from the posterior pituitary that causes kidneys to concentrate urine to conserve water, also causes vasoconstriction.
- Vitrification : A process of converting a material into a glass-like amorphous solid that is free from any crystalline structure, either by the quick removal or addition of heat, or by mixing with an additive.