Evolution of appetite regulating systems/Bibliography

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Abbott et al (2000). Investigation of the melanocyte stimulating hormones on food intake. Lack of evidence to support a role for the melanocortin-3-receptor. Brain Res 869:203–10 PMID 10865075.

Amemiya Y et al (1997). Sturgeon proopiomelanocortin has a remnant of gamma-melanotropin. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 230(2):452-6 PMID 9016801.

Batterham RL et al. (2002) Gut hormone PYY3-36 physiologically inhibits food intake. Nature 418:650-654 PMID 12167864.

Cone RD (2005) Anatomy and regulation of the central melanocortin system. Nature Neurosci 8:571-8 PMID 15856065.

Cowley MA et al (2001) Leptin activates anorexigenic POMC neurons through a neural network in the arcuate nucleus. Nature 441:480-4 PMID 11373681.

Cowley MA et al. (2003) The distribution and mechanism of action of ghrelin in the CNS demonstrates a novel hypothalamic circuit regulating energy homeostasis. Neuron 37:649-61 PMID 12597862.

Danielson PB et al (1999) Duplication of the POMC gene in the paddlefish (Polyodon spathula): analysis of gamma-MSH, ACTH, and beta-endorphin regions of ray-finned fish POMC. Gen Comp Endocrinol 116(2):164-77 PMID 10562447. (With the discovery of two POMC genes in one type of Ray-Finned fish (Salmonid), this study analysed the POMC gene expression in Paddlefish, another Ray-Finned Fish, to determine whether POMC gene duplication had occurred. The paddlefish were found to have two POMC genes too, which were cloned and analysed in depth. The two POMC genes were compared with each other, to POMC genes from other fish, and also vertebrates.)

Dhillo WS et al. (2002) Hypothalamic interactions between neuropeptide Y, agouti-related protein, cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript and alpha-melanocytestimulating hormone in vitro in male rats. J Neuroendocrinol 14:725-30 PMID 12213133.

Dores RM et al (1999). Cloning of a proopiomelanocortin cDNA from the pituitary of the Australian lungfish, Neoceratodus forsteri: analyzing trends in the organization of this prohormone precursor. Gen Comp Endocrinol 116(3):433-44 PMID 10603281.

Dores RM et al. (2005) Trends in the evolution of the proopoimelanocortin gene. Gen Comp Endocrinol 142(1-2):81-93 PMID 15862552. (This review specifically traces the evolution of the POMC gene. It provides a very useful overview of the gene and end-product variation between sub-classes..."In Phylum Chordata this gene has been characterized in representatives of every class within the Gnathostomata, as well as in one representative agnathan vertebrate, the marine lamprey.")

Fan W et al. (2004) Cholecystokinin-mediated suppression of feeding involves the brainstem melanocortin system. Nature Neurosci 7(4):335-336 PMID 15034587.

Garcia de Yebenes E et al. (1995) Regulation of proopiomelanocortin gene expression by neuropeptide Y in the rat arcuate nucleus. Brain Research 674:112-116 PMID 7773678.

Grigoriev VV et al. (2009) Effect of Corticotropin-Like Intermediate Lobe Peptide on Presynaptic and Postsynaptic Glutamate Receptors and Postsynaptic GABA Receptors in Rat Brain Bull Exp Biol Med 147(3):319-22 PMID 19529852.

Halabe Bucay A. (2008) The role of lipotropins as hematopoietic factors and their potential therapeutic use. Exp Hematol 36(6):752-4 PMID 18358591.

Kawauchi H et al. (2006) The dawn and evolution of hormones in the adenohypophysis. Gen Comp Endocrinol 148(1): 3-14 PMID 16356498. (This review article summarises the origins and evolution of several anterior pituitary hormones. It compares and contrasts these genes in various sub-classes of Phylum Chordata.)

Kitahara N et al (1988). Absence of a gamma-melanocyte-stimulating hormone sequence in proopiomelanocortin mRNA of chum salmon Oncorhynchus keta. Comp Biochem Physiol B 91(2):365-70 PMID 3197404.

Kojima M et al. (1999) Ghrelin is a growth-hormone-releasing acylated from stomach. Nature 402:656–60 PMID 10604470.

Lee YS et al. (2006) A POMC variant implicates beta-melanocyte-stimulating hormone in the control of human energy balance. Cell Metab 3(2):135-40 PMID 16459314. (This study screened patients with severe, early-onset obesoty for mutations in the POMC gene. One of the variants, identified in the region encoding beta-MSH, had an increased frequency compared to the control group. Individuals with the mutation were more likely to be hyperphagic, hinting that beta-MSH may be involved in appetite regulation.)

Loh Y et al. (1980) MSH-like peptides in rat brain: identification and changes in level during development. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 94:916-23 PMID 7396941.

Millington GW. (2007) The role of proopiomelanocortin (POMC) neurones in feeding behaviour. Nutrition and Metabolism 4:18 PMID 17764572.

Pinto S et al. (2004) Rapid rewiring of arcuate nucleus feeding circuits by leptin. Science 304:110-5 PMID 15064421.

Raffin-Sanson et al. (2003) Proopiomelanocortin, a polypeptide precursor with multiple functions: from physiology to pathological conditions. European Journal of Endocrinology 149:79–90 PMID 12887283.

Salzet M et al. (1997) Leech immunocytes contain proopiomelanocortin : nitric oxide mediates hemolymph proopiomelanocortin processing. Journal of Immunology 159(11):5400-11 PMID 9548480.

Shimizu H et al. (2007) The leptin-dependent and -independent melanocortin signaling system: regulation of feeding and energy expenditure. J Endocrinol 193(1):1-9 PMID 17400797. ("Leptin and pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC)- derived a-melanocyte-stimulating hormone are key anorectic molecules, and the leptin receptor and POMC gene are both expressed in the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus. Although it has been considered that melanocortin signaling is localized downstream to leptin signaling, data have accumulated to support the concept of a leptin-independent melanocortin signaling system. We focus on and review the melanocortin signaling system that functions dependently or independently of leptin signaling in the regulation of energy homeostasis.")

Schwartz MW et al. (2000) Central nervous system control of food intake. Nature 404:661-71 PMID 10766253.

Stefano GB et al. (1999) Mytilus edulis hemolymph contains pro-opiomelanocortin: LPS and morphine stimulate differential processing. Brain Research. Molecular Brain Research 63(2):340-50 PMID 9878818.

Takahashi A et al. (1995) Melanotropin and corticotropin are encoded on two distinct genes in the lamprey, the earliest evolved extant vertebrate. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 213(2):490-8 PMID 7646504 (This group found that melanotropins (MSH) and corticotropin (ACTH) were coded by two separate genes in Lamprey. The genes were cloned and the end-products were found to be similar to other vertebrates expressing the single POMC gene. It was suggested that during Lamprey evolution the POMC gene was duplicated intragenically resulting in the POC and POM genes.)

Takahashi A et al. (2003) Identification of proopiomelanocortin-related peptides in the rostral pars distalis of the pituitary in coelacanth: evolutional implications. Gen Comp Endocrinol 130(3):340-9 PMID 12606277.

Takahashi A et al. (2004) Molecular cloning of proopiomelanocortin cDNA in the ratfish, a holocephalan. Gen Comp Endocrinol 135:159-165 PMID 14644656.

Takahashi A et al (2005). Nucleotide sequence and expression of three subtypes of proopiomelanocortin mRNA in barfin flounder. Gen Comp Endocrinol 141(3):291-303 PMID 15804516.

Takahashi A et al. (2005). Structures for the proopiomelanocortin family genes proopiocortin and proopiomelanotropin in the sea lamprey Petromyzon marinus. Gen Comp Endocrinol 144:174–181 PMID 15979617.

Takahashi A et al (2006) Occurrence of two functionally distinct proopiomelanocortin genes in all modern lampreys. Gen Comp Endocrinol 148(1):72-8 PMID 16243327.

Takahashi A et al. (2006) Evolution of melanocortin systems in fish. Gen Comp Endocrinol 148(1):85-94 PMID 16289182.

Tung YCL et al. (2007) A comparative study of the central effects of specific proopiomelanocortin (POMC)-derived melanocortin peptides on food intake and body weight in POMC null mice. Endocrinology 147:5940-5947 PMID 16959830.

Yang YK et al. (2003) Recent developments in our understanding of melanocortin system in the regulation of food intake. Obes Rev 4(4):239-48 PMID 14649374. (This review examines the role of the melanocortin system, a product of the POMC gene, in appetite regulation. A greater knowledge of this system is important in trying to understand the genetic factors of obesity.)