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Echis pyramidum

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Echis pyramidum
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Subphylum: Vertebrata
Class: Reptilia
Order: Squamata
Suborder: Serpentes
Family: Viperidae
Subfamily: Viperinae
Genus: Echis
Species: E. pyramidum
Binomial name
Echis pyramidum
(Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire, 1827)
  • Scythale pyramidum - Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire In Savigny, 1827
  • [Echis] arenicola - F. Boie, 1827
  • Echis pavo - Reuss, 1834
  • Echis varia - Reuss, 1834
  • Vipera echis - Schlegel, 1837
  • Vipera pyramidarium - Schlegel, 1837
  • Echis [(Toxicoa)] arenicola - Gray, 1849
  • Toxicoa arenicola - Günther, 1858
  • Echis carinatus - Boulenger, 1896
  • Echis carinatus pyramidum - Constable, 1949
  • Echis p[yramidum]. pyramidum - Cherlin, 1983
  • Echis pyramidum - Joger, 1984
  • Echis [(Toxicoa)] pyramidum pyramidum - Cherlin, 1990
  • Echis [(Toxicoa)] pyramidum lucidus - Cherlin, 1990
  • Echis [(Toxicoa)] varia varia - Cherlin, 1990
  • Echis [(Toxicoa)] varia borkini - Cherlin, 1990
  • Echis [(Toxicoa)] varia darevskii - Cherlin, 1990
  • Echis pyramudum pyramidum - Golay et al., 1993[1]

Common names: Northeast African carpet viper,[2] Egyptian saw-scaled viper,[3][4] more.  
Echis pyramidum is a venomous vipers species found mainly in north-east Africa, but also in parts of the Arabian Peninsula. Three subspecies are currently recognized, including the typical form described here.[5]


The average length is 30-60 cm with a maximum of 85 cm (possibly slightly more).[2]

Common names

Northeast African carpet viper,[2] Egyptian saw-scaled viper,[3] [4] Egyptian carpet viper, Geoffroy's carpet viper.[6]

Geographic range

In north-east Africa it occurs in northern Egypt, central Sudan, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Somalia and northern Kenya. There are also scattered populations in the southwest of the Arabian Peninsula in western Saudi Arabia (south of the 18th parallel), Yemen, South Yemen (in Hadhramaut) and in Oman. The type locality given is "Egypte" (Egypt).[1]

Disjunct populations reportedly occur in Algeria, Tunisia, Libya and northern Egypt. It is absent in southern Egypt.[3][2]


Species[5] Authority[5] Geographic range[3]
E. p. aliaborri Drews & Sacherer, 1974 Northern Kenya
E. p. leakeyi Stemmler & Sockurek, 1969 Northwestern Kenya
E. p. pyramidum (Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire, 1827) Southern Arabia, Somalia, Ethiopia, Sudan, Egypt, Libya and Tunisia.

See also

Cited references

  1. 1.0 1.1 McDiarmid RW, Campbell JA, Touré T. 1999. Snake Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference, vol. 1. Herpetologists' League. 511 pp. ISBN 1-893777-00-6 (series). ISBN 1-893777-01-4 (volume).
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 Spawls S, Branch B. 1995. The Dangerous Snakes of Africa. Ralph Curtis Books. Dubai: Oriental Press. 192 pp. ISBN 0-88359-029-8.
  3. 3.0 3.1 3.2 3.3 Mallow D, Ludwig D, Nilson G. 2003. True Vipers: Natural History and Toxinology of Old World Vipers. Krieger Publishing Company, Malabar, Florida. 359 pp. ISBN 0-89464-877-2.
  4. 4.0 4.1 Species Echis pyramidum at the Species2000 Database
  5. 5.0 5.1 5.2 Echis pyramidum (TSN 634974) at Integrated Taxonomic Information System. Accessed 14 April 2007.
  6. Echis pyramidum at Munich AntiVenom INdex