23rd United States Congress

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United States Capitol
President of the Senate
Vice President
Martin Van Buren

The Twenty-third United States Congress was a meeting of the legislative branch of the United States federal government, consisting of the United States Senate and the United States House of Representatives. It met in Washington, D.C. from March 4, 1833 to March 3, 1835, during the first two years of the second administration of U.S. President Andrew Jackson.

The apportionment of seats in this House of Representatives was based on the Fifth Census of the United States in 1830. The Senate had an Anti-Jacksonian or National Republican majority, and the House had a Jacksonian or Democratic majority.

Dates of sessions

March 4, 1833 - March 3, 1835

  • First session: December 2, 1833 - June 30, 1834.
  • Second session: December 1, 1834 - March 3, 1835.
  • Previous congress: 22nd Congress
  • Next congress: 24th Congress

Party summary

The count below identifies party affiliations at the beginning of the first session of this Congress, and includes members from vacancies and newly admitted states, when they were first seated. Changes resulting from subsequent replacements are shown below in the "Changes in membership" section.

Senate
House of Representatives

Leadership

Senate
House of Representatives

Major events

Events of 1833, 1834 & 1835

Major legislation

List of United States federal legislation in the 23rd Congress

Membership highlights by chamber

This list is arranged by chamber, then by state. Senators are listed in order of seniority, and Representatives are listed by district.

Senate

Senators were elected by the state legislatures every two years, with one-third beginning new six year terms with each Congress. Preceding the names in the list below are Senate class numbers, which indicate the cycle of their election. In this Congress, Class 1 meant their term began with this Congress, requiring reelection in 1838; Class 2 meant their term ended with this Congress, requiring reelection in 1834; and Class 3 meant their term began in the last Congress, requiring reelection in 1836.

File:HLWhite.jpg
President pro tempore
Hugh Lawson White
Alabama
Connecticut
Delaware
Georgia
Illinois
Indiana
Kentucky
Louisiana
Maine
Maryland
Massachusetts
Mississippi
Missouri
New Hampshire
New Jersey
New York
North Carolina
Ohio
Pennsylvania
Rhode Island
South Carolina
Tennessee
Vermont
Virginia

House of Representatives

The names of members of the House of Representatives elected statewide on the general ticket or otherwise at-large, are preceded by an "A/L," and the names of those elected from districts, whether plural or single member, are preceded by their district numbers.

Many of the congressional district numbers are linked to articles describing the district itself. Since the boundaries of the districts have changed often and substantially, the linked article may only describe the district as it exists today, and not as it was at the time of this Congress.

Alabama
Connecticut [1]
Delaware
Georgia [2]
Illinois
Indiana
Kentucky
Louisiana
Maine
Maryland
Massachusetts
Mississippi [3]
Missouri [4]
New Hampshire [5]
New Jersey [6]
New York [7]
North Carolina
Ohio
Pennsylvania [8]
Rhode Island [9]
South Carolina
Tennessee
Vermont
Virginia

Delegates

Arkansas Territory
Florida Territory
Michigan Territory

Membership detail by state

Senators were elected by the state legislatures every two years, with one-third beginning new six year terms with each Congress. Preceding the names in the list below are Senate class numbers, which indicate the cycle of their election. In this Congress, Class 1 meant their term began with this Congress, requiring reelection in 1838; Class 2 meant their term ended with this Congress, requiring reelection in 1834; and Class 3 meant their term began in the last Congress, requiring reelection in 1836.

The names of members of the House of Representatives elected statewide on the general ticket or otherwise at-large, are preceded by an "A/L," and the names of those elected from districts, whether plural or single member, are preceded by their district numbers.

Many of the congressional district numbers are linked to articles describing the district itself. Since the boundaries of the districts have changed often and substantially, the linked article may only describe the district as it exists today, and not as it was at the time of this Congress.

The list below is arranged by state, then by chamber. Senators are shown in order of seniority, House members in district order.

Alabama

Senate
House of Representatives (5 seats)

Connecticut

Senate
House of Representatives (6 seats) [10]

Delaware

Senate
House of Representatives (1 seat)

Georgia

Senate
House of Representatives (9 seats) [11]

Illinois

Senate
House of Representatives (3 seats)

Indiana

Senate
House of Representatives (7 seats)

Kentucky

Senate
House of Representatives (13 seats)

Louisiana

Senate
House of Representatives (3 seats)

Maine

Senate
House of Representatives (8 seats)

Maryland

Senate
House of Representatives (8 seats)

Massachusetts

Senate
House of Representatives (12 seats)

Mississippi

Senate
House of Representatives (2 seats) [12]

Missouri

Senate
House of Representatives (2 seats) [13]

New Hampshire

Senate
House of Representatives (5 seats) [14]

New Jersey

Senate
House of Representatives (6 seats) [15]

New York

Senate
House of Representatives (40 seats) [16]

North Carolina

Senate
House of Representatives (13 seats)

Ohio

Senate
House of Representatives (19 seats)

Pennsylvania

Senate
House of Representatives (28 seats) [17]

Rhode Island

Senate
House of Representatives (2 seats) [18]

South Carolina

Senate
House of Representatives (9 seats)

Tennessee

Senate
House of Representatives (13 seats)

Vermont

Senate
House of Representatives (5 seats)

Virginia

Senate
House of Representatives (21 seats)

Delegates

Arkansas Territory
Florida Territory
Michigan Territory


Membership detail by Chamber/Party

The list below is arranged by chamber, then by political party. Members are shown in alphabetical order.

Senate

Senators were elected by the state legislatures every two years, with one-third beginning new six year terms with each Congress.

Democratic
A-F
G-L
M-R
S-Z
National Republican
A-F
G-L
M-R
S-Z
Nullifier

House of Representatives

Members of the House of Representatives were elected by popular vote, variously to single member districts or at-large.

Democratic
A-B-C
D-E-F
G-H-I
J-K-L
M-N-O
P-Q-R
S-T-U-V
W-X-Y-Z
National Republican
A-B-C
D-E-F
G-H-I
J-K-L
M-N-O
P-Q-R
S-T-U-V
W-X-Y-Z
Anti-Masonic
A-F
G-O
P-Z
Nullifier
A-F
G-O
P-Z

Membership Changes

The count below reflects changes from the beginning of the first session of this Congress.

Changes summary

Senate
  • replacements: 8
  • deaths: 2
  • resignations: 6
  • interim appointments: 0
  • Total seats with changes: 11
House of Representatives
  • replacements: 18
  • deaths: 8
  • resignations: 15
  • contested election: 0
  • Total seats with changes: 22

Senate

State Outgoing Senator Reason for Change Successor Successor's selection
Georgia
class 2
George M. Troup
Democratic
Resignation
Senator George M. Troup resigned November 8, 1833.
John P. King
Democratic
elected
November 21, 1833.
Georgia
class 3
John Forsyth
Democratic
Resignation
Senator John Forsyth resigned July 27, 1834.
Alfred Cuthbert
Democratic
elected
January 12, 1835.
Louisiana
class 3
Josiah S. Johnston
Republican
Death
Senator Josiah S. Johnston died May 19, 1833.
Alexander Porter
Republican
elected
December 19, 1833.
Maine
class 2
Peleg Sprague
Republican
Resignation
Senator Peleg Sprague resigned January 1, 1835.
John Ruggles
Democratic
elected
January 20, 1835.
Maryland
class 3
Ezekiel F. Chambers
Republican
Resignation
Senator Ezekiel F. Chambers resigned in 1834.
Robert H. Goldsborough
Republican
elected
January 13, 1835.
Mississippi
class 1
vacant Vacancy
Vacancy from preceding Congress
John Black
Republican
elected
November 22, 1833.
Missouri
class 3
Alexander Buckner
Democratic
Death
Senator Alexander Buckner died June 6, 1833.
Lewis F. Linn
Democratic
appointed
October 25, 1833, subsequently elected.
Pennsylvania
class 3
William Wilkins
Democratic
Resignation
Senator William Wilkins resigned June 30, 1834.
James Buchanan
Democratic
elected
December 6, 1834.
Pennsylvania
class 1
vacant Vacancy
Vacancy from preceding Congress
Samuel McKean
Democratic
elected<brDecember 7, 1833.
South Carolina
class 3
vacant Vacancy
Vacancy from preceding Congress
William C. Preston
Nullifier
elected
November 26, 1833.
Virginia
class 2
William C. Rives
Democratic
Resignation
Senator William C. Rives resigned February 22, 1834.
Benjamin W. Leigh
Republican
elected
February 26, 1834.

House of Representatives

State Outgoing Representative Reason for Change Successor Successor's selection
Connecticut
2nd at large
William W. Ellsworth
Republican
Resignation
Representative William W. Ellsworth resigned July 8, 1834.
Joseph Trumbull
Republican
seated
December 1, 1834.
Connecticut
3rd at large
Jabez W. Huntington
Republican
Resignation
Representative Jabez W. Huntington resigned August 16, 1834.
Phineas Miner
Republican
seated
December 1, 1834.
Connecticut
4th at large
Samuel A. Foote
Republican
Resignation
Representative Samuel A. Foote resigned May 9, 1834.
Ebenezer Jackson, Jr.
Republican
seated
December 1, 1834.
Georgia
8th at large
James M. Wayne
Democratic
Resignation
Senator James M. Wayne resigned January 13, 1835.
vacant not filled in this Congress
Illinois
1st
Charles Slade
Democratic
Death
Representative Charles Slade died July 26, 1834.
John Reynolds
Democratic
seated
December 1, 1834.
Illinois
3rd
Joseph Duncan
Democratic
Resignation
Representative Joseph Duncan resigned September 21, 1834.
William L. May
Democratic
seated
December 1, 1834.
Louisiana
1st
Edward D. White
Republican
Resignation
Representative Edward D. White resigned in 1831, before Congress assembled.
Henry Johnson
Republican
seated
December 1, 1834.
Louisiana
3rd
Henry A. Bullard
Republican
Resignation
Representative Henry A. Bullard resigned January 4, 1834.
Rice Garland
Republican
seated
April 28, 1834.
Maryland
1st
Littleton P. Dennis
Democratic
Death
Representative Littleton P. Dennis died April 14, 1834.
John N. Steele
Democratic
seated
June 9, 1834.
Massachusetts
2nd
Rufus Choate
Republican
Resignation
Representative Rufus Choate resigned June 30, 1834.
Stephen C. Phillips
Republican
seated
December 1, 1834.
Massachusetts<
5th
John Davis
Republican
Resignation
Representative John Davis resigned January 14, 1834.
Levi Lincoln
Republican
seated
March 5, 1834.
New York
3rd [19]
Cornelius V. Lawrence
Democratic
Resignation
Representative Cornelius V. Lawrence resigned May 14, 1834.
John J. Morgan
Democratic
seated
December 1, 1834.
New York
3rd [20]
Dudley Selden
Democratic
Resignation
Representative Dudley Selden resigned July 1, 1834.
Charles G. Ferris
Democratic
seated
December 1, 1834.
Ohio
1st
Robert T. Lytle
Democratic
Resignation
Representative Robert T. Lytle resigned March 10, 1834
Robert T. Lytle
Democratic
re-seated
December 27, 1834.
Ohio
19th
Humphrey H. Leavitt
Democratic
Resignation
Representative Humphrey H. Leavitt resigned July 10, 1834.
Daniel Kilgore
Democratic
seated
December 1, 1834.
South Carolina
3rd
Thomas D. Singleton
Nullifier
Death
Representative Thomas D. Singleton died November 25, 1833.
Robert B. Campbell
Nullifier
seated
February 27, 1834.
South Carolina
5th
George McDuffie
Nullifier
Resignation
Representative George McDuffie resigned in 1834.
Francis W. Pickens
Nullifier
seated
December 8, 1834.
South Carolina
6th
Warren R. Davis
Nullifier
Death
Representative Warren R. Davis died January 29, 1835.
vacant not filled in this Congress
South Carolina
8th
James Blair
Democratic
Death
Representative James Blair died April 1, 1834.
Richard I. Manning
Democratic
seated
December 8, 1834.
Vermont
5th
Benjamin F. Deming
Anti-Masonic
Death
Representative Benjamin F. Deming died July 11, 1834.
Henry F. Janes
Anti-Masonic
seated
December 2, 1834.
Virginia
5th
John Randolph
Democratic
Death
Representative John Randolph died May 24, 1833.
Thomas T. Bouldin
Democratic
seated
December 2, 1833.
Virginia
5th
Thomas T. Bouldin
Democratic
Death
Representative Thomas T. Bouldin died February 11, 1834.
James W. Bouldin
Democratic
seated
March 28, 1834.
Virginia
11th
Andrew Stevenson
Democratic
Resignation
Representative Andrew Stevenson resigned June 2, 1834.
John Robertson
Republican
seated
December 8, 1834.


Officers

Senate
House of Representatives

Notes

  1. All representatives were elected statewide on a general ticket.
  2. All representatives were elected statewide on a general ticket.
  3. All representatives were elected statewide on a general ticket.
  4. All representatives were elected statewide on a general ticket.
  5. All representatives were elected statewide on a general ticket.
  6. All representatives were elected statewide on a general ticket.
  7. There were four plural districts, the 8th, 17th, 22nd & 23rd had two representatives each, the 3rd had four representatives.
  8. There were two plural districts, the 2nd had two representatives, the 4th had three representatives.
  9. Both representatives were elected statewide on a general ticket.
  10. All representatives were elected statewide on a general ticket.
  11. All representatives were elected statewide on a general ticket.
  12. All representatives were elected statewide on a general ticket.
  13. all representatives were elected statewide on a general ticket.
  14. All representatives were elected statewide on a general ticket.
  15. All representatives were elected statewide on a general ticket.
  16. There were four plural districts, the 8th, 17th, 22nd & 23rd had two representatives each, the 3rd had four representatives.
  17. There were two plural districts, the 2nd had two representatives, the 4th had three representatives.
  18. Both representatives were elected statewide on a general ticket.
  19. This was a plural district with 4 representatives.
  20. This was a plural district with 4 representatives.