Banking/Addendum

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This addendum is a continuation of the article Banking.


English banking legislation

  • Bank of England Act[1] 1694]
founded the Bank of England.
  • Bank Charter Act[2], 1844.
gave the Bank of England the exclusive right to issue banknotes and tied the note issue to the Bank's gold reserves..
  • Bank of England Act[3] 1946.
the nationalisation of the Bank of England.
  • Building Societies Act[4], 1986.
  • Banking Act[5] 1987 (repealed).
  • Bank of England Act[6], 1998.
the "1998 Charter"
gave the Bank responsibility for setting interest rates to meet the Government's stated inflation target.
  • Banking Act[7]
included the Special Resolution Regime[[8], 2009.

United States banking legislation

  • National Bank Act of 1864
Established a national banking system and the chartering of national banks.
  • Federal Reserve Act of 1913
Established the Federal Reserve System
  • Amendment of the National Banking Laws and the Federal Reserve Act
(also known as The McFadden Act) Prohibited interstate banking.
Required Federal Reserve Board approval for the establishment of a bank holding company. Prohibited bank holding companies in one state from acquiring a bank in another state.
  • International Banking Act of 1978 .
Brought foreign banks within the federal regulatory framework. Required deposit insurance for branches of foreign banks engaged in retail deposit taking in the U.S.
  • Depository Institutions Deregulation and Monetary Control Act of 1980[9]
Provided for the gradual elimination of all limitations on the rates of interest which are payable on deposits and accounts
  • Depository Institutions Act of 1982[10]
(also known as the Garn-St Germain Act or the Alternative Mortgage Transactions Parity Act}. Expanded FDIC powers to assist troubled banks and lift restrictions on mortgage contacts.
  • Securities Industry Association v. Board of Governors (1984)[11]
Following a series of Supreme Court interpretations that relaxed the restrictions of the Glass-Steagall Act, the Court allowed a bank holding company to operate a discount brokerage firm.
  • Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation Improvement Act of 1991
increased the powers and authority of the FDIC. Major provisions recapitalized the Bank Insurance Fund and allowed the FDIC to strengthen the fund by borrowing from the Treasury.
  • Gramm-Leach-Bliley Act [r]: A 1999 U.S. law that repealed two provisions of the Glass-Steagall Act of 1932, and let banks, insurers, and securities traders combine their activities; it also introduced other changes to U.S. banking law including privacy requirements and expansions to the Federal Home Loan Bank System. [e]
  • Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002 [12]
establishes the Public Company Oversight Board to regulate public accounting firms that audit publicly traded companies, and gives new powers to the SEC
  • Fair and Accurate Credit Transactions Act of 2003[13]
amends the Fair Credit Reporting Act to improve the accuracy and transparency of the national credit reporting system
  • Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act of 2009[14]
creates a Consumer Protection Agency and a Financial Stability Council; provides for the dismantling of large failing financial institutions, and introduces new regulations for the regulation for mortgages, credit rating agencies, hedge funds and private equity companies, and trading in derivatives.
  • Restoring American Financial Stability Act of 2010[15][16].
Senator Dodds' summary [17]


( See also the Treasury Department's Activities Permissible for a National Bank[18], April 2009)

European banking legislation

  • EC Directive 2006/48/EC[19], 2006
  • Commission Directive 2009/27/EC[20] of 7 April 2009
  • Proposal for a directive amending Directives 2006/48/EC and 2006/49/EC as regards capital requirements for the trading book and for re-securitisations, and the supervisory review of remuneration policies[21] (Citizens' summary[22]).

Banking leverage

(Bank equity, per cent of assets)

1880 1920 1940 1980 2005
United States 24 11 10 5
United Kingdom 11 5 5 5 4

(Source: Andrew Haldane Banking on the State, Bank for International Settlements[23])