James VII and II
James VII and II (1633 - 1701) succeeded his brother Charles II as king of Scotland and England in 1685, having previously been Duke of York. Under Charles he was an active Lord High Admiral of England until legislation prevented him, as a Roman Catholic, from holding office. The English legislation did not prevent him holding office in Scotland, and he appeared there as the king's Commissioner. His policies as king led to the Glorious Revolution of 1688/9, as a result of which he fled the country and was declared to have abandoned the English throne and forfeit the Scottish one. He tried to make a comeback through Ireland, a strongly Catholic country, but was defeated at the Battle of the Boyne. His son James was eventually known as the Old Pretender (i e claimant to the throne), and his grandson Charles, the Young Pretender, was romanticised as Bonnie Prince Charlie.