NOTICE: Citizendium is still being set up on its newer server, treat as a beta for now; please see here for more.
Citizendium - a community developing a quality comprehensive compendium of knowledge, online and free. Click here to join and contribute—free
CZ thanks our previous donors. Donate here. Treasurer's Financial Report -- Thanks to our content contributors. --

Epinephrine

From Citizendium, the Citizens' Compendium
(Redirected from Adrenaline)
Jump to: navigation, search
This article is a stub and thus not approved.
Main Article
Talk
Related Articles  [?]
Bibliography  [?]
External Links  [?]
Citable Version  [?]
 
This editable Main Article is under development and not meant to be cited; by editing it you can help to improve it towards a future approved, citable version. These unapproved articles are subject to a disclaimer.
Epinephrine.jpg
(-)-epinephrine
IUPAC name: (R)-(−)-3,4-Dihydroxy-α-(methylaminomethyl)benzyl alcohol
Synonyms: (-)-adrenaline,L-adrenaline, L-Epinephrine
Formula:

 Uses: natural hormone

 Properties:

 Hazards:

Mass (g/mol): CAS #:
183.20 51-43-4


Epinephrine (or adrenaline) is a sympathomimetic and catecholamine that is a "active sympathomimetic hormone from the adrenal medulla in most species. It stimulates both the alpha- and beta- adrenergic systems, causes systemic vasoconstriction and gastrointestinal relaxation, stimulates the heart, and dilates bronchi and cerebral vessels. It is used in asthma and cardiac failure and to delay absorption of local anesthetics."[1]

Administration

As the dose of epinephrine is sometimes expressed as a ratio only (1 mL of 1:1000) or a concentration only (1 mg in 1 mL), medical errors in administration may be made. [2] This problem is compounded by the availability of 1:1000 and 1:10,000 concentrations for, respectively, subcutaneous and intramuscular, versus intravenous, use.

Subcutaneous and intramuscular administration

Epinephrine is supplied as 1 mg/mL (1 mL, 30 mL) which is a 1:1000 solution. The dose for adults with immediate hypersensitivity reactions is 0.3-0.5 mg (0.3 to 0.5 ml) every 15-20 minutes. Automatic injectors are available for self-administration by patients with known sensitivity.

Intravenous administration

Epinephine is supplied as 0.1 mg/mL (10 mL) which is a 1:10,000 solution. The dose for adults during cardiac arrest is 1 mg every 3-5 minutes.

Uses

The uses of epinephrine include treatment of anaphylaxis, vasoconstrictor agent, and cardiotonic agent.

References

  1. Anonymous (2017), Epinephrine (English). Medical Subject Headings. U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  2. Wheeler DW, Carter JJ, Murray LJ, et al (January 2008). "The effect of drug concentration expression on epinephrine dosing errors: a randomized trial". Ann. Intern. Med. 148 (1): 11–4. PMID 18166759[e]