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Fred Ikle

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Fred C. Iklé is a distinguished scholar at the Center for Strategic and International Studies (CSIS), and has held subcabinet national security posts in a number of Republican administrations. Among his research interests are diplomacy (foreign policy), and the starting and ending of wars, as in the book Every War Must End. He is on the Defense Policy Board, the advisory council for National Interest, a governor of the SmithRichardson Foundation, a director of the U.S. Committee for Human Rights in North Korea, and an advisory board member of the Center for Security Policy. Since 1988, he has been chairman of CMC Energy Services.

Before he joined CSIS in 1988, he undersecretary of defense for policy during both Reagan Administrations. He was director of the U.S. Arms Control and Disarmament Agency in the Ford and Nixon Administrations. He served for nine years as a director of the National Endowment for Democracy, and in 1999-2000 served as commissioner on the National Commission on Terrorism. He was director and chairman of Telos Corporation and director of the advisory board of Zurich Financial Services. In 1987, he cochaired the bipartisan Commission on Integrated Long-Term Strategy, which published Discriminate Deterrence. From 1977 to 1978, he was chairman of the Republican National Committee’s Advisory Council on International Security and, from 1979 to 1980, coordinator of Governor Ronald Reagan’s foreign policy advisers.

From 1964 to 1967, Iklé was a professor of political science at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. He has held positions with the Center for International Affairs at Harvard University, the RAND Corporation, and the Bureau of Applied Social Research at Columbia University.

In 1987, Iklé received the highest civilian award of the Department of Defense, the Distinguished Public Service Medal, and in 1988, he was awarded the Bronze Palm. He has published many articles in Foreign Affairs, Fortune, the National Interest, and op-eds in leading newspapers.