# Electromagnetism/Related Articles

From Citizendium, the Citizens' Compendium

*See also changes related to Electromagnetism, or pages that link to Electromagnetism or to this page or whose text contains "Electromagnetism".*

## Contents

## Parent topics

## Subtopics

### General topics

- Capacitance [r]:
*Add brief definition or description* - Displacement current [r]: Time derivative of the electric displacement
**D**; Maxwell's correction to Ampère's law.^{[e]} - Electricity [r]: The flow or presence of electric charge; the flow of electricity is an important carrier of energy.
^{[e]} - Electrodynamics [r]:
*Add brief definition or description* - Electromagnetic field [r]:
*Add brief definition or description* - Electromagnetic induction [r]: Electromotive force induced by a varying magnetic field; described by Faraday's law of induction.
^{[e]} - Electromagnetic radiation [r]: a collection of electromagnetic waves, usually of different wavelengths.
^{[e]} - Electromagnetic wave [r]: A change, periodic in space and time, of an electric field
**E**(**r**,t) and a magnetic field**B**(**r**,t); a stream of electromagnetic waves, referred to as electromagnetic radiation, can be seen as a stream of massless elementary particles, named photons.^{[e]} - Electron [r]: Elementary particle that carries a negative elementary charge −e and has mass 9.109 382 91 × 10
^{−31}kg.^{[e]} - Electrostatics [r]:
*Add brief definition or description* - Elementary charge [r]: Charge of electron (negative) and proton (positive); before discovery of the quark thought to be the smallest possible electric charge, written , value 1.602 176 53(14) × 10
^{−19}C^{[e]} - Gaussian surface [r]:
*Add brief definition or description* - Lorentz force [r]: Force on an electrically charged particle that moves through a magnetic and an electric field.
^{[e]} - Magnetism [r]: Property of attracting iron.
^{[e]} - Optics [r]: A field of scientific, technological, and engineering study and application concerned with understanding light, — typically in the visible, ultraviolet, and infrared ranges of the electromagnetic spectrum — and harnessing it for useful tasks.
^{[e]}

### Electromagnetism in materials

- Clausius-Mossotti relation [r]: connects the relative permittivity ε
_{r}of a dielectric to the polarizability α of the atoms or molecules constituting the dielectric.^{[e]} - Dielectric [r]: an insulating, but polarizable, material that can be solid, liquid or gas; its important characterizing property is the relative permittivity (aka dielectric constant).
^{[e]} - Electric displacement [r]: a vector field
**D**in a dielectric;**D**is proportional to the outer electric field**E**.^{[e]} - Electric multipole [r]:
*Add brief definition or description* - Electrical conductivity [r]:
*Add brief definition or description* - Ohm's law [r]: A law which states that the current through a conductor between two points is directly proportional to the potential difference or voltage across the two points, and inversely proportional to the resistance between them.
^{[e]} - Electrical resistance [r]:
*Add brief definition or description* - Electric susceptibility [r]:
*Add brief definition or description* - Lorentz-Lorenz relation [r]: An equation describing the relation between the density and index of refraction of a dielectric.
^{[e]} - Polarizability [r]: The ease by which a charge-distribution polarizes; describes the amount of charge separation caused by an electric field.
^{[e]} - Relative permittivity [r]: A factor describing the polarizability of a material or medium as a proportionality between an electric displacement and an electric field in a dielectric.
^{[e]}

### Laws and equations

- Ampere's equation [r]: An expression for the magnetic force between two electric current-carrying wire segments.
^{[e]} - Ampere's law [r]: The integral of a magnetic field over a closed path is equal to the conduction current through the surface bounded by the path.
^{[e]} - Ampere's rule [r]: Is a right-hand rule for the direction of deviation of a compass needle caused by the presence of a straight, electric-current carrying, wire.
^{[e]} - Biot-Savart law [r]: Gives the magnetic field at some distance of an electric current-carrying wire.
^{[e]} - Coulomb's law [r]: An inverse-square distance law, like Newton's gravitational law, describing the forces acting between electric point charges; also valid for the force between magnetic poles.
^{[e]} - Coulomb's law (magnetic) [r]: An inverse-square law for the force between two magnetic monopoles.
^{[e]} - Faraday's law (electromagnetism) [r]: States that a change in magnetic flux generates an electromotive force (EMF).
^{[e]} - Gauss' law (electrostatics) [r]: Relates the surface integral of the electric displacement through a closed surface to the electric charge enveloped by the closed surface.
^{[e]} - Gauss' law (magnetism) [r]: States that the total magnetic flux through a closed surface is zero; this means that magnetic monopoles do not exist.
^{[e]} - Lenz' law [r]: States that a change in magnetic flux gives an induced current that opposes this change.
^{[e]} - Maxwell equations [r]: Mathematical equations describing the interrelationship between electric and magnetic fields; dependence of the fields on electric charge- and current- densities.
^{[e]}

### Units

- SI [r]: Metric unit system based on the metre, kilogram, second, ampere, kelvin, mole and candela.
^{[e]}- Ampere (unit) [r]: Unit of electric current; symbol A; one of the seven SI base units.
^{[e]} - Coulomb (unit) [r]: SI unit of electric charge; symbol C; 1 C = 1 A⋅s.
^{[e]} - Volt [r]: SI unit of electrical potential; symbol V; 1 V = 1 W/A = 1 J/C.
^{[e]} - Watt (unit) [r]: SI unit of power; symbol W; 1 W = 1 J/s = 1 A⋅V
^{[e]} - Weber (unit) [r]: SI unit of magnetic flux; symbol Wb; 1 Wb = 1 V⋅s.
^{[e]} - Tesla (unit) [r]: SI unit for magnetic flux density
**B**; symbol T; 1 T = 1 Wb/m^{2}.^{[e]} - Henry (unit) [r]: SI unit of inductance; symbol H; 1 H = 1 Wb/A.
^{[e]} - Farad [r]: SI unit of capacitance; symbol F: 1 F = 1 C/V
^{[e]}

- Ampere (unit) [r]: Unit of electric current; symbol A; one of the seven SI base units.
- Gaussian units [r]: A centimeter-gram-second system of units often used in electrodynamics and special relativity.
^{[e]}(and other EM Units)- Abampere [r]: Unit of electric current in the cgs-emu system of units; symbol abA; 1 abA = 10 A.
^{[e]} - Statampere [r]: Electric current in the Gaussian system of units; symbol statA; 1 statA = 1 A/(10⋅
*c*);*c*is the speed of light in m/s.^{[e]} - Abcoulomb [r]: Unit of electric charge in cgs-emu system of units; symbol abC; 1 abC = 10 C.
^{[e]} - Statcoulomb [r]: Unit of electric charge in cgs-esu units: 1 statC = C/(10⋅
*c*), with*c*the speed of light in m/s.^{[e]} - Maxwell (unit) [r]: Gaussian unit of magnetic flux; symbol Mx; 1 Mx = 1 abV⋅s = 10
^{−8}Wb.^{[e]} - Oersted (unit) [r]: Unit of magnetic-field strength |
**H**| in the Gaussian system of units; symbol Oe; 1 Oe = 1000/4π A⋅turn/m.^{[e]} - Abvolt [r]: Unit of voltage difference in the cgs-emu system of units; symbol abV; 1 abV = 1 erg/(s⋅abA) = 10
^{−8}V.^{[e]} - Statvolt [r]: Unit of electric voltage; symbol statV; 1 statV = 10
^{−6}×*c*volt;*c*speed of light in m/s.^{[e]} - Gauss (unit) [r]: Gaussian unit of magnetic flux density
**B**; symbol G; 1 G = 1 Mx/cm^{2}= 10 000 T.^{[e]} - Electronvolt [r]: Unit of energy; 1 eV = 1.602 176 487 × 10
^{−19}joule^{[e]}

- Abampere [r]: Unit of electric current in the cgs-emu system of units; symbol abA; 1 abA = 10 A.

### Contributors

- André-Marie Ampère [r]: (Lyons 20 January, 1775 – Marseilles 10 June, 1836) French physicist and mathematician best known for his work in electricity and magnetism.
^{[e]} - Jean-Baptiste Biot [r]: (Paris 1774 – Paris 1862) French physicist, mathematician, astronomer, and chemist best known for the Biot-Savart law.
^{[e]} - Charles-Augustin de Coulomb [r]: (Angoulême June 14, 1736 – Paris August 23, 1806) French physicist known for formulating a law for the force between two electrically charged bodies.
^{[e]} - Michael Faraday [r]: (1791 – 1867) Was an English physicist and chemist whose best known work was on the closely connected phenomena of electricity and magnetism; his discoveries lead to the electrification of industrial societies.
^{[e]} - Carl Friedrich Gauss [r]: German mathematician, who was one of the most influential figures in the history of mathematics and mathematical physics (1777 – 1855).
^{[e]} - Hendrik Antoon Lorentz [r]: Dutch theoretical physicist (1853 - 1928)
^{[e]} - James Clerk Maxwell [r]: (1831 – 1879) Scottish physicist best known for his formulation of electromagnetic theory and the statistical theory of gases.
^{[e]} - Hans Christian Oersted [r]: (Rudkøbing, August 14, 1777 – Copenhagen, March 9, 1851) Danish physicist and chemist best known for his discovery of the influence of an electric current on the orientation of a compass needle.
^{[e]} - Felix Savart [r]: (Mézières 30 June 1791 – Paris 16 March 1841) French physicist, known for the Biot-Savart law.
^{[e]} - Wilhelm Eduard Weber [r]: (Wittenberg October 24, 1804 – Göttingen June 23, 1891) German physicist known for his work in magnetism and on electromagnetic units.
^{[e]}

- Acoustics [r]: The study of sound.
^{[e]} - Aerodynamics [r]:
*Add brief definition or description* - Astrophysics [r]: Hybrid of Physics and Astronomy that attempts to explain the physical workings of the celestial objects and phenomena.
^{[e]}- Plasma physics [r]:
*Add brief definition or description* - Cosmology [r]: A branch of astronomy and of metaphysics committed to the study of the universe as a whole, of the contents, structure, and evolution of the universe from the beginning of time to the future.
^{[e]}

- Plasma physics [r]:
- Classical mechanics [r]: The science of mechanics, which is concerned with the set of physical laws governing and mathematically describing the motions of bodies and aggregates of bodies geometrically distributed within a certain boundary under the action of a system of forces.
^{[e]} - Condensed matter physics [r]:
*Add brief definition or description* - Dynamics [r]:
*Add brief definition or description* - Hydrodynamics [r]:
*Add brief definition or description* - Kinematics [r]: The quantitative description of the trajectory of a system.
^{[e]} - Mathematical physics [r]:
*Add brief definition or description* - Mechanics [r]: In physics, all theories explaining the behaviour of matter.
^{[e]} - Particle physcis [r]:
*Add brief definition or description* - Quantum mechanics [r]: An important branch of physics dealing with the behavior of matter and energy at very small scales.
^{[e]} - Relativity [r]:
*Add brief definition or description* - Statics [r]:
*Add brief definition or description* - Statistical mechanics [r]:
*Add brief definition or description* - Theory of relativity [r]:
*Add brief definition or description* - Thermodynamics [r]: The statistical description of the properties of molecular systems
^{[e]}